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Full text of "Analog Computing Magazine Issue 48 (Atari Status Report)"

NO. 48 
NOVEMBER 1986 



US.A. $3.50 
CANADA S4.75 



THE #1 MAGAZINE FOR ATARI® COMPUTER OWNERS 




V 





COMPUTING 



INCLUDING 




'74470"12385 



1 1 



IN ST-LOG: 

Alert boxes 
C compiler reviews 



The Flying^ifnutetions 



Real Pibts 




mm^m- 




The toughest evaluators of flying 
simulations aren't computer bufts. 
Ttiey're actuat pilots and flight pro- 
fessionals And when these flyers talk 
authenticity and realism, one name 
comes up again and again: 
f»/licroProse Simulation Software. 
We're used to this kind of stringent 
comparison; our company president 
is a former fighter jock with 3,000 
flying hours in his logbook. 

Take the evaluation of Senior 
Editor David Martin, in Private Pilot 
magazine's August 1986 issue Martin, 
a former Navy aviator who has flown 
almost everything with wings, re- 
jriewed five MicroProse programs, 
including the bestselling Sold Flight 
primary flight simulator. 'I'd not have 
believed it possible "he wrote, 
"Pilots of all sorts will be fascinated 




by these aviation games." 

Mr. Martin isn't the only pilot who's 
spent many of hisrecent leisure hours 
with MicroProse simulations. Com- 
paring his experience in training 
real flyers with the instrument layout 
found in Soio Flight, Cessna Flight 
Instructor Mark Rice told us "the 
instrument flying segments are very 
similar to the real thing — you're up in 
the clouds and using your readings 
to guide the aircraft." 

Concorde pilot and former RAF jet 
flyer John Hutchinson reviewed Micro 
Prose' sport flight AcroJet for the British 
press. His conclusion: "this simulation 
is one that really does live up to Its 
real-life counterpart ... I find AcroJet 
completely absorbing and very 
exciting." High praise, from the man 
who flies the world's fastest airliner . . . 



We regularly hear from military and commercial Air 
Traffic Controllers who rave about our Kennedy Approach 
simulation, and though we can't mention names , 
(they're Federal employees), we can soy that many of 
these professionals fell us Kewnedy Appr6ach is the most 
accurate depiction of airport conditions you can find 
short of a real control tower. 

The MicroProse Civilian Aviation Series includes 
Solo Flight, which teaches the basic flying skills asso- 
ciated with a single-engine propeller aircraft. AcroJet 
recreates the sensitive control characteristics of the 
world's hottest sport jet - the Bede BD-5J - and includes 
a wide range of multiplayer competition events. Kennedy 
Approach allows you to guide dozens of commercial 
aircraft into and out of the nation's busiest airports. 

From MicroProse: the flying simulators chosen not 
only by computer enthusiasts, but also by real pilots . . . 

Solo Flight is available for Commodore 64 / 128'''. Apple II family, Atari 
XL/XE, IBM PC/PC Jr., and Tandy 1000. Kennedy Approach is available for 
Commodore 64/ 1 28 and Afari XL/XE. AcroJet is available for Commo- 
dore 64/ 1 28. All producfs fiave a suggested retail price of S24 95. 
Available from your local retailer. If out of stock, contact fi^icroProse 
directly for furffier information on our fuU range of simulation soft- 
ware, and to place tvlasterCardVisa orders. 



yff'.K^- PROSE 



SIIVIULATION 



NO. 48 



NOVEMBER 1986 



THE #1 MAGAZINE FOR ATARI® COMPUTER OWNERS 



FtlMC^k^DEa 



COMPUTING 



FEATURES 



Status report D.F. Scott 13 

What does Atari really think of its 8-bit line? D.F. Scott gives 
us all an enlightening view, based on interviews with Atari's 
corporate insiders. 

M-Windows Kevin Ravenhill 15 

Don't be left out. With M-Windows you can have "windows" 
on your 8-bit Atari— and up to 255 of these may be open 
simultaneously. 



Bits & Pieces Lee S. Brilliant, M.D. 

This month, our continuing hardware feature gives you the 
necessary know-how to put together your own Ught pen for 
the 8-bit Atari. 



29 



ST-Log 

ANALOG Computing's ST magazine. See page 
47ST for contents of this month's ST-Log. 



45ST 



Cosmic Glob Rich B. Enns 96 

A one- or two-player game — use your spacecraft to wipe out 
the evil glob lurking in the void. 

DLIs: 

A minute to learn . . . .Jonathan David Farley 107 

The second and final installment, delving straight into DLIs. 
In this issue, we'll be discussing how and where to manipu- 
late them. 

Modem Chess Gary Heitz 119 

Two-player chess — lets you play with an opponent who's a 
thousand miles away. 



REVIEWS 

Comp-U-Temp Matthew J.W. Ratcliff 35 

(Applied Technologies, Inc.) 

Connect up to sixteen temperature sensors to your computer 

Panasonic KX-P1092 Pamela Rice Frank 39 

(Panasonic Industrial Co.) 

A look at a printer gaining popularity among Atari users. 

P:R: Connection Matthew J.W. Ratcliff 43 

(ICD Inc.) 

This printer interface provides two RS232 ports. 

SmarTEAM Modem Matthew J.W. Ratcliff 89 

(Team Technology, Inc.) 

A 300/1200-baud modem ... a good alternative to the Hayes? 

Panak strikes! Steve Panak 116 

Steve checks out the latest from Mastertronics, plus The 
NeverEnding Story (Datasoft), Buzzword (The Buzzword 
Game Co.) and Trinity (Infocom). 

COLUMNS 

Editorial Diane Gaw 4 

Reader comment 6 

8-bit news 11 

Database Delphi Matthew J.W. Ratcliff 22 

The End User Arthur Leyenberger 26 

Atari Users' Groups 36 

M/L Editor Clayton Walnum 42 

Boot Camp Karl E. Wiegers 90 

Index to advertisers 132 



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-Up to 255 Windo 
-5ysteM Reset pr 
-Hindows can be 



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ANALOG Computing (ISSN 0744-9917) is published monthly for $28 ($36 in Canada, $39 foreign) per year by ANALOG 400/800 Corp., 
565 Main St., Cherry Valley MA 01611. Second class postage paid at Worcester, MA and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send 
address changes to ANALOG Computing, P.O. Box 625, Holmes, PA 19043. No portion of this magazine may be reproduced in any form 
without written permission of the publisher. Contents copyright © 1986 ANALOG 400/800 Corp. 



ANALOG 

COMPUTING 

STAFF 



Editors/Publishers 

MICHAEL J. DESCHENES 
LEE H. PAPPAS 

Managing Editor 

DIANE L. GAW 

East Coast Editor 

ARTHUR LEYENBERGER 



Midwest Editor 

MATTHEW I.W. 



RATCLIFF 



Contributing Editors 

L^N CHADWICK 
BRADEN E. GRIFFIN, M.D. 
STEVE PANAK 
RUSS WETMORE 
KARL E. WIEGERS 

Contributing Artists 

GARY LIPPINCOTT 
LINDA RICE 
ISAO YONEHARA 

ST Cover Artist 

STEVE REHRAUER 

Technical Editors 

CHARLES BACHAND 
CLAYTON WALNUM 
DOUGLAS WEIR 

Production 

CONNIE MOORE 
EDYTHE STODDARD 
JANE SULLIVAN 

Advertising Manager 

MICHAEL J, DESCHENES 

Circulation Manager 

PATRICK J. KELLEY 

Accounting 

ROBIN LEVITSKY 

Production/Distribution 

LORELL PRESS, INC. 

Contributors 

LEE S. BRILLLWT, M.D. 
RICH B. ENNS 
JONATHAN DAVID FARLEY 
PAMELA RICE FRANK 
GARY HEITZ 
JAMES LUCZAK 
DAVID PLOTKIN 
KEVIN RAVENHILL 
D.F SCOTT 
MATHEU SPOLIN 

U.S. newsstand distribution by 
Eastern News Distributors, Inc., 
1130 Cleveland Rd., Sandusky, OH 44870 

ANALOG Computing magazine 
(ANALOG 400/800 Corp.) is in no 
way affiliated with Atari. Atari is a 
trademark of Atari Corp. 



WHERE TO WRITE 



All editorial material (programs, articles, letters and press releases) should 
be sent to: Editor, ANALOG Computing, P.O. Box 23, Worcester, MA 01603. 

Correspondence regarding subscriptions, including problems and changes 
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Correspondence concerning a regular column should be sent to our editori- 
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We cannot reply to all letters in these pages, so if you would like an answer, 
please enclose a self-addressed, stamped envelope. 

An incorrectly addressed letter can be delayed as long as two weeks before 
reaching the proper destination. 



ADVERTISING SALES 




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Home Office 
Michael Des Chenes 
National Advertising 
(617) 892-9230 



eney & Assoc. 



Address all 
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Michael Des Chenes — Advertising Production 

ANALOG Computing 

565 Main Street. Cherry Valley. MA 01611 



PERMISSIONS 

No portion of this magazine may 
be reproduced ia any form, without 
written permission from the publisher. 
Many programs are copyrighted and 
not public domain. 

Due, however, to many requests 
from Atari club libraries and bulletin 
board systems, our new policy allows 
club libraries or individually-run BBSs 
to make certain programs from ANA- 
LOG Computing available during the 
month printed on that issue's cover. 
For example, software from the )uly 
issue can be made available July 1. 

This does not apply to programs 
which specifically state that they are 
not public domain and, thus, are not 
for public distribution. 

In addition, any programs used 
must state that they are taken from 
ANALOG Computing magazine. For 
further information, contact ANA- 
LOG Computing at (617) 892-3488. 



SUBSCRIPTIONS 

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625, Holmes, PA 19043; or call toll- 
free: 1-800-345-8112 (PA 1-800-662- 
2444). Payable in U.S. ftmds only. 
U.S.: $28-1 yr.; $52-2 yrs.; $79-3 yrs. 
Canada: $36-1 yr.; $62-2 yrs.; $89-3 
yrs. Foreign: $39-1 yr.; $72-2 yrs.; 
$99-3 yrs. For disk subscriptions, see 
the cards at the back of this issue. 



AUTHORS 

when submitting articles and pro- 
grams, both program listings and text 
should be provided in printed and 
magnetic form, if possible. Typed or 
printed text copy is mandatory, and 
should be in upper- and lowercase, 
with double spacing. If a submission 
is to be returned, please send a self- 
addressed, stamped envelope. 



, — j- j I , — i i i — -...- J..-..- J — 

Unlobk yoiiir 




THE 

COMPLETE POCKET 

PROGRAM M I NO Al D ' basic commands with abbreviations 



internal codes 

locations 

machine language aids 

graphic mode specifications 



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rCOMPUTING 

,R0. BOX 23, WORCESTER, MA 01603 




Name 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



RO. BOX 23, WORCESTER, MA 01603 
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Editorial 



We hope that, after last issue, our 8-bit 
readers are saying, "How can they follow 
that act?" Because we can — for both the 
ANALOG Computing and ST-Log audi- 
ences. 

This month, in each section, you'll find 
a Status report loaded with information 
about the future of Atari. In keeping with 
our format, the 8-bit and ST portions of 
the report are separate, but we suggest that 
you read both articles for a truly complete 
picture. 

D. F. Scott has gathered facts, figures and 
future possibilities from some of the most 
knowledgeable personnel at Atari Corp. for 
these articles. We'll be publishing more of 
his work in this vein from time to time, 
as news becomes available. Our staff is ex- 
cited about the Status report articles; we 
hope you'll find them interesting and en- 
lightening, too. 

ANALOGers Lee Pappas and Charles 
Bachand traveled to Los Angeles recently, 
to attend the ACENET-sponsored Atari Fair 
there. It was a terrific opportunity for them 
to talk with thousands of Atari users. The 
enthusiasm at the fair was impressive, 
since this (unlike CES or COMDEX) was 
an all-Atari show. 

Charlie, our Senior Technical Editor, 
took on all the technical questions at ANA- 
LOG Computing's booth. Lee reported a 
warm reception at the fair for both free co- 
pies of the magazine and the bonus gift 
we'd arranged. 

Our thanks to ACENET for all their 
courtesy and assistance at the show — and 
for the chance to be included. 



In an effort to demonstrate our ongoing 
support for user groups and Atari products, 
we'll be participating in as many of these 
shows as possible. The next we're planning 
on, which will be over by the time you 
read this, will have been in San Jose. 

And, on Saturday, November 22, we'll 
be attending the PACE show at the Pitts- 
burgh Greentree Marriott, from 8 a.m. to 
4 p.m. For more details, contact PACE'S 
John Baker, RO. Box 13435, Pittsburgh, PA 
15243. 

Since the ANALOG Computing staff is 
small, we all wear several hats and our 
schedules are very full. We can't promise 
to attend every user show, but we'll do our 
best to be in touch with you. Just one ques- 
tion. . .how come there are no shows in 
places like Miami Beach, or Palm Springs, 
or Hawaii? 

On another front, we're pleased to hear 
of the release of SVz-inch drives for the 
Atari 8-bits. This should be a boon to all 
traditional Atari owners — and give a boost 
to the 8-bit market, as well. 

Though we don't have an exact date at 
this writing, you can look for the Atari 
8-bit Extra from ANALOG Computing be- 
fore Christmas. This isn't a compendium 
of previously published programs; it's a 
gathering of some of the best articles and 
software submitted to us that just wouldn't 
fit in these pages. 

Believe it or not, that's a common prob- 
lem. Every month, we have too much ma- 
terial for both the 8-bit and ST sections; 
and every month, we swear it won't hap- 
pen again. We've tried some different ap- 



proaches to get these articles and listings 
to OUT readers. The ST bonus disk program 
is one way; putting them up on our Atari 
Users' Group on Delphi is another; the Ex- 
tra is a third. 

We'd love to publish every worthwhile 
program we get — and we know people 
want to see Reader Comment, too. Unfor- 
tunately, there's a prescribed ratio for ad- 
vertising to editorial copy pages . . . and 
we're already exceeding the limit (in the 
tiniest type readable), in an effort to give 
readers their money's worth of Atari ma- 
terial . 

So, for you 8-bit users, the Extra is our 
special attempt to provide even more. We 
hope you'll use it — and enjoy it. 



( ,A^.uuCJt^^^:{^yW(Z^ 



Diane L. Gaw 
Managing Editor 
ANALOG Computing 



PAGE 4 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



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BOOK INCLUDES: • Duplicate seaorii ig • Custom disk formatting ' 
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A complete ready to run system for those without access to 
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I COMPUTER EYES alone |with capture and display software 

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Computer Eyes Gr.9 Acquisition Software . .12 

Computer Eyes lets you take any form of video input and 
saves it as a high-resolution graphics screen, "ibu can use 
a video camera, VCR, TV output, video disk, other com- 
puters, etc. Now you can capture your picture, your 
friends or any video image and show it on an Atari 
computer Computer Eyes is an innovative slow scan 
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and your Atari computer (see the review in A.N.AL.O.G. 
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• Do a complete Hi-Res scan in under 6 seconds 

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• Full one-year warranty on parts and labor 

• Plugs into your Atari joystick ports and uses a 
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Now anyone can create the kind of graphics seen in this 
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• lake your Computer Eyes images and modify them 
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Reader comment 



Corrections for 
Magic Speii and Biast! 

If you've been getting an ERROR 136 when 
trying to load issue 46's Magic Spell, run 
the following program with your Magic 
Spell disk in drive 1. Substitute the file- 
name you gave Magic Spell for the FILE- 
NAME. EXT in Line 10. The program will 
create a new Magic Spell file, under the 
filename NEWPRG.OBJ. Note that, if 
you're using an XL or XE computer, you 
must first run the translator disk to use 
Magic Spell. 

10 OPEN ttl, 4, 0,"D: FILENAME 
.EKT":OPEM «2,8,0,"D:NEWPR 
G.OB J" 
20 FOR X=l TO 4679: GET «1, 

a:put »2,o:next x:end 

The above program will also be useful 
for those who've had trouble running Blast! 
from issue 44. Just change the number 
4679 in Line 20 to 4092 and, of course, be 
sure to change the filenames in Line 10. 

—Ed. 

The separation issue: 
a bit from both sides. 

No, no, no! . . . Don't separate ST-Log 
from your fine magazine as has been pro- 
posed. 

As a long-time 800 owner and enthusi- 
ast, I fully intend to purchase an ST in the 
future, as soon as finances permit, But in 
the meantime, I can keep abreast of the 
news and articles about my "future" com- 
puter, while still getting the newest and 
best information about my present system. 
In fact, the thing that has "sold" me on the 
ST is the information I've learned about 
it through your pages and ST-Log. I ima- 
gine quite a few ST purchasers are former 



8-bit owners who've been informed about 
the new line through your pages. 

I feel you would be doing your readers 
and future 8-bit and 16-bit owners a dis- 
service by publishing two periodicals, and 
creating a further division between 8-bit 
and 16-bit owners. 

Sincerely, 

David N. Osburn 

Smyrna, DE 

I feel compelled to comment on what ap- 
pears to be the developing rift between the 
8-bit and 16-bit subscribers — and on the 
Atari 520ST, in general. 

First , I have watched the personal com- 
puter market closely for some years now, 
vowing that I too would be a computer en- 
thusiast one day. My wife reminded me of 
one thing — that I had better plan my pur- 
chase carefully, and wait and see what fur- 
ther price drops occurred. Good thing; 
along came the 520ST, with the features, 
power, user-friendly interface and price 
which I found irresistible. I have had my 
ST for nine months now and plan to get 
many useful years of computing with it. 

Now, about this controversy of 8-bit ver- 
sus 16-bit. There are many owners of 8-bit 
machines out there, and I admire the pi- 
oneering spirit with which many bought 
their machines. However, the 16-bit ma- 
chines are here to stay, and many are 
grumbUng about what to do with their "old 
hardware". Use it, enjoy it and grow with 
it; that is the challenge. I prefer to use the 
ST, because of its mouse, windows and 
other user-friendly features. 

I would prefer to see ANALOG Comput- 
ing publish ST-Log as a separate magazine, 
because I want to learn more about the ST 
in general, as a novice. Also, this machine 



deserves more support in the way of type- 
in programs, articles, new products, etc. 

In closing, I would like to say that ANA- 
LOG Computing is a fine magazine for 
Atari owners, one which has been at the 
forefront of the industry. 

Sincerely, 

Jeff Cotton 

Jenks, OK 

I am an 800 user, as well as a profession- 
al programmer, but I enjoy knowing what 
is happening in the ST world. I vote for 
keeping ST-Log and ANALOG Computing 
as one publication. 

If you decide to separate the two after 
all, please keep a couple of pages of ST 
news in ANALOG Computing, and vice 
versa. That way, we old faithful Atari sup- 
porters will keep abreast of how the other 
half of "our" company is doing. 

Eva Dano 

El Monte, CA 

By all means, take the ST-Log section 
out of ANALOG Computing, and make it 
into a separate magazine. However, keep 
a page or two about new ST developments 
in ANALOG Computing. I plan to get an 
ST in the future, and I would like to know 
about anything new that comes along. 

Also, the ads for the new "TCS" say that 
you will get a $5.00 line-time credit. How- 
ever, the information I received in the mail 
said I would get a $10.00 line-time credit. 
Why the unconformity? 

Yours truly, 

James H. Ellwanger 

Tampa, FL 

The $10.00 credit applies for previous 
TCS subscribers, while the $5.00 credit is 
for magazine subscribers. — Ed. 



PAGE 6 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



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CIRCLE #102 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




— — ■ ' 

n Reader comment continued 



A little blatant praise. . .your issue 45 
was the most information-packed I've 
seen. I must congratulate you on an excel- 
lent report of the West Coast Computer 
Fairs, though I can't decide whether it was 
ANALOG Computing's (Matthew J.W. Rat- 
cliffs) great job of reporting, or just the 
great stuff you were given to report, that 
made it so good. I'm really looking for- 
ward to your Summer CES report. Also, 
thanks for the second Guide to ST Soft- 
ware in issue 44. 

About ST-Log : I think you should keep 
ANALOG Computing and ST-Log togeth- 
er. One of the main reasons I take ANA- 
LOG Computing is to keep up with all 
Atari news. If you make ST-Log a separate 
magazine, I'll no longer have ST news or 
ST product reviews, and I doubt if I could 
handle a double subscription. And what 
about CES and COMDEX reports? There 
is certainly an increase in ST coverage in 
these reports (and in their respective 
shows). If ANALOG Computing goes it 
alone, will I open my magazine to see a 
(gulp!) half-page report on CES, a page on 
COMDEX? I say the ST coverage is well 
worth a price increase, albeit a small one, 
please. 

Thanks for the Delphi information in is- 
sue 45 (not to mention the actual TCS 
changeover). Keep up the great work. 

Yours truly, 

Donald Lancon, Jr. 

(DCLJR on Delphi) 

First, I would Uke to comment on the 8- 
versus 16-bit controversy. I bought my first 
computer in September 1981. The system 
consisted of the Atari 800 (16K), a 410 pro- 
gram recorder, Star Raiders and a pair of 
joysticks. I paid $930.00 (at discount) for 
this system. A month later, I purchased an 
810 (88K) disk drive for $470.00 (also dis- 
counted). 

Needless to say, when I purchased my 
second computer, it, also, was an Atari sys- 
tem. This new system consisted of; 520 ST 
(1040K with upgrade), SC1224 RGB color 
monitor, SF314 (760K) disk drive, mouse 
and assorted software. This cost $1080.00 
in March 1986. 

I guess I should be upset that this new 
level of sophistication, power and technol- 
ogy are now available . . .I'm not! I most 
certainly should regret (and perhaps be a 
bit displeased) that today's 8-bit Atari is 
not only much less expensive, but a more 
powerful machine ... I don't! The point is, 
I have both machines side-by-side and, 
yes, I still use the old reliable 800. 

There should be no controversy. Im- 
provement and progress should be wel- 
comed. When progress stops, there will 
not only be a controversy; it will be the 
end. I'm an Atari enthusiast and would like 
to see an end to this rift. 

I would now like to comment on ANA- 
LOG Computing and ST-Log, i.e. your edi- 



torial in issue 45. 1, for one, enjoyed read- 
ing about the ST computers (in ANALOG 
Computing) long before I purchased the 
system; you kept me informed of the latest 
developments. On the other hand, if you 
increase the size of the ST section, costs 
and subscription rates will go up. This 
will penalize those readers not interested 
in the ST line. 

Two separate magazines seems to be the 
fair solution, those interested in both com- 
puters may receive both publications. 
Those interested in one or the other (or 
neither) may do as they wish. Perhaps you 
could have an ST news section in ANA- 
LOG Computing and a 8-bit news section 
in ST-Log, to satisfy those who are using 
one system, yet are interested in brief news 
about the other. Hopefully, this can be 
done without increasing costs, so that one 
group is not subsidizing the other. 

Sincerely, 

Rick Nichols 

Torrance, CA 

The disk bonus: plus or minus? 

I want to comment on something I think 
is a really bad start. In issue 45, you had 



an article for ST disk subscribers only. Yet 
the magazine is not "disk-bound" (that is, 
either you buy both or none, like the up- 
coming COMPUTE! ST), and the disk is 
supplied as a supplementary aid for those 
who don't want to type. It is supposed to 
have only programs, listings of which are 
printed in the magazine. Any other choice 
treats all the rest of us as second-rate sub- 
scribers. 

A clear explanation of the policy to be 
followed and a publication of these arti- 
cles would be the best solution. 

Sincerely yours, 

E.D. Varkaris 

Troy NY 

The disk-only magazine articles are not 
intended to make magazine subscribers 
feel second rate, or even to force them to 
purchase the disk. We're attempting to 
make available the best ST software we can 
get our hands on. Frequently, the listings 
for these programs are much too large to 
make magazine publication feasible. If we 
didn't go to a disk-only format on these 
items, we would be unable to publish them 
at all. We don't find that an acceptable al- 
ternative. 




"We shall create a computer 
that will be a landmark in the 
history of computers.'^ 



^ 



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K' 






Recently, a writer compeired 
the revolutionary 1040ST™ 
to Henry Ford's Model T.™ 

You may be surprised to 
learn that we were very 
complimented. 

The truth is that both the 
ST™ and the Model T were 
designed to be machines of 
great power and usefulness 
at a price that was affordable 
to everybody. 

The only difference is that 
the 16-bit 1040ST uses the 
most advanced technology 
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® 1986. Atari Coip. 

ATARI. 1040ST, and ST are TMs or reg. TM's of Atari Corp. 

Model T is a TM of Ford Motor Company. 



CIRCLE #105 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 9 



n Reader comment continued 



Furthermore, you don't need a disk sub- 
scription to get these programs. They're 
available in ANALOG Computing's Atari 
Users' Group on Delphi. 

We're trying to strike a happy medium, 
and not go to the total disk-only system 
other magazines have adopted. When pos- 
sible, program listings will be printed in 
the magazine. Some articles will be tutori- 
al in nature, including important routines 
within the article, while the complete pro- 
gram listing resides on disk. This method 
assures that our magazine will remain 
valuable to all readers (and not sport an 
expensive $14.95 price tag). — Ed. 

It-Oil War fix. 

There is an error in the Troll War game 
program (issue 45). The program will not 
survive SYSTEM RESET. The boot head- 
er initialization address is 27F9 in Line 
230. This address originally contains an 
RTS instruction. After the program runs, 



it clears that address. 
Line 230 should read: 



The RTS is gone! 



DATA 0, 23, 210, 39, 102, 43, 169, 0, etc. 
Yours truly, 
David E. Wolff 
San Jose, CA 



Main Street. 

In our issue 46 June CES coverage, Mat- 
thew Ratcliff mentioned Main Street Pub- 
lishing as a company that markets classic 
Atari software very cheaply — but we didn't 
then have an address. Here it is: Main 
Street Publishing, 611 W. Travelers Trail, 
Burnsville, MN 55337 — (800) 334-3645; 
in Minnesota, (612) 894-7950. —Ed. 

MIL keypad. 

I recently typed in Clayton Walnum's 
BASIC Editor (issue 43), and I was work- 
ing on some changes when BASIC Editor 
n (issue 45) came out. It is a much superior 
program and works very well. 

I was interested in Magic Spell (issue 
46), so I typed in M/L Editor. This also 
works well, but I felt a minor change was 
needed. Instead of being able to enter 
numbers with only the "top row" (the nor- 
mal keyboard layout), I felt it would be eas- 
ier to type in via a keypad. 

In issue 14, Randal C. Gibson's Hexpad 
used a machine language routine to change 
several characters, so that the right half of 
the keyboard formed a keypad. I used his 
routine, with a few modifications, to form 
a similar keypad. 

The M/L subroutine changes the letters 



JKL to 123, UIO to 456. The numbers 789 
are already in position. Other changes: M 
becomes 0, as does the SPACE BAR, and 
the comma is changed to RETURN. I 
changed the latter because, the way the 
program is set up, a comma is never typed; 
all entries are separated by RETURN. This 
allows for less movement of the right hand. 
The program will convert only the keys 
listed, but as originally written, it would 
only accept numbers or RETURN. All oth- 
er keys are unchanged, so either the "top 
row" keys or the new "keypad" can be 
used to enter the code. 

25 FOR X=1536 TO 1579:REflD 

A:POKE X,A:NEXT X 
165 POKE 70Z,64:REM PUT KE 
YBOORD IN UPPERCASE 
325 A=USRC1536,A} 
600 DATA 162,8,104,104,104 
,221,26,6,240,10,202,16,24 
8,133,212,169,0,133,213,96 
,189,35,6,76,13,6 
610 DATA 32,77,44,74,75,76 
,85,73,79,48,48,155,49,50, 
51,52,53,54 

Thank you, 

Trent Tadsen, M.D. 

LaCrange, GA 



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CIRCLE #106 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PAGE 10 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



8-bit ne^vs! 



TOP GUNNER 

Now you can have a crack at downing ene- 
my fighters, in one of the three games in this 
package. Each of these games was previous- 
ly released individually, under the titles Hell- 
cat Ace, MiG Alley Ace and Air Rescue. (You 
may recall, in issue 20, the ANALOG Com- 
puting staff chose MiG Alley Ace as one of 
our all-time favorites.) 

A double-sided disk, complete with a 30- 
page manual, comprises the set — at $24.95, 
that's less than each program originally sold 
for alone. While none of the games has truly 
outstanding graphics, their playability is top- 
notch, and the multi-player capability is 
among the best. 



^<^*k Smashing ^^ 



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Hellcat Ace is set over the South Pacific 
and recreates fourteen US-Japanese battles. 
From your "cockpit," you hunt down aircraft 
and attempt to blow them out of the sky. Air 
Rescue is an arcade-type game, on the idea 
of Defender/Scramble. MiG Alley Ace has a 
split screen, to give your view out of the 
windshield and your opponent's view. Your 
enemy can be another player or the computer 
Each tracks the enemy, the goal being to 
knock the other plane out of the sky. 

At $24.95, Microprose Software, 120 Lake- 
front Drive, Hunt Valley MD 21030 — (301) 

667-1151. CIRCLE #101 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



BLAZING PADDLES 

This all-in-one illustrating program draws, 
paints and prints your custom pictures. Or you 
may choose from a variety of pre-drawn shapes 
and text fonts. 

Blazing Paddles works with a myriad of in- 
put devices, including light pens, Koala Pad, 
joystick and trackball. Printers supported in- 
clude Okimate 20, Epson, Gemini lOX and 15X, 
and Panasonic. 

The program allows many drawing functions, 
among them free-hand sketch mode, individual 
pixels/dots, circles and ellipses, squares and rec- 



OTHER NEWS 

Intellicreations has released a new graph- 
ics text adventure game, Gunslinger. In it, 
you take on the role of Kip Starr, a retired 
Texas Ranger. But events have caught up with 
him— it's time for action! 

Poor Kip must journey through perilous 
country, including a ghost town and a desert- 
ed mine, then cope with ambushes and hos- 
tile Indians. This game features a graphics 
window and a separate text display. 

Retail is $29.95. Intellicreations/Datasoft, 
Inc., 19808 Nordhoff Place, Chatsworth, CA 
91311 — (818) 886-5922. 

CIRCLE #190 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



XLent Software is offering Miniature Golf, 

which allows you to play any number of holes 
per game, design your own scenes and set up 
stationary or moving boundaries. 

Up to eight people can play, and you can 
store up to sixty holes per disk. Geometry, 
physics, friction and gravity are all simulated. 

The price is $29.95, from XLent Software, 
P.O. Box 5228, Springfield, VA 22150 — (703) 
644-8881. 

CIRCLE #170 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Six Fork's Assembler and Linker lets you 
enter in source code using a word processor 
(of your choice), rather than a unique editor. 

Moreover, instead of having a single large 
source file, everything is divided into small 
subroutines. The linker gives the option of 
having a "library" of subroutines you can use 
in any of your programs. 

Priced at $39.00. For further information, 
contact Six Forks Software, 11009 Harness 
Circle, Raleigh, NC 27614 — (919) 847-2740. 

CIRCLE #191 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




tangular boxes, text, cut and paste, predravm 
shapes, zoom, spray, and fill. Pictures can be 
saved and loaded to disk, or graphics hard- 
copy can be achieved, using one of the 
printers listed above. 

The cost is $34.95, from Baudville, 1001 
Medical Park Drive, SE, Grand Rapids, MI 
49509 — (616) 957-3036. 

CIRCLE #189 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A FLIGHT SIMULATION ADVENTURE 

You've become a 21st-century soldier of for- 
tune. Crash-landing on the war-torn planet 
Targ, your ship beyond repair, you discover 
other means of transportation. This adven- 
ture is combined with a flight simulator and 
high-speed, 3-D vector-type graphics. 

You can "work" for the mechanoid inhabi- 
tants or as an independent. As you explore 
the surface of Targ from the air, you search 
for an important key. Travel underground to 
collect valuable objects, or fly to the colony 
craft orbiting the planet. Your final goal is to 
locate an interstellar ship in which you can 
escape from the planet. 

For $29.95, IntelliCreations/Datasoft, 19808 
Nordhoff PL, Chatsworth, CA 91311 — (818) 
886-5922. circle #192 on reader service card 




ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 11 



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MICROMOD3.0 

The database with BUSINESS POWER for e-bit Atahs 

HOME USE — Save on tjisks/disk-switching. Up to 
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ation/instructions for home users. Intelligent interpreter 
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EDUCATION — Features/operation/flexibility com- 
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BUSINESS — Immediate programmer phone sup- 
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BUSINESS TEXT WORD PROCESSOR — 49 

screen buffer, standard features, spelling. 

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TOTAL MICROMOD 3.0 PRICE, $79.95. Full guarantee. 
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CIRCLE #107 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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CIRCLE #180 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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CIRCLE #108 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Status report 

8-BIT SECTION 



Atari: This is the future. 



by D.F. Scott 



The materia] here is part of a complete 
overview of Atari Corp.'s plans and possi- 
bilities. Among the sources drawn from: 
Michael Katz, Executive Vice-President in 
charge o/ Entertainment Electronics; Leon- 
ard Tramiel, Vice-President in charge of 
Software; Shiraz Shivji, chie/ developer of 
the ST "blitter" chip; Jim Tittsler, developer 
of the ST's IBM PC-compatibility unit; and 
other sources who wish to remain anony- 
mous. 

This portion of the report deals with the 
future of Atari from the 8-bit point of view. 
For an integrated, comprehensive picture, 
we suggest that readers refer to the ST sec- 
tion of the article, found on page 51ST. The 
two sections form an informative, insight- 
ful image of what we, the users, can ex- 
pect from Atari. 

Entertainment Electronics. 

Atari's roots are in game machines, and 
that's nothing to be ashamed of. The crea- 
tive genius who Invents or programs a 
computer is the same genius who toys 
around with it. Still, the 8-bit Ataris have 
always had to be proven and fought for. It's 
as if the machines themselves were a 
cause, like unionization or the abolition of 
apartheid. 

The storm is over now, and the war-torn 
Atari 8-bits — and even the home video 
games — are still with us. Within the fast- 
moving vehicle that is now Atari Corp., 
there are those who say 8-bits and video 
games have taken a definite, permanent 
backseat to the STs and TTs. 



Michael Katz doesn't want the backseat. 
Formerly of Mattel, Coleco and Epyx, the 
current chief of the Entertainment Elec- 
tronics division firmly claims his copilot- 
ship of Atari, and his presence is certainly 
felt. He's taken control of the 8-bit prod- 
uct line altogether, renewing the 65XE and 
the 7800 game system. In terms of market- 
ing, he's turning the Tramiel philosophy 
completely around. If you live in Philadel- 
phia, you may already have seen the final 
results of that turn-around: TV commer- 
cials. 

If you're wondering how the Jack Tra- 
miel philosophy of "newspaper ads only" 
could have been so directly contradicted, 
read the words of Katz himself: "Our em- 
phasis is to get better distribution on the 
8-bit computers. In other words, get ma- 
jor accounts — whether they're specialty 
dealers or mass-merchants or department 
stores carrying the 8-blt line. . . Advertis- 
ing, which we're thinking about doing on 
TV, is in the right direction. We just have 
to get those retailers conmiitted to carry- 
ing software and carrying the product." 

"We've already produced two new com- 
mercials for the video games, that are run- 
ning right now in the Philadelphia test 
market." Each TV ad would center on a 
specific product, Katz told us, not a por- 
tion or the entirety of the Atari Une. Still, 
we asked him, isn't that going against what 
your boss used to say, that newspaper ads 
are the cheapest way to reach the most 
people? "That's true for the ST," Katz re- 
sponded, "which is not a broad-market 
product right now. But it's not true of the 
8-bit computers, which have a mass- 
market appeal." 



So, if you're one of those who marched 
bravely down the aisles of a computer store 
chanting, "The XE's not a game machine," 
lay down your arms. Atari itself is about 
to tell you that it is. Public Relations Direc- 
tor Neil Harris broke the news officially, 
when his BBS news file stated the new 
65XE promotion would be "as an advanced 
game machine." Michael Katz explains: 
"For ads, it's positioned two ways: For the 
game aficionado, it's the ultimate video 
game system that's also a computer; for the 
beginning computer buff, it's the best be- 
ginning computer system, because it's low- 
priced, it's got 64K and it's expandable. So 
it's the best of both worlds." 

Leonard Tramiel has no qualms with 
this promotional strategy, but doesn't con- 
sider it a permanent one: "You can mar- 
ket the computer as an advanced game 
machine ... as an introductory computer, 
[or] as a word-processing bundle. That par- 
ticular promotion is aimed in that direc- 
tion." 

Does this make the 130XE a "super-ultra- 
advanced game machine" or a word pro- 
cessor — this year? Tramiel reiterates, 
"That changes from promotion to promo- 
tion. It's just a question of how it's being 
marketed at a particular time." 

"The 130, at the moment, is being mar- 
keted bundled with a printer." Will the 
promotion vmdermine the status of the 
8-bit line? Answers Tramiel, "No, not in 
any way. That's how most people use them, 
anjrway." 

Michael Katz, on the same topic: "It's 
just been in the last six months that the 
game market has started to come back 
strong. So anyone's interest, specifically in 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 13 




status report 



continued 



game-playing machines, has been fueled by 
what we're seeing in the marketplace in the 
last few months. There's definitely a mar- 
ket for video game systems, and there's 
definitely a market for home computers. 
There's no reason why there can't be a lot 
of business in both segments." 

Katz feels there'd be a lot more business 
in his segment if salesmen would just take 
the 8-bits and video games seriously. "One 
of the problems," he points out, "is that soft- 
ware distributors are not supporting the 
8-bit software as much as they could be. 
Third-party software companies don't have 
a constant availability of 8-bit software, even 
though they've got it in their catalogs. So 
we're working to try to correct those prob- 
lems, [such as] consumers and retailers not 
being able to get enough 8-bit software from 
either distributors or third-party people." 

He doesn't stop there. Katz also wants a 
piece of the ST's action: "We've thought 
about the capabilities of the ST as a game- 
playing possibiUty. . . It's very good with 
graphics and sound — and those are impor- 
tant elements in games. 'We're looking at 




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the potential of the ST as playing some kind 
of a role, possibly, in a new game-playing 
machine." 

It appears that even if Atari isn't "back- 
burnering" the 8-bit projects, its distribu- 
tors and retailers are. They feel the ST is 
generating the energy. A peculiar double- 
standard is revealed here: software publish- 
ers say they don't want to produce products 
where a potential customer base hasn't yet 
been established. But, where such a base 
exists, it's dismissed as belonging to the old- 
er generation of computers. If a company 
combines both of these operating metho- 
dologies, it will sell nothing — and will be 
counted among the fatalities of the indus- 
trial "shakeout." 

The XE exists now. It cannot be ignored. 
In the fields of telecommunications, num- 
ber-crunching, record-keeping and game- 
playing, the B-bits have their place. Because 
a company chooses to hitch itself to the ST 
rocketship doesn't mean it has to abandon 
more solid ground of the 8-bits. Older 
generation, yes, but old never meant dead. 
If a product hangs around the market a long 
while, it's usually because that product is 
strong, substantial and solid. 

If products die out in their infancy, it's 
because they can't find that solid ground 
— remember the Atari Graduate? The 5200? 
The 1200XL? All these Atari products failed 
in their attempt to take an existing solid 
product and make it into something it 
wasn't. Despite cosmetic changes, the Atari 
8-bits have survived unblemished. We 
mustn't forget that, if not for the revenue 
generated by the 8-bit line, games and com- 
puters, the ST would be dead in the water 
today — along with its manufacturer. 

How will Entertainment Electronics 
generate the money to fuel development? In 
the video game department, titles from the 
8-bits will be translated over to the 7800, 
using a special enhancement cartridge 
Michael Katz tells us will bear a 1-megabit 
internal storage capacity. These will not be 
former Atari titles, but games from (among 
others) Electronic Arts, Broderbund and 
Katz's former domain, Epyx. Doug Neu- 
bauer, who wrote the original Star Raiders, 
is reportedly being employed to enhance 
the game machines' ongoing library. 

In an even more surprising development, 
Katz has been leading Atari into markets 
broader than those governed by the micro- 
chip alone. As Katz says, "Entertainment 
Electronics is pretty broad. We still have 
a definite interest in getting into products 
other than video games, but it probably 
will not happen until 1987, , . We hope to 
have some new products at least by Christ- 
mastime." 

As to what sort of product(s) Katz refers 
to, we can only speculate — possibly TVs, 
VCRs, CDs. That's still a company secret. 
But if Katz's timetable seriously calls for 
a December 1987 release date for new 
products, Atari must be pretty far along in 



situating itself to market broadly-defined 
home electronics. We can assume whatever 
Atari's planning to produce is something 
close to its home territory. It produces mo- 
nitors now; it may as well produce TVs. 
Perhaps they can be packaged with the 
8-bits for a discount. Home robots, though, 
are definitely out — it seems Atari doesn't 
want to get into the automated house- 
cleaning industry. 

Conclusion. 

Nearly two years after Tramiel and sons 
assumed the debts of the faltering Atari 
from Warner Communications, the compa- 
ny is no longer ashamed to be producing 
game machines — as long as it also has a 
computer product that proves its creative 
genius applies to reality — not just fantasy. 
We're beginning to realize it wasn't games 
that nearly sank Atari; it was a drastical- 
ly colossal management contradicting it- 
self at every turn, skilled perhaps in mar- 
keting tobacco and soda pop, but not com- 
puters. 

We've come so far in two years, haven't 
we? STs can be bought for a fraction of 
what we may have spent on an XLD, so 
you'd think the only way for Atari to go 
from here is further up. It isn't that easy. 
Atari's developers may have served us the 
future on a silver platter, but does that 
mean the company's banquet table is open 
to anyone and everyone? As Michael Katz 
pointed out, the ST isn't broad-market ma- 
terial; but some will say it isn't vertical- 
market material either — so just what is it? 
After Atari decides just what is what, can 
this same company still sell you Pac-Man 
and Star Raiders? On TV? On, perhaps, 
an Atari-brand TV? 

We'll be checking back with Atari from 
time to time to see how the company 
chooses to address these issues. H 

D. F. Scott is an artist, writer, educator 
and programmer Jiving in Oklahoma City. 
He is currently engaged in the study of 
quantum physics, computing and other 
ways in which elementary particles inter- 
act with each other. Otherwise, he /ills in- 
finite pieces of paper. 



PAGE 14 /NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



378 PX=2:PY=7: POSITION PX+3, PY+9 : GOSUB 



M-Hindows Uersion 1.1 



z 

10 



418 FOR K=19 TO 23:G0SUB 48e:NEXT X:NE 



Features: I 



-All Machine language code 

-Up to 255 windows open at once 

-Sj^sten Reset proof 

-Nindows can be various sizes 

-Hindows can be nulti-color 

-Borders are optional 

-Pull down nenus 



"*■■»"; :forI 

HEN RETURl 
581 GOTO 

510 REM [| 



|88:NEXT M:IF ZOll T 



Pull Down 

2 




-Windows 



Now, your 8-bit Atari 

can have all the windows you'll ever need. 



by Kevin Ravenhill 



How many 8-bit users feel neglected because windows 
pop up (pun intended) everywhere but on their machines? 
If you're one of these people, we've got the solution for 
you. How would you like to be able to open a window with 
your choice of size, screen position, color and border? 
Sounds good, eh? What if you could have up to 255 of 
these windows open simultaneously? If these features are 
appealing, M-Windows is for you. 

Listing 1 is the BASIC data used to create your copy of 
M-Windows. Please refer to the M/L Editor on page 42 , 
for typing instructions. You should name the resultant file 
AUTORUN.SYS. 

Listings 2 and 3 are demos that show M-Windows in 
use. You should type these listings using the BASIC Edi- 
tor II (issue 47). When you run the programs, you must 
have booted your system with the disk containing the AU- 
TORUN.SYS file created from Listing 1. 

Listing 4 is the assembly language source code for M- 
Windows. You don't have type this listing in. It's includ- 
ed for our readers who are interested in assembly language 
programming. 

How it works. 

M-Windows is an AUTORUN.SYS file that installs it- 
self immediately after DOS, and is transparent to the user. 
It's also SYSTEM-RESET-proof. To open a window, six 
parameters are required. The first is the address of the 
open window routine — it's always 7459. 



The next two specify the top left corner of the window 
in XA'-coordinate format. The X-position values may range 
from to 39, and the Y-position values from to 23. 

The fourth and fifth parameters specify the size of the 
window. The fourth contains the width, which may be 
from 1 to 40 characters. The fifth specifies the length, from 
1 to 24 characters. 

The last parameter is a border "flag." If a value of is 
passed, no border is drawn. A value between 1 and 127 
draws a border in normal video. A value above 127 draws 
a border in reverse video. If you tried the following: 
X= USR(7459,0,0,10,5,0), you'd open a 10x5-character win- 
dow without a border, at the top left-hand corner of the 
screen. 

Closing a window is even easier. Only one parameter 
is passed, the address of the routine close the window. 
X= USR(7826J would close the last window opened. If you 
try to close a window when there is none open, no harm 
is done. 

Using M-Windows is simple, but there are a few things 
to keep in mind. If you open a window that's smaller than 
3x3 characters, you should do so without a border. Other- 
wise, strange things occur. If you go to DOS, M-Windows 
will be wiped out, unless you use a MEM.SAV file. When 
you open or close a window, it's advisable to position the 
cursor away from the projected area of the window, like 
this: 

POSITION 8,8:? " "; !X=U5RC7459,2,ie,15 
,5,8J 

If the cursor is on the window when it's being closed, 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 15 




M-WindOWS continued 



there's a chance of a character not being replaced. If your 
cursor is nowhere near the window when it's being opened 
or closed, don't worry about it. POKEing 8045 with a 
will tell M-Windows that there are no windows currently 
open. 

It's a good idea to zero the window counter when you 
run a program, just in case any windows remain open from 
previous programs. Normally, reverse spaces are used to 
draw window backgrounds. This fill character is user- 
definable. POKEing a value into 7625 will change the 
character used to draw the window background. Experi- 
ment; try redefined character sets. 

M-Windows calculates the address of the top left cor- 
ner from the X- and Y-coordinates you supply. The charac- 
ters hidden behind the window are stored on a stack that 
starts at the top of memory and grows down, toward your 
BASIC program. In addition to the characters, M-Windows 
pushes the parameters onto the stack. When you close a 
window, the process is reversed. First, the parameters are 
pulled from the stack. Then, the characters are stored on 
the screen, restoring its original state. 

When a window is opened or closed, the value returned 
is the address of the bottom of the stack. You should watch 
this value, to prevent it from colliding with your BASIC 
program. The top of your BASIC program is stored in lo- 
cations 14 and 15, like this: 

T0PBA5IC = PEEK tl4J +255KPEEK tl5) 

Before you open a window, it's wise to check that the 
stack value will not go below the top of your program. 

M-Windows gives your programs a professional look, 
without making you buy an ST, or numb your brain learn- 
ing fancy routines. 

Does your computer do windows? Mine does! H 

Kevin RavenhilJ is a courier for a clinical laboratory. 
Since this is a mind-numbing ;ob, his Atari 800 provides 
a source of mental stimulation. He's enjoyed writing util- 
ities in machine language and BASIC over the past four 
years. 



The two-letter checksum code preceding the line 
numbers here is not a part of the BASIC program. 
For further information, see the BASIC Editor II in 
issue 47. 



Listing 1. 

BASIC listing. 

1000 DftTfl 255,255,0,29,111,31,165,12,1 

41,14,29,165,13,141,15,29,413 

1010 DflTfl 76,16,29,32,255,255,169,8,14 

1,231,2,169,32,141,232,2,6852 

1826 DftTft 169,13,133,12,169,29,133,13, 

96,184,184,184,141,188,31,184,3374 

1838 DATA 184,141,99,31,104,104,141,10 

1,31,141,183,31,104,104,141,102,4525 

1040 DATA 31,141,104,31,104,104,141,98 

,31,41,128,141,106,31,173,99,4484 

1050 DATA 31,133,203,169,0,133,284,24, 

6,203,38,284,24,6,203,38,4049 

1060 DATA 284,24,6,203,38,284,165,283, 

141,96,31,165,284,141,97,31,7462 

1070 DATA 24,6,203,38,284,24,6,263,38, 

284,24,165,283,109,96,31,5424 



1888 DATA 133,263,165,284,169,97,31,13 

3,264,24,173,166,31,161,283,133,7507 

1090 DATA 203,165,264,165,8,133,204,24 

,165,203,161,88,133,263,141,167,9153 

1186 DATA 31,165,204,181,89,133,284,14 

1,108,31,56,169,46,237,161,31,6651 

1110 DATA 141,185,31,173,109,31,288,13 

,173,229,2,133,285,173,236,2,8571 

1126 DATA 133,286,32,51,31,238,189,31, 

168,0,177,263,145,285,169,128,9728 

1130 DATA 145,203,32,9,31,32,51,31,266 

,183,31,173,163,31,288,232,6671 

1148 DATA 206,104,31,173,184,31,240,23 

,24,165,203,109,105,31,133,263,7358 

1156 DATA 165,204,105,6,133,264,173,16 

1,31,141,163,31,76,194,29,32,3791 

1160 DATA 37,31,165,283,145,205,32,51, 

31,165,204,145,205,32,51,31,5448 

1170 DATA 173,105,31,145,205,32,51,31, 

173,102,31,145,205,32,51,31,3086 

1188 DATA 173,181,31,145,205,32,51,31, 

173,98,31,268,3,76,6,31,1823 

1198 DATA 174,161,31,282,282,142,116,3 

1,172,102,31,136,136,140,111,31,5777 

1200 DATA 173,187,31,133,283,173,108,3 

1,133,284,169,81,13,106,31,168,6615 

1218 DATA 8,145,203,32,65,31,172,161,3 

1,136,169,69,13,106,31,145,3524 

1220 DATA 203,32,82,31,169,124,13,166, 

31,168,6,145,203,172,101,31,5062 

1238 DATA 136,145,283,32,82,31,266,111 

,31,173,111,31,288,238,169,98,8826 

1240 DATA 13,186,31,166,8,145,283,32,6 

5,31,169,67,13,186,31,172,3173 

1258 DATA 161,31,136,145,263,76,0,31,1 

64,173,169,31,288,3,76,6,2243 

1268 DATA 31,32,23,31,266,109,31,166,6 

,177,205,141,161,31,141,163,5956 

1270 DATA 31,32,23,31,177,285,141,162, 

31,141,104,31,32,23,31,177,2716 

1288 DATA 205,141,105,31,32,23,31,177, 

205,133,204,32,23,31,177,205,6608 

1290 DATA 133,203,32,23,31,177,205,145 

,203,32,23,31,32,37,31,206,3296 

1300 DATA 183,31,173,183,31,208,238,17 

3,101,31,141,103,31,56,165,203,7765 

1310 DATA 237,185,31,133,203,165,204,2 

33,0,133,204,206,184,31,173,104,9778 

1320 DATA 31,208,218,32,51,31,165,265, 

133,212,165,206,133,213,96,24,9900 

1330 DATA 165,203,185,1,133,283,165,26 

4,105,8,133,204,96,24,165,205,9085 

1340 DATA 105,1,133,285,165,206,105,8, 

133,206,96,56,165,203,233,1,8945 

1350 DATA 133,203,165,204,233,0,133,20 

4,96,56,165,205,233,1,133,205,945 

1360 DATA 165,206,233,0,133,206,96,168 

,1,174,110,31,169,82,13,106,5056 

1370 DATA 31,145,203,200,202,208,258,9 

6,24,165,203,105,40,133,203,165,1382 

1380 DATA 204,105,0,133,204,96,0,8,6,6 

,6,8,6,0,6,8,3922 

1390 DATA 0,0,0,0,6,0,255,255,224,2,22 

7,2,8,29,34,29,1152 



Listing 2. 
BASIC listing 

m 108 REM **» M-Mindows vl . 1 Deno 1 4HH( 

FO 118 W0PEN=7459:WCL05E=7826 

BF 128 FILL=7625:NUMBER=8045 

GS 130 POKE NUMBER, 0:POKE FILL, 128 

SR 140 DIM TEXT$C38) :POKE 712, PEEK t710J : P 

OKE 752,1:? •■H";:LI5T 318,516 
NF 158 REM C CTITLEl 1 



PAGE 16 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



IM 160 RESTORE : PX=2:PY=1 : 5X=36 ! 5Y=5 : BORD 

ER=l:GOSUB 460:P0SITI0N PX+8, PY+2 : G05U 

B 500 
TO 170 PX=2:PY=7:SK=36:5V=12:B0RI>ER=l:G0S 

UB 460:P05ITI0N PX+13, PY+1 : G05UB 500 
CF 180 REM [[FEATURES]] 
FM 190 FOR X=3 TO 5:P0SITI0N PX+3,PY+X:G0 

SUB 50O:NEXT X 
AL 200 REM [[VARIOUS SIZES]] 
CY 210 POSITION PX+3,PY+6:G0SUB 500 
KU 220 FOR X=3 TO 7 : PX=X-2 : PY=10+X : SX=X : S 

Y=X : B0RDER=128 : GOSUB 460 : PX=42-X-X : GOS 

UB 460:NEXT X 
HB 230 FOR X=l TO 400: NEXT X : FOR X=l TO 1 

OiGOSUB 480:NEXT X 
Yft 240 REM [[MULTI COLOR]] 
ZF 250 PX=2:PY=7!P0SITI0N PX+3, PY+7 : GOSUB 

500 
HG 260 POKE FILL,0:PX=6:PY=16:SX=9:SY=5:B 

ORDER=l:GOSUB 460 
ZJ 270 POSITION PX+2,PY+2:G0SUB 500 
FR 280 POKE FILL, 128 : PX=25 : B0RDER=128 : GOS 

UB 460 
GC 290 POSITION PX+2, PY+2 : GOSUB 50O:FOR X 

=1 TO 400:NEXT X:G0SUB 480:GC5UB 480 
RU 300 REM [[BORDERS]] 
AC 310 PX=2:PY=7:P0SITI0N PX+3, PY+8 : GOSUB 

500 
KX 320 PX=2:PY=20:SX=36:SY=3:BORDER=O:GOS 

UB 460:POSITION PX-f 5, PY + 1 : GOSUB SOO 
U£ 330 BORDER=l:GOSUB 460:POSITION PX+5,P 

Y+l:GOSUB 500 
KS 340 B0RDER=128:G0SUB 460:P0SITI0N PX+5 

,PY+l:G0SUB 500 
ZL 350 FOR X=l TO 3:G0SUB 480:F0R Y=l TO 

100:NEXT Y:NEXT X 
NQ 360 REN [[PULL DONN MENU]] 
BM 370 PX=2:PY=7:P05ITI0N PX+3, PY+9 : GOSUB 

500 
fij 380 FOR Z=2 TO 36 STEP 9 
RS 390 SX=9:SY=l:B0RDER=0:F0R Y=19 TO 23 
YI 400 PX=Z:PY=Y:G05UB 460:NEXT YiPOSITIO 

N PX,21:G0SUB 500 
IN 410 FOR X=19 TO 23:G0SUB 480:NEXT X:NE 

XT Z 
MI 420 REM [[CLOSE ALL MINDONS]] 
KC 430 FOR X=l TO 400:NEXT X 
&P 440 FOR Y=l TO 2 : X=USR CMCLOSE) : FOR X=l 

TO 20O:NEXT XiNEXT Y:GOTO 160 
6P 450 REM [[OPEN NINDON]] 
&Y 460 MINDOM=USR{MOPEN,PX,PY,SX,SY,BORDE 

R} ! RETURN 
QH 470 REM [[CLOSE MINDOM] ] 
HT 480 MINDOM=USR CMCLOSE) : RETURN 
OL 490 REM [[DISPLAY TEXTS & MAIT] ] 
HC 500 READ TEKT$r? TEXT$ : POSITION 0,0:? 

"<^*";:FOR M-1 TO 300;NEXT M:RETURN 
MO 510 REM [ [TEXT]] 
MF 520 DATA 



M-Mindows Version l.lUFeatur 
-All Machine 1 



KM 530 DATA 



-Up to 255 Windows open at on 
ceHJ-SysteM Reset proofH-Hindows can be 
various sizes 



-Windows can be Multi-color^ 
Mhi ten-Borders are optionaiBMin'do 



w Without any border 



Mindow With nornal borderRMin 
dow with reverse borderH-PulI down nen 
usHPull Down 



T+jJJJ^Q 

Nil 560 D ATA IJIIlW>I.l'^ .K-<-«-<-«-ra. lJliiM>imn 4^«-«- 



QZ 540 D ATA 
lack 

XH 550 DATA 



Listing 3. 
BASIC listing 

REM «Hf M-MindOW VI. 1 DeMO 2 *** 

W0PEN=7459 : HCL0SE=7826 

POKE 8045,0:POKE 752,1:TRAP 120 

? "KHOM MANY HINDOMS DO YOU MANT" 

INPUT N:N=INT(ABSCN1} 

IF N=0 OR N>255 THEN 130 

POKE 752,1:? "ti"; :LIST 

FOR C=l TO N:POSITION 0,0:? "<•■*■■; 

5K=INTCRNDC0)»20)+4 

SY=IHTCRHDtO)*10)+4 

PX = INT (RND C0)»C39-SX) J +1 

PY^INT (RND C0)»C23-SY) ) +1 

Z=U5RCM0PEN,PX,PY,SX,SY,128J 

POSITION PX+l,PY+l:? C 

PR0G=PEEKC14)+256»PEEKtl5J 

IF PR0G+256>Z THEN 270 

NEXT C 

FOR C=l TO N:POSITION 0,0:? •■*•■»■■; 

Z=USR CMCLOSE} : NEXT C:GOTO 170 



(Assembiy iisting starts on next page) 



COMPUTERS • DISK DRIVES • PRINTERS 



DX 


100 


FO 


110 


TM 


120 


YY 


130 


HG 


140 


FE 


150 


PA 


160 


ID 


170 


GZ 


180 


GO 


190 


PY 


200 


LO 


210 


BS 


220 


YM 


230 


BQ 


240 


AG 


250 


DM 


260 


IE 


270 


VP 


280 



One of ATARI'S largest dealers says: 

WE LL MATCH 

ANY PRICE & GIVE 






U 



1^ 



SHIPPING! 
THAT'S RIGHT — SIDE-LINE 

Computer will match any 

advertised price in this issue and 

give you FREE shipping within 

continental U.S. 

Send your order with certified 

check or money order mentioning 

page number of advertised item 

— order shipped 24 hours. FULL 

exchange on DOA defects. 

SIDE-LINE Computer 

86 Ridgedale Avenue 

Cedar Knolls, NJ 07927 

(201) 455-7844 

FULL MANUFACTURERS WARRANTIES APPLY 
APO & FPO ADDRESSES ADD «5 HANDLING CHARGE, 



MODEMS • ACCESSORIES • MONITORS 



CIRCLE #110 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 17 



COMB 



Authorized Liquidator 




$49 



COMPUTER FURNITURE 

• Discontinued Contemporary Models. 

• Openwork Design with Rolled Edges. 

• Slate-Look Work Surface. OAK Frames. 

Functional Printer Table (Shown). 

• Roomy Work Surface Is 20%" W x 
2AVi" D. 

• Slotted Top for Smooth Paper Feed. 

• Size: 28" H x 23%" W x 2AVz" D. 

Mfr.Ust: '115.00 

Liquidation 
Priced At Only . . 

Item H- 1699-4963-01 3 Ship, handling: $9.00 

NOT SHOWN 
Computer Desic 

• Hutch is 7Ve" H X 31" W X 10" D. 

• Desk is 37" H x 31 " W x 23" D. 

Mfr.Ust: '121.00 $CQ 

Liquidation Price . . . ^^%^ 

Item H-1 699-4963-005 Ship, handling: $9.00 

Mobile Posture Chair 

• Fully Padded Brown Seat and 
Knee Rest 

• Chair Swivels. Rolls on Casters. 
Oak Base. Natural Oak Finish. 



$49 



IMfr.Ust: '110.00 

Liquidation Price . . . 

Item H-1699-8150-005 Ship, handling; $9.00 

Credit card customers can order by phone, 

24 hours a day, Hj^^^p ,y — >:^ flSpSifSSI 

7 days a week. vrSA (mo.»,c»« ; jj gglggj 



Toil-Free: 1-800-328-0609 

Sales outside the 48 contiguous states are subject to 
special conditions. Please call or write to inquire. 



C.O.M.B. Direct Marketing Corp. Item H-1699 

1405 Xenium Une N/ Minneapolis, MN 55441-4494 

Send the items indicated below. (Minnesota residents add 
6% sales tax. Sorry, no C.O.D. orders.) 

Send Computer Desk(8) Item H-1699-4963-005 at $59 

each plus $9 each for ship, handling. 

Send Printer Table(») Item H-1699-4963-013 at $49 

each plus $9 each for ship, handling. 

Send Posture Chair(8) Item H-1699-8150-005 at $49 

each plus $9 each for ship, handling. 

D My check or money order is enclosed. (No delays in 

processing orders paid by check). 
Charge: D VISA* D MasterCard^ D American Express® 

/ 



Acct. No 

PLEASE PRINT CLEARLY 



-Exp_ 



City _ 
State 



COM B C O M B C O M B 



PAGE 18 / NOVEMBER 1986 




M-WindOWS continued 



Listing 4. 
Assembly listing. 



■f»* n-NIHDOHB vl.l (*• 

«• (IDOO 
0O8INI - (OC 

SAvnsc - ess 

MINDOH > «CB 

STACK - eCD 

FRO • •»4 

NEHTOP • •02E9 

NEHLO - •02E7 

' LDA DOSINI f 

■TA REBET*-! | 

LOA DOSINI*! I 

STA RESET+a | 

JHP IMIT I 



SBC X.SIZE I 
STA PLVSACK | 

tEST.PISRT.HINDOH 

LDA NUnSER | NONE OPEN? 

•NE ANOTHER |N0 

LDA nCHTOP I RESET STACK 

STA STACK (TO ONE DVTE 

LDA nEHTOR«l | BEL OH HEHTOP 

STA STACK*! ■ 

JSR STACK. nlMUS | 



il 



MOTHER 



RESET 



JSR ePPPF 



LOA ••00 I SET Lonen at 

STA NENLO | (2000 

LDA ••20 I 

STA NEHLO-M i 

LDA •RESETti2SS |SET SYSTEM 

STA DOSIMI IRESET VECTOR 

LDA •RESET/296 iTO POINT TO OUR 

STA DOSINI*! (RESET ROUTINE 

RTS I 



INC NUMBER iNUMBER-**! 



LDV ••00 iSRAB DATA 
LDA (HINDOH>,V [UNDER HINDOM 
STA (BTACK>,V lAND PUT ON 
LDA OaSO I STACK, THEN 
STA (MINDOM),V |BLANK IT OUT 
JSR HINDOM. PLUS iHIMDOH''*! 
JSR STACK. MINUS |STACK-— I 
DEC X. COUNTER | X . COUNTER-'- ! 
LDA X. COUNTER (LAST COLUMN? 
BNE SAVE. DATA |M0 

DEC V. COUNTER | V. COUNTER"-! 
LDA V. COUNTER iLAST R0H7 
BCa 8AVE.PARMB |VEB 

CLC (CALCULATE 

LDA MINDOH (MINDOH ADDRESS 
ADC FLYBACK (OF THE NEXT 
STA HINDOM (LINE OOHM 
LDA HINDOM*! ( 
ADC BVOO ( 



(OPEN HINDOM 
(«(((»((((«• 

PLA 

PLA 

PLA 

STA X.POS 

PLA 

PLA 

STA Y.POS 

PLA 

PLA 



STA HINDOM*! 

: ; : i re 

STA X. COUNTER ( 



LDA X.SIZE 



lESET X. COUNTER 



(POP • OF ARS 
(POP MI X-P08 
(POP LO X-POS 

(POP HI Y-POS 
[POP LO V-POS 

[POP HI X SIZE 
(POP LO X SIZE 



JHP SAVE. DATA ( 

&AVE. PARRS 

J8R MINDOH. MINUS 
LDA HINDOM [SAVE MINDOH 
STA < STACK >.V i ADDRESS OM 
JSR BTACK.HIMUB (STACK 
LDA HIMOOM*! ( 



STA (BTACK>,Y 
JSR STACK. H 



(mus ( 



STA X.SIZE I 

STA X, COUNTER [ 

PLA (POP HI V SIZE 

PLA (POP LO Y SIZE 

STA Y.SIZE ( 

STA Y. COUNTER ■ 

PLA (POP HI BORDER 

PLA [POP LO BORDER 

STA BFLAB ( 

AMD ••BO (MASK OFF THEN 

STA VIDEO (HI BIT 



C ALCUL ATE . M I NDOM . ADDRESS 

LDA Y.POS (MULT Y-POS » 40 

STA HINDOM ( 

LDA ••OO ( 

STA MIMDOM*! [ 

CLC ( *2 

ASL HINDOM ( 

ROL HINDOH*! ( 

' CLC (•4 

ASL HINDOH ( 
ROL HINDOH*! [ 

' CLC ( «S 

ASL HINDOH ( 
ROL HINDOH*! [ 

' LDA HINDOH (SAVE (B 

STA TEMP [ 
LDA HINDOM*! | 
STA TEMP*! ( 

CLC ((Id 

ASL HINDOH ( 
ROL HINDOH*! ( 

' CLC ( *32 

ASL HINDOH ( 
ROL HINDOH*! ( 

' CLC (ADD (S 

LDA HINDOH ( 
ADC TEMP [ 
STA HINDOH ( 
LDA HINDOM*! ( 
ADC TEMP*! I 
STA HINDOH*! [ 

* CLC 

LDA X.POS [ADD IT TO 
ADC HINDOH (THE HINDOH 
STA MIMDOM [ADDRESS 
LDA HINDOH*! | 
ADC ••OO I 
STA HINDOH*! ( 



CLC 




ADD 


SCREEN 


ADDR 


LDA 


HINDOH 


lAMD 


SAVE 11 


AS 


ADC 


8AVRSC 


■MIMDOM AND 




STA 


HINDOH 


1 BOR >ER 




STA 


BORDER 


( 






LDA 


HINDOM*! 








ADC 


8AVHSC*! 


( 






8TA 


HINDOH*! 








STA 


BORDER*! 


1 






ALCULATE . FLYBACK 








SEC 




( 






LDA 


••28 


( 







LDA FLYBACK (SAVE FLYBACK 
STA <STACK>.Y lON STACK 
JBR STACK. MINUS i 

' LOA Y.SIZE (SAVE Y SIZE 

STA (STACK). V (ON STACK 
JSR BTACK.HIMUB ( 

LDA X.SIZE [SAVE X SIZE 
STA (STACK), Y lOM STACK 
JSR STACK. niNUB ( 

LDA BFLAB iHAMT BORDER? 
BME M ANT. BORDER (YES 
JMP EXIT [NO 

HANT. BORDER 

LOX X.SIZE |HIDTH>X.BIZE-2 
DEX ( 

DEX [ 

BTX HIDTH I 

LDY Y.SIZE [LENSTH-Y.8IZE-2 

DEY ( 

DEV ( 

STY LENBTH ( 

LDA BORDER (RESET THE 
STA HINDOH [HINDOM POINTER 
LDA BORDER*! (TO THE TOP LEFT 
STA MIMDOM*! [CORNER 

BORDER. TOP 

LDA ••S! [TOP LEFT 

OR A VIDEO [TOBSLE REVERSE? 

LOY ••OO ( 

STA (MIMDOM), Y ( 

JBR ACROSS (DRAM ACROSS 

LDY X.SIZE ( 

DEY ( 

LDA ••4S (TOP RISHT 

ORA VIDEO (TOeSLE REVERSE? 

STA (MINDOH), Y [ 

JSR DOHN.LIME (MIMD0H"*40 
I 
BORDER. BIDE 

LDA ••rc I 

ORA VIDEO (TOBSLE REVERSE? 

LDY ••OO ( 

STA (HINDOM), Y ( 

LDY X.SIZE ( 

DEY ( 

STA (MIMDOM) .V ■ 

JBR DOHN.LIME |HIMDOM--*40 

DEC LENBTH ( 

LDA LENBTH [LAST LINE 

BNE BORDER. SIDE (MO 
I 
BORDER. BOTTOM 

LDA ••SA (BOTTOM LEFT 

ORA VIDEO (TOBSLE REVERSE? 

LDV ••OO [ 

STA (HINDOH), Y ( 

JBR ACROSS [ 

LDA ••43 [BOTTOM RISHT 

ORA VIDEO (TOBSLE REVERSE? 

LDY X.SIZE I 

DEY I 

STA (HIMOOM), Y ( 

JHP EXIT [ 
I 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



I«(»««««t(«(« 

ICLOBE MI NOON 
I 



PLA (POP • OP ARS 

LDA HUnSeM I ANY NINOONST 
•NC SET. IMPO I YES 
JNP EXIT |N0 



ET. IMPO 



JSn STACK. PLUS I 

DEC NUnSER ION LESS NINDOH 

LDY ••00 I 

LDA (STACK), V (POP > SIZE 

STA X.8IZC 1 

STA X. COUNTER | 



JSR STACK. PLUS ■ 
LOA (STACK), Y I POP 



Y SIZE 



STA Y.SIZE . 

STA V.COUNTEli | 

J8R STACK, PLUS l 

LOA ( STACK ),V |POP PLYSACK 

STA PLYSACK 



JSR STACK. PL^S 

LDA (STACK), Y |. _ . 

STA NINOOM»i lAOORESS 



LDA (STACK), Y iPOP HI NIHDOM 



JSR STACK. PLU& l 

LDA (STACK), Y iPOP LO MINDOM 

STA MINDOM i ADDRESS 

JSR STACK. PLUS | 



LDA ( STACK ),Y |POP DATA FROM 

STA (MINDOM), Y (STACK k REPLACE 

JSR STACK. PLUS l 

JSR MINDOM. niNUS 

DEC X. COUNTER | X,C0UNTER'«-1 

LDA X. COUNTER I LAST C0LUHN7 

SHE REPLACE | NO 

LDA X.SIZE I RESET X. COUNTER 

STA X. COUNTER I 

SEC I CALCULATE 

LDA MINOOH | MINDOM ADDRESS 

SSC FLYBACK |FOR THE LINE 

STA MINDOM (ABOVE 

LDA MINDOM*! | 



SBC 


••00 1 


STA 


MINDOM'»t 1 


DEC 


Y. COUNTER |Y. COUNTER' 


LDA 


Y. COUNTER ILAST ROM? 
REPLACE iHO 
STACK. MINUS | 


BNE 


JSR 


XIT 




LDA 


STACK (PASS BOTTOM 


STA 


FRO |0P SUPPER 


LDA 


STACK*! 1 ADDRESS BACK 


STA 


FRO*! |T0 USER 


RTS 


1 


INDOM.PLUS 




CLC 


|NIHDOM>«*I 


LOA 


MINDOM 1 


ADC 


••Ol 1 


STA 


MINOOH 1 


LDA 


NINDOH*! 1 


ADC 


••00 1 


STA 


MINDOM*! t 


RTS 


1 


TACK. PLUS 




CLC 


(STACK"*! 


LDA 


STACK ( 


ADC 


••01 ( 


STA 


STACK 1 


LDA 


STACK*! 1 


ADC 


••00 1 


STA 


STACK*! 1 


RTS 


1 


INDOH.niNUS 




SEC 


1 NINDOH— 1 


LOA 


MINDOM 1 


SBC 


••0! ( 


STA 


MINDOM ( 


LDA 


NINDOH*! ( 


SBC 


••00 ( 


STA 


HINDOH*! ( 


RTS 


1 


TACK. NINUS 




SEC 


(STACK—! 



LOA STACK 
SBC ••O! 
STA STACK 
LDA STACK*! 
SBC ••OO 
STA STACK*! 
RTS 



LDY ••O! 
LDX MIDTH 
LDA •B2 
OR A VIDEO 



I 
I 

(TOSBLE REVERSE? 



STA (MINDOM), Y (STORE IT 

IMY ( 

DEX (LAST ONE? 

BNE L! (NO 

RTS (YES 



CLC 

LOA HINDOH 

ADC ••rs 

STA MINDOM 
LDA HINDOH*! 



ADC SCOO ( 

STA MINOOH*! ( 

RTS ( 

.BYTE 0.0 
.BYTE O 
.BYTE O 
.BYTE O 
.BYTE O 
BYTE O 
BYTE O 



|MIN00N"*40 
I 
I 
I 
I 



TENP 

BFLAS 

Y.P08 

X.POS 

X.SIZE 

Y.SIZE 

X. COUNTER 

Y. COUNTER .BYTE O 

FLYBACK .BYTE O 

VIDEO .BYTE O 

BORDER .BYTE 0,0 

NUMBER .BYTE O 

MIDTH .BYTE O 

LENSTH .BYTE O 



520ST RGB & MONO CALL 

ST SINGLE SIDED DRIVE $99.95 

ST DOUBLE SIDED DRIVE 199.95 

20 MEG ST HARD DISK 649.95 

ST STATION 79.95 

1050 DISK DRIVE 129.95 

STAR NX-10 259.95 

ASTRA THE ONE' 249.95 



VIP PROFESSIONAL-COmplete (ST) 99.95 

DB MAN (ST) 79.95 

PERSONAL PASCAL (ST) 47.95 

N-visiON (Paintworks). . . . (ST) 39.95 

ART GALLERY I (ST) 18.95 

LEADER BOARD (ST) 24.95 

SILENT SERVICE (ST) 24.95 

SPIDERMAN (ST) 9.95 

UNIVERSE II (ST) 48.95 

HEX (ST) 24.95 

STAR FLEET I (XE or ST) 34.95 

-call for many other ST a XE products- 
BOUNTY BOB STRIKES BACK .. . 29.95 

STAR FLEET 1 34.95 

ALTERNATE REALITY 24.95 

UNIVERSE 59.95 

BOOK OF ADVENTURE GAMES I or II 17.95 

ATARI WRITER+ 34.95 

BASIC XE 45.95 

ATARI 301 MODEM 39.95 

AVATEX (300/1200) 79.95 

ANCHOR 520ST MODEM (300/1200). 139.95 
SUPRA-1200AT or ST MODEM. . .CALL 
UCALL (modem interface) . . 49.95 

MICROPRINT (interface) 27.95 

1150 (interface) 37.95 

UPRINT A16 (w/graphics) 69.95 

MINER 2049ER (w/anv order). 1.95 

-GUARANTEED LOWEST PRICES ■ CALL- 
SHIPPING: Software-free shipping on US. order? over S100 
otherwise S2.S0 US. S6.50 outside US. Hardware - depends 
on weight, call for quote charge cards +3%. CO.D. add 
S1.90 + 3%. 



COMPUTER GAMES + 

BOX 6144 
ORANGE. CA 92667 
(714) 639-8189 ' 



CIRCLE #111 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




¥?- 



"We shall create a computer 
that is as smart as the people 
who buy it.^' 



^ 



The real genius of the 
ATARI 1040ST™ is that the 
level of performance yo" 
want is already built in. 

Our competitors, how- 
ever, think they can sell you 
a computer with a puny 
memory, and then charge 
you a small fortune to 
expand it. 

We don't think that makes 
much sense. 

That's why the 1040ST of- 
fers you 1024 Kbytes of 
memory built in for the 
incredibly low price of just 
$999. That's less than $1 
per Kilobyte. 

About the only thing the 
competition offers is the 



'ATARI CORP. 



chance to spend big bucks to 
upgrade their systems to 
where the ST™ started in the 
first place. 

We're pretty sure which 
computer smart shoppers 
will buy. 

The ATARI 1040ST is at 
your computer retailer now. 



AATARI" 




© 1986, Atari Corp. 

ATARI, 1040ST, and ST arc TM's or reg. TM's of Atari Coip. 



CIRCLE #105 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ANALOG COIVIPUTING 



NOVEIVIBER 1986 / PAGE 19 



^^ " ^^^^i^ n SirffM!^ I I ^3oxE 

I «.^«^, ,-^w- I I 1 a>fe^lllL COMPUTER PKG. 

ATARI l30XE atari men "■■"»"'"•'"' .iMXE computer .Paim 

& 2 FREE Programs MI/%KI1U»U NX- 10 PRINTER • loso o^k onve • music paimer 

our choice Disk Drive with niy^ lu i-wii^ i ci» .1027 Printer • e.t. 

D.O.S. 2.5 included * • Atanwriter Plus .Tlmewise 

lav $1 ':1c Supra 11 50 Interface " ^•^""""^^-n— 

This is shipped price , I '700 3v5 



ATARI 1050 

Disl< Drive with 
D.O.S. 2.5 included 

'135 

This IS shipped price 
anywhere in Continental USA 



ATARI 850 
INTERFACE 

ONLY *1 15 



NX- 10 PRINTER 

& 
Supra 1 150 Interface 

^299 

This is shipped price 
anywhere in Continental USA 



This is shipped price 
anywhere in Continental USA 



GOLDSTAR 13" 
COLOR 
COMPOSITE WITH 
CABLES *1 34.95 

This is shipped price 
anywhere in Continental USA 



ATARI XM-301 

MODEM 

ONLY *39.95 



ATARI XMM8OI Printer 

with bulIMn ATARI Interface 



*199 



ANIMATION 

STATION 

GRAPHICS TABLET 

(Software will dump to printer) 

»49.95 



PRINTERS 

Panasonic 1091 239 

Panasonic 1080 215 

Silver Reed Call 

Juki Call 

Toshiba 321 529 

PRINTER BUFFERS 



PANASONIC 1091 & 
SUPRA 1 1 50 INTERFACE 

*299 

This is shippetJ price 
anywhere in Continental USA 



Epson Call 

Star NX-10 239 

StarNL-IO Call 

StarSG-I5 369 

StarSD-IC 339 

PRINTER INTERFACES 



StarSD-15 449 

Star SR-10 Call 

StarSR-15 Call 

StarNB-15 Call 



U-Buff 16K 79.95 

U-Buff 64K 99.95 



Supra 1150 59.95 

PR. Connection 64.95 



MODEMS 

Prometheus 1200 299 

Maxwell 1200 229 

Supra 1200 AT 169 

Atari XM-301 39.95 

Supra 300 AT 44.95 



SUPER DablSOft SPECIALS 

Alternate Reality/ Tiieatre Europe .... 21.95 Alternate Reality/ 

The City 23.99 Video Title Shop ... 21 .95 The Dungeon 23.99 

Gunslinger 18.95 221 Bal<er Street. . . . 18.95 The Mercenary 18.95 

•super special prices effective now through NOVEMBER 30, 1986 



ATARI 800 • 800 XL • 1200 XL • 130 XE SOFTWARE 



ACTMSION 

Designer Pencil 17.95 

Cross Country Race ... 17.95 

Hacker 17.95 

Mindshadow 17.95 

Music Studio 23.95 

Space Shuttle 17.95 

INFOCOM 

Deadline 29.95 

Enchanter 24.95 

Infidel 24 95 

Planetfall 24.95 

Sorcerer 24.95 

Starcross 29.95 

Suspended 27.95 

Witness 29 95 

Sea Stalker 24.95 

Cutthroats 24.95 

Suspect 27.95 

Hitchhrker 24.95 

Zork I 24.95 

ZorkllOf ill 27 95 

Wishbringer 27.95 

Spellbreaker 29.95 

Baliyhoo 27.95 

Fooblitsky 27 95 

Moonmist 23 95 

Leather Goddess 23 95 

OPTIMIZED 
SYSTEMS 

Basic XE 49.95 

l\MC65XL 47.95 

Action 47.95 

Basic XL 39 95 

All Tool Kits . ." 19 95 



BRODERBUNO 

Karateka 20.95 

Print Shop 28.95 

Bank Street Writer 34.95 

Print Shop Graphics 

L II or lii 19.95 

Prt Shop Companion . . 27.95 

MICROPROSE 

Silent Service 23.95 

Gunship 23.95 

Accrojet 23 95 

F-15 Strike Eagle 23 95 

Decision in Desert 27.95 

Kennedy Approach .... 23 95 
Crusade in Europe .... 27 95 

Conflict/Vietnam 27.95 

Top Gunner 19,95 

ELECTRONIC ARTS 

Archon 11.95 

Archon II 24,95 

Mule 11,95 

Realm/lmpossibili^ 19,95 

Murder/Zinderneuf . . . 19.95 
Music Construction .... 11,95 

Pinball Construction 11.95 

One on One 11,95 

Seven Cities of Gold .... 11,95 
Financial Cookbook ... 29 95 

Racing Destruaion II 95 

Super Boulderdash 11.95 

Chessmaster 2000 27 95 

Age of Adventure 11,95 

Touchdown Football. . . . 11.95 
Lords of Conquest .... 23.95 

Ogre 27.95 

Ultima 1 27.95 



synapse 

Syncalc 32.95 

Synfile 32.95 

Loderunner's Rescue . . . 20.95 

Syncaic Templates 16.95 

Essex 27.95 

Mindwheel 27.95 

Brimstone 27.95 

XLEIMTSOfTWARE 

Megafontll 17.95 

Page Designer 21.95 

Typesetter 24.95 

Megafiler 21.95 

Rubber Stamp 21.95 

Print Shop Interface . . . 19.95 

EST. 1982 



DATASOFT 

Alternate Reality 24.95 

Alt Reality/Dungeon . . 24.95 

Zorro 18.95 

Goonies 18.95 

Neverendlng Story .... 18 95 

Conan The Barbarian . . 18 95 

Bruce Lee 18.95 

Mind Pursuit 18.95 

Nibbler 18.95 

BATTERIES INCL. 

Home Pak 34.95 

Paper Clip/Spell 39.95 

B-Graph 34.95 



/* EST. 19BZ 

P.O. Box 17882, Milwaul<ee, Wl 53217 

ORDER LINES OPEN 

Mon-Fri. 11 a.m. -7 p.m. CST • Sat. 12 p.m. - 5 p.m. GST 

To Order Call Toll Free 

800-558-0003 

For Technical Info, Order 
Inquiries, or for Wise. Orders 

414-351-2007 



A/IISCELLAIMEOUS 

TAC IllJoystick 14.95 

TAC II Joystick 12,95 

Starfighter Joystick 9.95 

Silk Stik Joystick 7.95 

\Wco 3-Way Joystick . . . 21.95 

Flight Simulator 34.95 

Sargon 111 34.95 

Ramrod XL 69.95 

Universe 59.95 

Beachead 21.95 

Strip Poker 23.95 

Micro League Base 29.95 

Harcourt/BraceSAT .. 59.95 

Ultima II 39.95 

Ultima III 34.95 

Ultima IV 41.95 

Omnimon 69.95 

Island Caper 23 95 

Q^r\^r^\ Mgr./MLB 29.95 

Rght Night 19.95 

Hardball 19.95 

Raid Over Moscovf .... 23.95 

Beachead II 23 95 

Star Fleet I ,.. 34.95 

Miniature Golf 23.95 

Leader Board 27.95 

Battle Group 39,95 

Golden Pass 23 95 

Guild of Thieves 29.95 

The Pawn 29,95 

Tenth Frame 27.95 

Phantasie 27,95 

On Track Racing 17,95 

Star League Baseball .. . 17.95 
Starbowl Football 17.95 

ATARI IS a trademark of ATARI. INC 



SSI 

Carrier Force 37 95 

Combat Leader 24,95 

Cosmic Balance 24,95 

Cosmic Balance II 24,95 

Broadsides 24,95 

War in Russia 49.95 

50 Mission Crush 24.95 

Ouestron 32.95 

Rails West 24.95 

Computer Ambush .... 37,95 

Computer Baseball 24,95 

ReforgerSB 37.95 

Objective Kursk 24.95 

Breakthru/ Ardennes . . . 37.95 

Field of Fire 24.95 

Imperium Galatium .... 24.95 
Oper. Market Garden 32.95 

Kampfgruppe 37 95 

Comp, Quarterback . . . 24.95 
Colonial Conquest .... 24.95 
Gemstone Warrior .... 21.95 

Six Gun Shootout 24.95 

Battle of Antietam 32.95 

USAAF 37.95 

Nam 27 95 

Panzer Grenider 24,95 

Mech Brigade 39 95 

Wizard's Crovifli 27.95 

Gettysburg 39.95 

EPYX 

Rescue on Fractalus . . . 24.95 

The Eidolon 24.95 

Koronis Rift 24.95 

Ballblazer 24.95 

Summer Games 24.95 

World Karate 20,95 



No surcharge for MasterCard (JBI or Visa 



ORDERING INFORMATION: Please specilysystBin. For fast delivery send cashiers check or money order. Personal and company checks allow 14 business days to clear School PO s welcome C.O.D. charges are $3.00. In Continental USA 
include S3 00 for software order s.4"ii shipping for hardware, minimum S4 00 Master Card and Visa orders please include card #. expiration date and signature Wl residents please include 5".i sales tax HI AK.FPO.APO. Puerto Rico and 
Canadian orders, please add 5^.shippmg, minimum S5.1W. All other foreign orders add 15% shipping, minimum $10.00. All orders shipped outside the Continental US A are shipped first class insured U.S. mail. If foreign shipping charges exceed 
the minimum amount, you will be charged the additional amount to get your package to you quickly and sately All goods are new and include factory warranty. Due to our low prices all sales are final. All detective returns must have a return 
authorization number. Please call (414) 351-2007 to obtain an R.A # or your return will not be accepted Prices and availability subject to change without notice. 

CIRCLE #112 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







mvmm2(u 



ATARI 520 
SYSTEM PACKAGE 

'Including RGB or Monochrome Monitor, Mouse, Disk Drive, Basic, 
Logo, Neochrome, 1st Word, TOS on ROM, and RF Modulator 
CALL CALL 

MONOCHROME SYSTEM RGB/COLOR SYSTEM 



All ST System Packages are sold with a 



1/ ATARI 1 040 ST 
SYSTEM PACKAGE* 

'Including RGB or Monochrome Monitor, Mouse, Double-sided 
Disk Drive, Basic, Logo, Neochrome, 1st Word, TOS on ROM, and 
Built-in Power Supply 

CALL FOR CURRENT PRICE 



90 day yNSkrrRftly. 



SUPRA 

20 MEG 

3.5 INCH 

HARD DRIVE 

only 

^659 



ATARI SF 314 
DISK DRIVE 

Double sided/ 

1 Megabyte 

storage 

<199 



jomfMt(fthLlLt^ 



OKIMATE 20 

COLOR PRINTER & 

ATARI ST PLUG W PRINT 

$199 

This is a shipped price 
anywhere in Continental USA 



QMI ST 1200 

BAUD 

MODEM 

Direct connect 
with ST talk 

<159 



WE RECEIVE 
ST PRODUCTS 
ON A WEEKLY 
BASIS. IF YOU 

DONTSEEiT 
HERE . . . 

CALL 



SUPER DablSOft SPECIALS 

ALTERNATE REALITY— THE CITY .... 30.95 MERCENARY 24.95 

*SUPER SPECIAL PRICES EFFECTIVE NOW THROUGH NOVEMBER 30, 1986. 



ATARI 520 ST • ATARI 1040 ST SOFTWARE 



ABACUS 

Textpro 37,95 

Filepro 37 95 

Forth/MT 37.95 

Paintpro 37.95 

Textdesigner 37.95 

Assempro 37.95 

PC Board Designer . . . 299.95 
Abacus Books Call 

ST GRAPHICS 

Degas 27.95 

Degas Elite 52 95 

rj-Vision 27 95 

Easy Draw 99 95 

PC Board Desrgner . . . 299 95 

Paintworks 49.95 

Super Graphics 33.95 

New Tech Color Book 16.95 

INFOCOM ST 

Forever Voyaging 29.95 

Ballyhoo 27.95 

Cuthroats 27.95 

Deadline 34.95 

Enchanter 27.95 

Hitchlker 27.95 

Infidel 29.95 

Planetfall 27.95 

Sea Stalker 27.95 

Sorcerer 29.95 

Spelibreaker 34.95 

Starcross 34.95 

Suspect 2995 

Suspended 34.95 

MHshbringer 27.95 

Witness 27 95 

Zork I 27.95 

Zork II or III 29.95 

Trinity 27,95 

Moonmist 27,95 

Leather Goddess 27 95 

ST WORD 
PROCESSORS 

Final Word 94 95 

Paperclip Elite 64,95 

Regent Spell 31.95 

Habawnter 54.95 

Regent Word 11/ 

IGem-Basedl 64.95 

Wordwriter ST 52.95 

Thunder 27.95 



MICHTRON 

Alt 34.95 

BBS 34.95 

Business Tools 34 95 

Calendar 20 95 

Cornerman 34.95 

D.FT 34.95 

DOS Shell 27.95 

Echo 27.95 

Flipside 27.95 

Goldrunner 27.95 

Kissed 34.95 

Lands of Havoc 16.95 

M-Copy 54.95 

M-Disk 27.95 

Major Motion 27.95 

Mi-Term 34.95 

Michtron Utilities 39.95 

Mudpies 27.95 

Softspool 27.95 

Solitaire 27.95 

The Animator 27.95 

Time Bandits 27.95 

fVlighty Mail 34.95 

Miss'n Mouse (Mono) 27.95 

Easy Record 54 95 

Intro to Logo 34 95 

Personal Money Mgr . , 34 95 

Pinball Factor 27.95 

Football Wizard 27 95 

Financal Future 27 95 

Eight Ball 27 95 

ST LANGUAGES 

Personal Pascal 4995 

Personal Prolog 59,95 

Fast Basic 89.95 

Fast C Compiler 99.95 

Fast Fortran 199.95 

Henry's Fund, Basic 39.95 

Mark William's C 129.95 

Metacomco Pascal .... 74.95 

Macro Assembler 59.95 

Lattice C 99,95 

Fast Cotwl 199,95 

MCC Assembler 59,95 

Metacomco BCPL 109,95 

Cambridge Lisp 139,95 

Modula W 54,95 

HIPPOPOTAMUS 

Call for Items and prices 



ST BUSINESS 

VIP Professional 169 95 

VIP Ute 99.95 

SwiftcalcST 52.95 

Isgur Portfolio 129.95 

Synsoft General Ledger 44.95 

SBM Point of Sales 84.95 

Sierra One Write lea ) 69.95 
Financial Cooktxjok . . . 34.95 

DAC Payroll 34.95 

DAC Easy Accounting 49.95 

MaxJplan Call 

Sylvia Porter Vol. I 52.95 

Dollars and Sense 69.95 

Home Accountant .... 44 95 
BTS Spreadsheet 44.95 

CASIO 
KEYBOARDS 

CZ-IOI 279 

CZ-230S 369 

CZ-1000 499 

CZ-3000 749 

CZ-5000 899 

CZ-I 979 

All listed Casio 
products contain 
iMidi interfaces 

EST. 1982 



FUJI DISKETTES 

SS/DD3,5in, (lOPk)... 15.95 
DS/DD3,5in, (lOPk) .. 24,95 
NOTE Buy Fuji Diskenes at 
these low prices when added to 
any other order 

ST ACCESSORIES 

Rip n' File Il-Mlcro 19,95 

Dustcovers Call 

3.5 Disk Drive Clean Kit Call 




6 95 


RCA 6 Way 
Noise/Surge Prot, . . 

ST UTILITIES 


34,95 


Macrodesk 

Deskmaster 

ST Forth 


27,95 
27.95 
3195 










Abacus Books 

Time Link 


..Call 
34 95 


STMusicBox 

Middiplay 

Micro-Cookbook 

CZ Droid 


31.95 
34.95 
32 95 
74 95 


EZ Track 


49,95 



ST ADVENTURES 



P.O. Box 17882, Milwaukee, Wl 53217 

ORDER LINES OPEN 

Mon-Fri. 11 a.m. - 7 p.m. GST • Sat. 12 p.m. - 5 p.m. GST 

To Order Call Toil Free 

800-558-0003 

For Technical Info, Order 
Inquiries, or for Wise. Orders 

414-351-2007 



Ultima II 

Ultima III 

Farenhejt451 . . 
Treasure Island . 
King's Quest II . , 
King's Quest III . . 
Perry Mason .... 
Word Invaders . . 
Borrowed Time . . 

Hacker 

Hacker II 

9 Princes/Amber . 

Sundog 

MirKJshadow . . . 
Vfinnie The Pooh 
Black Cauldron . . 

Amazon 

Spiderman 

Fantastic Four . . . 
Apshaj Trik)gy. . . 

Universe II 

The Pawn 

Starquest 

Crimson Crown . 
Transylvannia . . . 
Sword of Kadash . 
Alternate Reality . 

OO-Topos 

Fantacide 

Coveted Mirror . . 
Golden Pass .... 
Guild of Thieves . 
Dungeon master . 

Tass Times 

Mercenary 

Autoduel 

Ogre 

STTELECOMM 

PC Intercom . 

ST Talk 

IS. Talk 

Home Pak . . . 



39.95 
39.95 
33.95 
27.95 
33.95 
3395 
33.95 
22 95 
3395 
29 95 

33 95 
33.95 
24.95 
33.95 
19 95 

27.95 
33.95 
16.95 
1695 
27.95 
4795 
29.95 
3395 
16.95 
16.95 
16.95 
33.95 
16.95 
33.95 
16.95 
29.95 
2995 
27.95 
33.95 
27.95 

34 95 
27.95 

. 84.95 
17.95 
39.95 
33.95 



ST PRINT UTILITIES 

Typesetter 24.95 

Rubber Stamp 24.95 

Printmaster 24,95 

Art Gallery I 19,95 

Art Gallery II 19,95 

Fontwriter 27 95 

Megafont ST 24 95 



ST DATABASES 

DB Man Call 

Zoomracks 5995 

Regent Base 

(Gem-Based) 64.95 

Data Manager ST 59.95 

DB Master One 39-95 

Zoomracks II 99 95 

ST ARCADE GAMES 

Hex 27 95 

Monkey Business 16 95 

Delta Patrol 1695 

Compubridge 19,95 

Bridge 4,0 20,95 

Winter Games 27 95 

Rogue 27.95 

Diablo 20.95 

Super Huey 27,95 

Phantasie 27,95 

Mean IS 29,95 

Leader Board 27,95 

Brattacus 33,95 

Donald Duck 20,95 

Silent Service 27,95 

Flight Simulator II 34 95 

Champ, Wrestling 27 95 

World Games 27.95 

Mastertype 27 95 

Video Vegas 23,95 

Blazing Paddles 27,95 

Chessmaster 2000 32,95 

Computer Baseball .... 27.95 

Strip Poker 27 95 

Super Huey 27,95 

Stargltder 29,95 

Alternate Reality Call 

Utile Comp People 34 95 

Smoothtalker Call 

Champ, Wrestling 27 95 

Gato 33.95 

F-15 Strike Eagle 27.95 

Mastertype 27.95 

Joust 20,95 

Chessmaster 2000 29,95 

Jet 34 95 

Tenth Frame 27 95 

Shanghai 29 95 

3-D Helicopter 33.95 

Micro League Baseball 39.95 
WWF Micro Wrestling 39,95 
Skyfox 32 95 



No surcharge for MasterCard j^l or Visa 



ORDERING INFORMATION: Ple,3se specify system. For fast delivery send cashiers check or money order Personal and company checks allow 14 business days [o clear School PO.s welcome C.O.D. charges are S3.00. In Continental U.S.A. include 
S3. 00 tor software orders. 4% shipping for haidwaie Minimum S4 00, MasterCard and Visa orders please include card #, expiration dale and signature Wl residents please include 5% sales lax HI, AK, FPO. APO, Puerto Rico and Canadian orders, please 
add 5% shipping, minimum S5.00. All other foreign orders add 15% shipping, minimum S 10.00. All orders shipped outside the Continental LI,SA. are shipped first class insured U.S. mail If foreign shipping charges exceed the minimum amount, you 
wilt De charged the additional amount to get your package 10 you quickly and safely All goods are new and include factory warranty Due to our low prices all sales are finaLAII defective returm must havearet^^ 
14141 351-2007 to obtain an R.A. # or your return will not be accepted Prices and availability subject to change without notice. 

CIRCLE #112 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Database 
Delphi 



News and updates about 
the ANALOG Computing 
Atari Users' Group on Delphi 



by Matthew J.W. Ratcliff 

The membership of the Atari SIG on 
Delphi has tripled in the two months since 
ANALOG Computing took over its spon- 
sorship. And nearly every time I log on, 
I get involved in an interesting conference. 

Dan Moore, author of PaperClip, is cur- 
rently developing PaperClip Elite for the 
ST. He's quite active in the forum and has 
been kind enough to ansvi^er a lot of tech- 
nical questions about software develop- 
ment on the ST. This month, we'll look at 
some of the new files available for down- 
loading, plus a couple of polls and some 
of the more interesting messages from the 
forum. 

Not all good article submissions can be 
published in our magazine — for many rea- 
sons. The program may be too long, or it 
may have a limited audience. Some of 
these programs, which ANALOG Comput- 
ing feels should be shared, are being put 
up in the Delphi database areas. The au- 
thors will be mentioned here — and paid 
for their work. 

This time, we have another modification 
for the immensely popular Home-made 
Translator (HMT) by Angelo Giambra, 
from issue 32. The latest update is a Font 
Changer, by Larry Nocella. This BASIC 
program, with some speedy assembly lan- 
guage USR routines, will load any font of 
your choice and write out to your HMT 
AUTORUN file. It gives you a custom font 
in your custom operating system, a real 
touch of class. 

Charles F. Johnson (username CFJ) , one 
of our most active "siggies" and author of 
G: (issue 35] and the Koala Slideshow Pro- 



gram (issue 40), has done it again. His 
newest 8-bit program is the Player/Missile 
Creator. This BASIC and assembly pro- 
gram enables you to edit two P/M graph- 
ics shapes simultaneously. The editor is 
sophisticated and easy to use. As you edit 
two players, you can see their combined 
results in developing a three-color player. 
As the two shapes are edited, side by side 
or overlaid, you can also see the actual 
P/M graphics simultaneously. Help and 
mini-DOS screens are readily accessible 
from this program, as well. The end restilts 
of your fancy players and missiles may be 
written to disk as BASIC DATA statements, 
.BYTE statements for MAC/65 or Atari As- 
sembler/Editor, or DB statements for the 
Atari Macro Assembler. 

In the Piracy Poll created by STEVE- 
GRIMM, 93 percent of those responding 
claimed that pirated software was not their 
primary source of programs. One echoed 
the sentiments of most: "I dislike pirating. 
It spoils it for the rest of us. I hate copy 
protection, and pirating is the cause of it." 
Most of the replies indicated that users pi- 
rated for the 8-bit (to some degree), but ab- 
solutely do not for their ST system. Many 
correctly fear that pirating software for the 
ST will kill its software market. 

One of our readers, TELEDATAAUST 
from Melbourne, Australia reported: "the 
ST is going strong down here. Recently, we 
had a PC show — the largest for the year — 
and one of the star attractions was the ST. 
There are about 500 or so STarians at the 
moment throughout the country, and it's 
growing!" Our SIG has had visitors from 
Germany and Canada, as well. 

I had hoped to have more messages for 
you from my EMAILbag, but they were all 



destroyed, due to my unfortunate lack of 
familiarity with Delphi . I thought I'd pass 
this caveat along to you. When reading 
messages in the forum, you can FILE the 
current message in your workspace, for 
downloading later if you like. Well , I was 
using FILE in EMAIL, since it's a valid 
command there. The problem is that, in 
EMAIL, your message is stored in a com- 
pressed format. You must reread it from 
EMAIL to get it uncompressed. You can 
download a filed piece of mail, but you 
won't make much sense out of it. To save 
your mail in a simple text file, you must 
EXTRACT it at the MAIL> prompt. This, 
and a few other inconsistencies in the Del- 
phi conmiand structure, take a little get- 
ting used to. 

In the forum, the topic of dealer support 
versus mass merchandiser and mail order 
sales came up. Atari seems to want to sup- 
port its specialty dealers, but also wants 
to sell many more machines through Toys 
'R' Us and other chains. The INSPECTOR, 
a software and hardware dealer, pointed 
out the problem from his view. . . 

"I believe you can see from the respon- 
ses that there are problems out in the com- 
puter world with dealers getting support. 
Atari is by no means the only one giving 
dealers problems, but if Atari could do bet- 
ter than others in this area, I believe it 
would greatly benefit (all Atari dealers). If 
you look at the problem from the dealer's 
standpoint, you can see pressure coming 
from the consimiers. Most people can't 
wait for long delays in the receipt of equip- 
ment or software. This puts immense pres- 
sure on the dealer to avoid the loss of a sale. 
What really irritates me is when a cus- 
tomer buys a piece of software or hardware 



PAGE 22 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



Software Discounters 

of AmeriCS open Saturday 



For Orders Only— 1-800-225-7638 
PA Orders— 1-800-223-7784 
Customer Service 412-361-5291 



Open Saturday ^■'^ 

• Free shipping on orders over SlOO 
continental USA 

• No surcharge for VISA/MasterCard 

• Your card is not charged until \^e s 



CALL 

FOR 

LOW 

PRICES 



$23 



$23 
S2S 
$25 
$25 

$19 
$19 
$29 

$33 



ABACUS BOOKS 

S Gem Prog, Re' 
ST Graphics & Sound 
ST Inlernals CALL 

ST Logo FOR 

ST Machine LOW 

Language PRICES 

ST Peeks & Pokes 
ST Tricks S Tips 
ABACUS SOFTWARE 
Assem/Pro ST 
Forth/MT ST 
PamI Pro ST 
Texl Designer ST 
Text Pro ST 
ACADEMY 
Typing Tutor ST 
ACCESS 
Beach Head 2 iDi 
Leader Board Golf ST 
Raid Over Moscow tDl 
Tenth Frame ST 
ACCOLADE 
Fighi Night (D) . 

Hardball (D) 

Mean tSGolf ST 
ACTIVISION 
Borrowed Time ST 
Great American Cross 

Country Road Race (D) $16 
Hacker (Dl . $16 

Hacker 2 ST $33 

Litllt- Computer 

People 520 ST $33 

Minnshadow ST $33 

Music Studio ST $39 

Pair' Works SI $44 

AMERICAN EDUCATIONAL 
COMPUTER 

Biology(D) 

French (D) ... 
Grammar (D) 
Science: Grades 3i<: iDi 
Science: Grades 5'*' iDi 
Science: Grades 7lt"D< 
SparshlDi 
ARTWORX 
Bridoe4 0(D) 
BridoeST 
Compubridge SI 
Ma List ST 
Pegoammon St 
Strip Poker (Dl 
Strij) Poker ST 
Female Data D'sl- ' 
Male Data Disk ^' 
Female Data Disk j 
BATTERIES INCLUDED 
B-G'aph(Dj 
DeuasST 
Deoas Elite ST 
HomePakST 

S Talk ST 



Ernie s Magic ShapesiR $7 
Fractions Aod/Suh' iD- $16 
Fractions Muil/Dii (D $16 
Math Mileage iR $7 

Movie Musica Madness iRi $7 



Mult/Div(D. 

S.H Hide N Seek iR. 

Timebouno'R 

CENTRAL POINT 

Copy 2 ST 

CLOSEOUTS 

Dragonriders n' Pern (Di 

Jumpman Jr (R. 

Miner 2049 eriR' 

PitstoplKDi 

Popeyfc(R' 

Puzzlepanii. 

DAVIDSON 

Math Blaster iD 

Spell IttDi 

Word Attack iD 



ID 



$16 
$7 
$7 



$9 
$9 
$7 
$9 
$9 
S9 

$33 

$33 
$33 



Star Glider ST $29 

FISHER PRICE 

Dance Fantasy (Rl 

Linking Logic (R) 

Logic Levels (R) 

Memory Manor (R) 

•Your choice— $6.88 ea. 

FTL 

Dungeonmaster ST . Call 

SundogST $25 

HIPPOPOTAMUS 

Backgammon ST $25 

Jokes & Quotes 

(not for Kids) ST $23 

HITECH EXPRESSIONS 

Card Ware (D( $7 

Heart Ware (D) $7 

Party Ware (D) $12 

Ware w/AII Supply Kit $12 

ICD 

PR Connection Call 



MICHTRON 

Bulletir. Board 

System 2 ST. $49 

Business Tools ST $33 

Calendar ST $19 

Corner Man ST $33 

DOS Shell ST $25 

Eight Ball Pool ST . $25 

Major Motion 520 ST . . $25 

MDiskST $25 

Mi-Term ST $33 

Mighty Mail ST $33 

Personal Money 

Manager ST $33 

Pro Football Wizard ST $25 

The Animator ST $25 

Time Bandit ST S25 

MICROLEAGUE 

Baseball (D) $25 

Box Score Stats (D) ... $16 
General Manager (Dl $25 



ORIGIN 

Ultima 'ST $39 

Ultima 4(0) $39 

PEACHTREE 

Acct Payables (Dl $39 

Acct Receivables (D). $39 
General Ledger (Dl . . $39 
* all 3 titles require 2 drives 
PENGUIN/POLARWARE 

Crimson Crown ST $14 

OoToposST $14 

Sword o( Kadash ST . $14 
The Coveted Mirror ST . $14 
Transylvania ST . $14 

PROFESSIONAL 
SOFTWARE 

Fleet System 2 WP w;70.000 
Word Spell Checker (D) . $33 
QUICKVIEW 
Zoom Racks ST $49 



$14 
$14 

$14 
$14 
$14 
$14 
$14 

$16 
$19 
$19 
$14 
$12 
$21 
$26 
$16 
$16 
$16 

$25 
$25 
$49 
$33 
$33 



Supra 300 AT Moaem 



Works or Atar 400. 800. 

XL una XE Connputers 

AutC' Answer/Auto Dial 

Direr" Coorier' 'o Phone 

Line 

incKrief At adapter' 

Powei Suppn 

90 Dav Warraniy 

Connects Direcliy to 

Computer 

|95 



List $49 

Maaness Price $34°° 

Sola tc The frst 35 customers 




Isgur Portfolio System ST$129 
Paperclip (D) . $39 

Paperclip w/Spe' 'SOXE $39 
Thunder ST . . $25 

Time Link ST $33 

BflODERBUND 

Breakers ST . . $29 

Karateka(D) $19 

Print Shop (Dl $26 

Print Shop Graphics 

Library #1. #2. #3 (Dl $16Ea. 
PS. Companion (Dl ... $23 
CBS 

Addition/Subt.(D| $16 

Or Seuss Puzzler (01 .... $7 
Decimals; Add/Subt (D) $16 
Decimals: Mult/Div(D) . $16 



ELECTRONIC ARTS 

Archor' ;' D 
Chessmasie 2000 iD' 
FmancT'- CririK-nol S^ 
Movie ^:..l•f• ( ■ 
Musk. Con-.- .Sr- D 
One-on-Oni ■() 
Pmbah Cor- - ^-^ U 
Bacma Dc, -c. "i Se- iDi 
Realm o- 

Impossih 'V '[> 
Seven C-- i- o r,oii- n 
Super Boiiirie riHSt- (D 
Touchdowr 'nri-fia: ,D' 
Prices foi.> low u 

adveitisen Call 

EPYX 
Champion shtf 

WreSlhngS $25 

KoronlsBill(Dl $19 

Rogue ST S2S 

Temple Apsha T-rogv(O) $23 
Temple Apsha 

Trilogy ST ... $25 

Winter Games SI $25 

World Champ Karate (Dl$19 

World Games ST . ..$25 

FIREBIRD 

The Pawn ST . . $29 



$49 



$25 
$23 



RamboXL $29 

FT ti $49 

US Doubter 

w'Sliar'a DOS 
INFOCOM 

BaliynoulDl 

Enchanter (Dj 
Hitchhiker's Guide 

to thr- Galaxy (Dl $23 

Infidel 'Dl $25 

Leather Goddesses (Dl $23 

Moonmist(D) $23 

Planettal;(Dl $23 

Sorcerer (Dl $25 

Spellbreaker(D) $29 

IrinityST $25 

Wishbringer(D) $23 

Zork 1 (Dl $23 

Zork2or3(Dl $25 

• All titles in stock for 
520 ST — Call for prices 
MASTERTRONIC 

Action Biker(Dl $7 

Elektraglide(d) $7 

Nin|a(Dl $7 

Speed King (Dl $7 

The Last V8(D| $7 

Vegas Poker & Jackpot (0) . $7 



1985 Team Dala Disk (Di $ .4 
MICROPROSE 
F15StrikeEagle(Dl $23 

Kennedy Approach (Di $'7 
Silent Service(Di $23 

Silent Service ST . $25 

MINDSCAPE 
Bank St. Music Writer (Dl $19 

BrataccusST $33 

Tink's Adventures (Dl $7 

Tinkas Mazes (D| $7 

Tonk in the Land 

o( Buddy Bols(Dl $7 

OMNITREND 

Universe (D) $59 

Universe 2 ST $49 

OSS 

Action (Rl $47' 

Action Tool Kit (D) $19 

Basic XE(R1 $47 

Basic XL (R) $37 

Basic XL Tool Kit (D) . . $19 

MAC65(R1 $47 

MAC 65 Tool Kil(Dl ... $19 
Personal Pascal ST .... $49 
Personal Prologue ST. . $49 
Writers Tool w/ 
Spell Checker (R) . . . $39 



REGENT 

Regen! Base ST $59 

Reqenr Word 

w/Spei.ST $33 

SIERRA 

Black Cauldrons' $26 

Donak: Ducks 

PlavgioundST Call 

Hint Books Call 

Kempelen Chess SI Call 

KingsOuest2ST $33 

OneWiite-Acct Rec ST $65 
One Wrile-Cash 

Disbursements St $65 

One Wrile 

General Ledger ST . $65 

Space Quest ST Call 

3-D Helicopter Simulator . Call 
Winnie the Pooh ST $19 

SPINNAKER 

Adventure Creator (R| ...$9 
Alt in Color Cave (Rl . . . . $9 

Alphabet Zoo (Rl $9 

Delta Drawing (Rl $9 

Pacemaker (R) $9 

Fraction Fever (R) $9 

Kids on Keys (R) $9 

Story Machine (Rl $9 



SSi 

Banaiiori Commander ID' $25 

Battle o- AntietamlDi $33 

Broadsides (Dl $25 

Colonial ConquesKDl $25 

Computer Baseball ST $25 

Fielool FirelDl $25 

Gemstone Warrior (Dl $23 

Gettysburg (Dl $37 

Kamptgruppe (Dl $37 

Mech Brigade (Dl $37 

NAM(D| $25 

PhantasielDI $25 

PhalasieST $25 

U.S A A F (D) $37 

War In Russia (Dl $49 

Wizards Crown (Dl $25 
SUBLOGIC 

Flight Simulator 2(Dl $32 

Flight Simulator ST Call 

F.S Scenery Disks Call 

Jel ST Call 

SYNAPSE 

SynCalclDl $33 

SynFilelDl $33 

TELLARIUM 

Amazon ST $33 

Fahienheii 461 ST $33 

Nine Princes in 

AmbPi ST $33 
TIMEWORKS 

Data Manager ST $59 

Switlcali ST . $59 
Sylvi'i Porlers Personal 

Fin Planner ST $59 

WnrdWriiprST $59 
UNICORN 

Decimal Dungeon SI $25 

Fraclinn Action ST $25 

MainW'^anlST $25 
UNISON WORLD 

An G.ilien ■ ST $19 

Ar' GaiKTi ,^S1 $19 

Pr.nl M.'-.'C ST $25 
WEEKLV READER 

Slickybc.r ABC ' iD' $19 
Slickybci' Numbpi'.lD' $19 

Stickybea- OppnsilpsID) $19 
XLENT 
Firs' Xlei 

Work: Processoi iDi $19 
Milnaluri' Gor 

Cons! SetlDi $19 

Pane Des'imenDi $19 

PS iiiierlacclDi $19 

Rubbei S-amp(D' $19 

Rubber S;. imp SI $25 

STMiiS'( Bo> $33 

Typesetter (D: $23 

Typeseiipr ST $25 
ACCESSORIES 
Ancboi VM 520 3CIO.T20G 

Baud Modem ST $139 

Astra Disk Drive Call 
Bonus SS DD . $5.99Bx 
Bonus DS DD $6.99Bx 

Bulk Disk- i"? . Call 

CompuServe Starter Kit $19 

Disk Drive Cleaners 'd $9 

Disk Case (Holds 50-5' -1 $9 

Epyx Joystick Call 

MPP300ST Modem w( 

Omega Terminal $49 

MPPttSOPrinterInt . $39 

Micropnn! Printer Inl $29 
Supra 20 meg ST 

Hard Disk Drive Call 

WicoBoss $12 

WicoBat Handle $17 

Wico Black Max $9 



P.O. BOX 111327— DEPT. AN — BLAWNOX, PA 15238 



•Please Read The Following Ordering Terms 8, Conditions Carefully Before Placing Your Order. Orders with cashiers check or money order ^^ PP«^ ™™2'^'«'^„^«'=°"=' * 
Company checks allow 3 weeks clearance. NO C O.D.'s! Shipping: Continental U.S.A.-Orders under $100 add $3: free shipping on orders over $100 AK, HI, FPO. APO-add $5 
onTll orders Canada & Puerto Rico-add $10 on all orders. Sorry, no other international orders accepted! PA residents add 6% sales tax on the total amount o order mcludmg 
Shipping charges"r,c^^ subject to change without notice. REASONS FOR CALLING CUSTOMER SERVICE-412.361.5291 (1) Status of order or back order (2) If any merchan. 
d?se purchased within 60 days from S.D. of A. is defective, please call for a return authorization number. Defective merchandise will be replaced with the same merchandise on- 
rNOCREDITSi After 60 days please refer to the manufacturers warranty included with the merchandise & return direcliy to the manufacturer Customer service will not ac 
cept collect calls or calls on S.D. of A.'s 800# lines! HOURS: Mon.Fri. 9AM.5:30PM; Sat. 10AM-4PM Eastern Time. CIRCLE #113 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



= BEST BUY ON 

SMALL QUANTITIES 

COLORED DISKS AS LOW AS BH EA. - FLOPPY DISKS AS LOW AS 49<|: EA. 



5'/4" 


Black Generic Bulk 


Colored Generic Bulk | 


BULK 


SS/DD 


DS/DD 


SS/DD 


DS/DD 


20-69 


.59 ea. 


.79 ea. 


.69 ea. 


.89 ea. 


70+ 


.49 ea. 


.69 ea. 


.59 ea. 


.79 ea. 



3V2" 


Sony 


Sony 


Bulk 


SS/DD 


DS/DD 


10-29 


1.69 ea. 


2.49 ea. 


30+ 


1.59 ea. 


2.29 ea. 



ATARI SOFTWARE - 8 BIT 

Star Raiders II 17 

Atariwriter Plus 39 

Learning Phone 19 

Proofreader 14 

Silent Butler 19 



ACCESS 

Beachhead II 
Raid over Moscow 



SYNAPSE 

Syn-File 
Syn-Calc 

X-LENT 

Typesetter 
Rubber Stamp 
Page Designer 
Megafont 
Word Processor 
P.S. Interface 
Miniature Golf 
Construction Set 



26 
26 



20 
20 



23 
17 
17 



ACCOLADE 

Hardball 
Fight Night 

ACTIVISION 

Music studio 
MIndshadow 
On-Track Racing 



BATTERIES INCLUDED 

Paperclip w/Spellpak 41 

Homepak 35 

BRODERBUNO 

Printshop 29 

Printshop Companion 26 
Printshop Graphics 

Library 1,2,3, (ea) 17 

DATASOFT 

Crosscheck 20 

Never Ending Story 20 

ELECTRONIC ARTS 

Racing Destruction Set 1 1 

Super Boulder Dash 1 1 

Chessmaster 2000 28 

Touchdown Football 1 1 

MICROPROSE 

Conflict in Vietnam 26 

Silent Service 23 

F-15 Strike Eagle 23 

Kennedy Approach 23 

OSS 

Action 49 

Action Tool Kit 19 

Basic XL 38 

Basic XL Tool Kit 19 

DOS XL 19 

Basic XE 49 

Mac 65 49 

Mac 65 Tool Kit 19 



33 
33 



23 
21 
21 
17 
21 
21 



STAR MICRONICS 

NX-10 
SG-15 
LV-1210 



269 
399 
189 



PANASONIC PRINTERS 

KX-1080 199 

KX-1091 239 

KX-3131 259 

KX-1092 319 

PRINTER INTERFACE CABLES 

Microprint 29 

1150 Parallel Int. 39 

Micro Stuffer 59 



PRINTER RIBBONS 

Gemini Printers 

(Black) 
Gemini Printers 

(Blue/Red/Purple/ 

Green/Brown) 
Epson (80 Series) BIk 
Epson (Color) 
Panasonic Printers 

(Black) 
Panasonic Printers 

(Color) 



10 



MONITORS 

ThompsonColorComp. 139 

Samsung Grn. /Amber 69 

Monitor Cable 7 

MODEMS 

Atari XM-301 39 

Supra 300 AT 39 
Avatex (300/1200 

Baud) 99 

CompuServe Starter 24 

Supra 300 ST 59 

Supra 1200 ST 149 

Haba1200 114 

ICD 

P:R: Connection 62 

US Doubler/Sparta 

DOS 49 

US Doubler without 

Sparta DOS 29 

R-Time 8 49 

Rambo XL 29 

Sparta DOS 

Construction Set 29 

Multi I/O Board 

(256K) 179 

UPGRADES/ACCESSORIES 

4 
12 
6 



Flip N- File 10 
Disk Bank/5 
Disk Coupler (Notch) 
Disk Cleaning Kit 

(5%") 
Disk Cleaning Kit 

(3'^") 
Dust Covers 
Happy Enhancement 
Monitor Stands 
Joysticks (Pair) 
Printer Stand 



15 

15 
Call 
139 
12 
13 
14 



ATARI 520 ST SOFTWARE 

CP/M Emulator 34 

Home Planetarium 24 

BATTERIES INCLUDED 

l/S Talk 53 

Degas 26 

Timelink 33 

Thunder 26 

HIPPOPOTAMUS 

Computer Almanac 23 

Joke & Quotes 23 

Disk Utilities 33 

Ramdisk 23 

Hippospell 27 

Backgammon 27 

Hippoword 59 

Hippoconcept 59 

Hippoplxel 27 

Hippovislon B & W 105 

MICHTRON 

Utilities 39 

M-Dlsk 26 

Mudpies 26 

Soft Spool 26 

Animator 26 

Calendar 19 

Mi-Term 33 

Cornerman 33 

Time Bandit 26 

Major Motion 26 

ANTIC 

Maps and Legends 27 

Macro Assembler 60 

Meta Pascal 75 

Lattice C 114 

A-Calc 45 

Cad-3D 38 

A-Ram 15 

Expert Opinion 75 

Flash 30 

OSS 

Personal Pascal 50 

UNISON WORLD 

Printmaster 26 

Art Gallery I 19 

Art Gallery II 19 

VIP TECHNOLOGIES 

VIP(Lotus1-2-3 

Type) 89 

XLENT 

Typesetter 25 

Rubber Stamp 25 

Music Box 32 

Megafont 25 

SHANNER PRODUCTS 

LCM-2000 Clock 33 

Macro-Manager 49 

Shanner Planner 29 

Easel 14 

Disc Directory 20 



3V2" 


Sony 


Sony 


Atari 


Box (5) 


SS/DD 


DS/DD 


DS/DD 


2-6 


11 Bx. 


16 Bx. 


14 Bx. 


7+ 


10 Bx. 


15 Bx. 


13 Bx. 



CALL FOR SOFTWARE: 520 ST Software 



Holmes & Duckworth 

SST Systems 

Ouickview 

Central Point 

Audio Light 

Haba 

Sierra 

Quantum Micro 

Philon 

Epyz 

Firebird 

Pryority 

Action 

Beckemeyer 

Omnitrends 

Telarium 



Mark of the Unicorn 

Infocom 

Actlvision 

Academy 

Dragon Group 

Mi-Graph 

TDI 

Electronic Arts 

Spinnaker 

SST 

Regent 

Quickview 

Unicorn 

Penguin/Polarware 

Microware 



CALL FOR PRICES: Atari 8-Bit 



Avalon Hill 

Epyz 

First Star 

Origin 

Sierra 

SSI 



Sub- Logic 

Micro-League 

Infocom 

Artworx 

Continental 



ATARI 520 ST HARDWARE: CALL 
Package #1 

Atari 520 ST Computer & SF 354 Disk Drive 
Package »2 

Atari 520 Computer, SF 354 Disk Drive and 
SC 124 Monochrome Montior 

Package #3 

Atari 520 ST Computer, SF 314 Disk Drive and 
SC 124 Color Monitor 

Package «4 

Atari 520 ST Computer, SF 354 Disk Drive and SC 
1224 Color Monitor 

Package #S 

Atari 520 ST Computer, SF 314 Disk Drive and 
SC 1224 Color Monitor 



CALL FOR PACKAGE PRICES 

SF 354 SS/DD Disk Drive Call 

SF 314 DS/DD Disk Drive $209 

SM 124 Monochrome Monitor Call 

SC 1224 Color Monitor $329 

SHD 204 20 MG Hard Disk Call 



Abacus Books for ST 



$16 



To order call TOLL FREE 

1 -800-824-7506 



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' No extra charge 

for MasterCard 

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ORDER LINE ONLY 



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For information, order inquires, or for Ohio orders (513) 435-6868 

Order lines Open 9:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Mon.-Fri.; 10 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. Sat. {Eastern Standard Time). Minimum $15 per order. C.O.D. (add $3.00). Please specify computer sys- 
tem. Call toll free number to verify prices and availability. Prices and availability are subject to change without notice. We ship C.O.D. to Continental U.S. addresses only! Please 
include 4% shipping on all Hardware orders (min. $4.00). Software and accessories add $3.00 shipping and handling in continental U.S. Actual freight will be charged outside 
U.S.toincludeCanada.Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and APO. Ohio residents add 6V2% sales tax. Canadian orders add 5% shipping, (min. $5.00). All other foreign orders, please 
add 15%shipping, (min. $10). For immediate delivery send cashier's check, money order or direct bank transfers. Personal and companychecks allow 3 weeks to clear. School 
purchase orders welcome. Due to our low prices, all sales are final. NO CREDITS. All defective returns must have a return authorization number. Please call (513) 435-6868 to 
obtain an RA# or your return will not be accepted for replacement or repair. FOR YOUR PROTECTION WE CHECK FOR CREDIT CARD FRAUD. We do not bill until we 
ship. 



CIRCLE #114 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Database 

Delphi continued 



at a mass merchandiser, then comes to the 
local dealer for support. We need money to 
survive. We don't charge for the help, and 
it takes time to help a lot of these people 
through their problems. I think you can see 
why a dealer fears competition from K-Mart 
or others. We lose sales, because they can 
undercut us — and we have to support their 
customers, because their salesmen or wom- 
en don't know a byte from a bite. All in all, 
I hope both machines (the ST and Amiga) 
eat Apple's and IBM's lunch." 

For all you 8-bit diehards out there: you'll 
find a new file up in the games database, 
called The Death of an Apple, submitted 
by CUBFANANDBUDMAN (now there's a 
username). This is a graphics and sound 
demo that's. . .well, killer.' It was written 
and placed in the public domain by Scott 
Emond. This duel to the death between 
Atari and Apple multicolor logos is a must. 

For you newcomers, Charles Bachand has 
been archiving groups of forum messages 
in the general interests database. Product 
reviews and computer show reports are ar- 
chived here, too. 

In the ST programs database, you'll find 
some new MIDI goodies, sent up by CAN- 
NONBALL. DFSCOTT has sent up a 
RESET-proof RAMdisk for the ST. 

That about covers the latest in the Atari 
Users' Group SIG on Delphi. I'm currently 
working on a serial story board. We'll be- 
gin a tale of adventure, let you read along 
and even let you post new chapters, if you 
like. I hope it's up and running by the time 
you read this. We have no formal confer- 
ences arranged just now. I'll try to make my- 
self available for conferencing on Sunday 
evenings and I'll post an announcement by 
Wednesday, regarding upcoming conference 
schedules. H 



Jk ACETERM 

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WithACEBO - Letter Perfect $39.95 + $2.50 P&H 

Compute Your Roots 

The Complete Geneology Program. Creates and 
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Discounts 1 1 



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CIRCLE #115 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE #126 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





Pi 



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'ATARI CORP. 



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AATARr 




© 1986, Atari Corp. 

ATARI and 1040ST are TMs or reg. TMs of Atari Corp. 



CIRCLE #105 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 25 



THIS MONTH: 

Near letter quality 
for the masses, 
remote controls 
and a 5^/4-inch 
drive for the ST. 



by Arthur Leyenberger 



Arthur Leyenberger is a human factors 
psychologist and free-lance writer Jiving in 
New Jersey. He's been an Atari enthusiast 
for four years and continues to be an Atari 
enthusiast. When not computing, he enjoys 
playing with robotic toys. 

CompuServe — 71266,46 
Deiphi — N/ANALOG 



Let me just finish wiring up these AB- 
619 condensers. There. Electronics Service, 
Unit No. 16, sure has a complete selection 
of components. Their catalog says: "com- 
ponents incorporating greater advances 
than hitherto known in the field of elec- 
tronics." Anyway, I hope I've got all these 
parts wired correctly. Maybe now I'll find 
out what an Interociter is. 

It's beginning to get chilly here. Makes 
me think about vacationing somewhere 
warm. Maybe I'll do Metaluna this year. 
Sometimes it's hard to concentrate on the 
work at hand. What was I saying . . .oh yes, 
welcome back to The End User. Let's get 
things rolling. 

It's truly amazing to see computer hard- 
ware prices fall as rapidly as they have in 
the last couple of years. Four years ago, an 
Atari 800 which had 16K of memory was 
$800.00. Three years ago, an Atari 800XL 
with 64K of memory went for $350.00. 
Two years ago, an 800XL set you back per- 
haps $200.00 — and now you can get one 
for $80.00. The same kinds of price reduc- 
tions have occurred with a lot of computer 
hardware. 

Take printers, for example (please). Four 
years ago, the most popular printer in my 
area was the Epson MX-80 with Graftrax 
(a dot-graphics enhancement). This printer 
could be had for only $500.00. Today you 
can pick up the equivalent printer, an Ep- 
son FX-85, for about $350.00. Not only has 
the price come down, but many features 
have been added to this — as well as other 
— printers. 

One of the more popular enhancements 



for dot-matrix printers is called near-letter- 
quality (NLQ) printing. Many of the mid- 
priced printers now come with this fea- 
ture, which allows the printer to simulate 
letter-quaUty output by making multiple 
passes at each Une. Rather than using the 
printer's normal font, NLQ is more precise- 
ly formed, to resemble characters produced 
by a typewriter. Text printed in NLQ mode 
looks quite good (although, if inspected 
closely, its dot heritage still shows). 

Unfortunately, those who already have 
a printer without NLQ may balk at spend- 
ing a few hundred dollars for another 
printer. For them, a new product from 
Carolina Engineering Laboratories (CEL, 
at 818 Tyvola Road, 109, Charlotte, NC 
28210 — (800) 222-9073) could be of in- 
terest. Called the StyleWriter, this acces- 
sory can produce NLQ printing with just 
about any printer (Epson and compatibles, 
C.Itoh and Okidata). Here's the scoop. 

StyleWriter is a black box connected be- 
tween the computer and either a serial or 
parallel interface printer. It receives the 
output of the computer, interprets it and 
produces the desired result automatical- 
ly. This is not magic — all special print 
commands to the StyleWriter are preced- 
ed by a backslash (\). All commands are 
one-letter abbreviations, such as \B for 
bold, \U for underlining, \I for inverse 
printing, etc. Your printer doesn't need to 
be able to underline or print boldface, for 
example, in order for StyleWriter to work. 

It also has a couple of clever, useful print 
enhancements not available in any other 
product I've seen. There's double underHn- 
ing, which, like regular underlining, can 
be done either continuously (including 
spaces) or just with words. Another fea- 



PAGE 26 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



The End User 



ture called highlighting gives text an in- 
teresting look by printing it over a slight- 
ly shaded background. 

StyleWriter is more than just a dumb 
black box. An 8085 microprocessor runs 
the whole show, which consists of a mini- 
mum 8K of RAM for buffering, software 
on ROM and up to six font ROM chips (at 
$13.00 each). Almost twenty different fonts 
are available, including Roman, Sans Serif, 
Courier, Century, Old English, and many 
more. 

Buffering allows the computer to send 
output as fast as it can to the buffer mem- 
ory, while the printer prints as fast as it 
can. Since printers normally print much 
more slowly than computers can send out- 
put, a buffer frees up the computer for oth- 
er tasks while the printer keeps on work- 
ing. Otherwise, the computer would be 
continually communicating with the print- 
er until all of the text was printed. Style- 
Writer's 8K buffer can be increased in size 
to 128K. This allows approximately 65 
average pages of text to be printed in- 
dependently. 

StyleWriter contains just three push- 
buttons (ON/OFF, NLQ ON/OFF and RE- 
SET) to clear the buffer. When ordering, 
you must specify your make and model of 
printer, and your three desired type fonts, 
which come with StyleWriter. The 8K 
buffer version lists for $198.00; 64K buff- 
er and 128K buffer models are available for 
$228.00 and $258.00, respectively. These 
prices aren't all that high, when you con- 
sider the cost of a printer buffer alone. 

The combination of buffering, command 
flexibility, speed of operation and low cost 
make StyleWriter a logical addition to your 
existing system. Best of all, it can be used 



with either an 8-bit or 16-bit Atari com- 
puter. Quality of construction is first-rate, 
as well. As long as you've a word proces- 
sor in which you can embed StyleWriter 
commands, you can produce near-letter- 
quality output inexpensively, in a number 
of fonts. 

A remote turn-on. 

I used to scoff at the idea of turning your 
lights on and off from a remote control. At 
the time, I thought it was pure decadence 
to do so. That was before I learned about 
the System X-10 from BSR, now simply 
called X-10 from X-10 USA, Inc., 185A 
LeGrand Avenue, Northvale, NJ 07647 — 
(201) 784-9700. 

The X-10 system is composed of mod- 
ules that control AC-operated devices — 
lights, appliances and other electrical 
equipment — and a controller used to turn 
them on and off. Since the controller sig- 
nals the modules via the AC lines, there's 
no need for special wiring, just one mod- 
ule for each device you want to control. 

Each module comes with switches for 
you to set its identity. One switch is la- 
beled House Code, and the other Unit 
Code. The two settings together make up 
the unique "name" of the individual X-10 
unit. When you press a button to, say, turn 
on the bedside lamp, the controller sends 
out orders by, in effect, calling out the 
name of the unit and telling it what to do. 

A number of products make up the X-10 
system. A manually operated remote con- 
trol can be used to "give orders" to your 
electrical devices immediately. You can 
have as many controllers as you want on 
your house's AC Unes. The X-10 Timer con- 
tains a clock and has the ability to store 
two on-times and two off-times for up to 



eight X-10 modules. In addition, each de- 
vice can be turned on or off every day at 
an exact time or at random times (plus or 
minus a half-hour from the time you en- 
ter). This is the so-called security feature, 
to give your house a "lived-in" look when 
you're away. 

Once the unit's been programmed, your 
coffeepot can start perking at 6:00 a.m. 
(assuming you filled it the night before), 
your bedside, porch and garage light come 
on at 6:30 a.m. — and be turned off after 
you leave. Later, the porch light may come 
on fifteen minutes before you arrive home, 
then turn off at 10:00 p.m. Thus, two com- 
plete on/off cycles would have been pro- 
grammed. 

The X-10 Timer is somewhat tedious to 
program. Further, although newer timers 
have a battery backup, most older ones 
don't — whenever power is interrupted, the 
Timer's memory is lost, requiring you to 
reprogram. Fortunately, X-10 has gone a 
step further and come out with the Power- 
house. 

This is a computer peripheral that re- 
places the Timer and works with a variety 
of computers, including the Atari ST. It can 
operate and change the daily schedule of 
lights, appliances and other electrical 
devices automatically, by remote control. 
Essentially, it's an X-10 Timer programmed 
by the computer — and it is, therefore, more 
convenient to use. 

The X-10 Powerhouse is attached to the 
RS-232 port of the ST. The unit is self- 
powered, and, once programmed, can be 
discoimected from the computer — freeing 
that port for other uses. Although X-10 only 
makes software for the IBM PC, Apple II 
and Commodore computers, MichTron, a 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 27 



^ The End User 



continued 



familiar name to many, has a new program 
called Echo ($40.00, from MichTron, Inc., 
576 S. Telegraph, Pontiac, MI 48953 — 
(313) 334-5700) created specifically for the 
X-10 Powerhouse, all of the X-10 products 
and Atari ST computers. 

Echo allows you to use the X-10 system 
to change the status of up to 256 electrical 
devices at a maximum of 128 different 
times in a week. For you VCR fans, that's 
a 7-day, 128-event system. At any time, up 
to sixteen devices can be turned on, turn- 
ed off, or dimmed — in one event. The sys- 
tem will do exactly what you tell it to, even 
if it's silly or dangerous (you could turn 
on — and probably burn up — an empty cof- 
feepot). 

Echo is a GEM application, so all entries 
are done via the mouse, and desktop ac- 
cessories are always available. To create a 
new event or to modify an existing one, 
you click on the event line of the control 
menu. Up pops a new screen where you 
can enter your assignments and save them 
in a file. This lets you store alternate tim- 
ing schedules on disk for use later (like 
when you're going on vacation). 

Once you've created your set of assign- 
ments and stored them, the computer can 
be turned off and the RS-232 connection 




k 



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TUNER 

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Send check or money order lor $24.95 (U.S.) 

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'ATARI la a trademtrk of Atari, Inc. 
(Ontario Residents add 7% sales tax.) 



CIRCLE #117 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



J 



removed. The X-10 Powerhouse will silent- 
ly control your home. A 9V battery protects 
the controller's memory in case of a pow- 
er outage. 

Lamp and appliance modules sell for 
$10.00 to $15.00 at Sears, Radio Shack, 
mail order and electronics specialty stores. 
In addition, replacement wall switches and 
outlets that look and work like ordinary 
fixtures, are available for under $15.00. The 
Clock Timer can be purchased for under 
$40.00, and a controller for less than 
$20.00. The Powerhouse peripheral retails 
for $60.00. 

I was skeptical of the entire X-10 con- 
cept before using it; I'm now a true be- 
liever The system really does serve many 
roles, including that of a security system. 
I've grown used to the X-10 as an "electron- 
ic servant," to wake me with fresh coffee 
and lighted rooms, while letting me sleep 
in on Saturdays. Outdoor lights come on 
at dusk and go off at dawn automatically, 
and it controls my water heater and air 
conditioner, to save energy (and money). 
The X-10 system makes my life easier Emd 
safer. 

Disk jockey. 
My twenty-year-old American Heritage 
Dictionary defines the word paradox as: 
"A seemingly contradictory statement that 
may nonetheless be true." I define Paradox 
Enterprises, Inc., as a new company that 
just happens to have an interesting, use- 
ful and (I guess) paradoxical product call- 
ed the Microliyte. 

The Microbyte-A is a 5V4-inch floppy 
disk drive for the Atari ST that comes (as 
we used to say in my slot-car racing days) 
ready-to-run. For $270.00, you get a rug- 
ged 360K-capacity drive housed in a metal 
case, an AC power adapter module, a S'A- 
inch and a 3y2-inch floppy disk. The ST 
disk cable is permanently attached to the 
drive on one end and has a drive connec- 
tor on the other. 

Setup is simple. The power adapter is 
plugged in and connected to the Micro- 
byte; the Microbyte is connected to an 
Atari ST drive; the system is turned on; 
and a file is copied from one of the sup- 
plied floppies to an AUTO folder on the 
disk in the A drive. In this configuration, 
the Microliyte driver program will rim 
whenever the system is booted. Alterna- 
tively, the driver program can be run at any 
time, in order to use the Microliyte. 

In addition to letting you store ST pro- 
grams and files on S'A-inch floppy disks, 
the Microliyte's main use is for file com- 
patibility with an IBM PC or clone. IBM 
PC floppy disks can be read directly by 
your ST when placed in the Microliyte 
drive. Of course, what we're talking about 
here IS ASCII file compatibility. Any AS- 
CII file created by an MS-DOS PC can be 
read by your ST — and vice versa. 

How does it all work? Very nicely, thank 
you. I was able to read ASCII text files 



created by my AT&T 6300 PC on the ST, 
and 1st Word files on the AT&T PC, with- 
out a hitch. In addition, I could read Lo- 
tus 1-2-3 data files directly by VIP Profies- 
sional (in WKS mode). 

My only (minor) complaint is that the ST 
drive cable plug doesn't precisely fit the 
jack on the ST drive. Once I got it in, 
everything worked. Since my unit was a 
prototype, you may not have this problem 
with the production drives. 

Paradox Enterprises was started less 
than a year ago. In addition to the Micro- 
byte-A (PC and PC-XT compatible), they 
have a Microbyte-B drive for the IBM PC- 
AT. It sells for $280.00 and stores 720K on 
a disk. Both drives are currently available. 

The company is also working on an IBM 
emulator for the ST. Called MS.EM, it is 
said to be near completion and should be 
available by the time you read this. It offers 
MS-DOS emulation through software — an 
ST cartridge. The emulator mimics a Her- 
cules Color Card and runs such programs 
as Lotus 1-2-3, Wordstar, dBase II and III, 
and others. It will sell for under $150.00, 
from Paradox Enterprises, Inc., 8444 E. 
19th Street, Tucson, AZ 85710. 

Another product, still in the design 
stage, is the ParaBox. It will allow the Atari 
ST to use IBM cards (extra serial ports, 
hard disk controllers, etc.) I'm told that the 
ParaBox will plug into the ST cartridge 
port and probably provide an extra car- ■ 
tridge port on the box itself. I 

If you need it, the Microbyte is a useful 
and well designed product. It was folks 
like these who launched the whole com- 
puter industry not very long ago. 

Mourning a friend. 

The premature death of anyone is diffi- 
cult to take, let alone understand. It's es- 
pecially saddening when that person is 
young — both physically and spiritually. 
Such is the case with Frank Pazel, who re- 
cently succumbed to cancer. 

Many of you knew Frank as the editor 
of the Jersey Atari Computer Group news- 
letter. In this capacity, he was the most 
dedicated person I've ever met. But his 
dedication and commitment to all aspects 
of his Ufe were what made him a special 
person. Whether it was setting up the best 
Atari computer lab in New Jersey (in the 
Mountain Lakes High School), turning an 
interest in magic into a part-time profes- 
sion, becoming a private pilot, or his ex- 
traordinary efforts on behalf of the JACG J 
— whatever Frank did, he did well. And ' 
he was one of those people who always did 
exactly what he said he would do, or more. 

Frank Pazel was a friend to all Atarians. 
The JACG, the greater Atari community 
and I will miss him. fl 



PAGE 28 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



3 



HARDWARE 




its ^ Pieces 



This month, our 
hardware utility 
series shows you 
how to make a iight pei 



by Lee S. BrilUant, M.D. 




"An Apple a day keeps the doctor away." Or how 
about "All things in moderation?" Well, too much 
of a good thing is bad for you. So, this'll be the last 
of the articles on the digital uses of the joystick ports. 
But, never fear, there's much more to come about 
Atari's hardware capabilities, including many sim- 
ple and useful projects. 

There are analog inputs to the joystick ports, as 
well as to the serial port, audio-video port, power 
plug and parallel ports. Actually, they're there for 
you to use — if you know how. 

This article will examine more ways to use the 
joystick digital inputs, including the trigger inputs. 
Next month, we'll conclude our discussion of the 
joysticks with the analog inputs. 

Back in the third article, we used an optical iso- 
lation device called an optoisolator, which is an LED 
encapsulated with a phototransistor, or a triac. So 
far, we've used the computer to drive the LED half, 
but we can turn things aroimd to sense the presence 
of outside voltages, or to recognize if a piece of 
equipment is turned on (see Figure 1). 



-•mtt- 



R(ohms)=100x V 




Top View 



TIL-111 or 4N26 or equivalent 
Figure 1. — Optoisolator voltage detectqit^ 



Actually, you can cut an isolator in half and use 
the phototransistor to detect the presence or absence 
of external light, but it's easier to buy a separate 
phototransistor and connect it to the input of the 
joystick port. A phototransistor is one which con- 
ducts current when light hits its exposed internal 
workings, and it acts like a switch attached to the 
joystick pin (see Figure 2). 




Pin 1 



8 



Radio Shack 276-145 
Figure 2. — Phototransistor input. 

When light strikes the phototransistor, it changes 
the state of the joystick pin from 1 to 0. In this setup, 
the light beam must be very strong. An intermedi- 
ate strength beam can create an ambiguous logic 
state as the input fluctuates. A better approach is 
shown in Figure 3 (next page). 

This uses a 74LS04 hex inverter, so called because 
it contains six inverter circuits in a single IC. An in- 
verter simply changes the logic of the input signal 
to the opposite state, so if the input is at logic 1, then 
the output is at logic — and the other way around. 
Be sure to use an LS series IC, not a standard 74 ser- 
ies. The LS chips use less power, so less light is 
needed to trigger the inverter to change state. 

Using this circuit gives you more reliable switch- 
ing plus both a 1 and a output (the A and B wires), 



NOVEMWR 1986 / PAGE 




Bits &> Pieces continued 



74LS04 




V 



I 



t 



-• + 5 Volts 



-O A 

1 

-• B 



-OA 



3 

-OB 



74LS04 and 3 Radio Shack 276-145S 
Figure 3. — Three channel optical event sensor. 

for either the presence or absence of Hght. Remember that 
a logic gate in the state is like a short circuit to the joy- 
stick pin. So, as wired, a beam of light on sensor 1 would 
cause a 1 output from the first inverter at IC pin 2 , which 
is chained to the input of inverter 6 at pin 13, and causes 
a output from pin 12. A small cardboard tube or rolled 
up black paper placed over the end of the sensor makes 
it more directional. 

Using the optical sensor. 

what use is this small circuit? Well, are there any Boy 
Scouts out there? If there are, then you're probably famil- 
iar with the Pinewood Derby. Each Scout is given a wood- 
en blank from which he sculpts a racing car. They then 
compete to see which car is the fastest. 

We built a three-lane ramp track, and installed a set of 
three sensors and lamps at the end of the track. The pro- 
gram sensed which car was first, second and third, and 
also measured the elapsed time of each run. The program 
even registered the contestants, assigned the heats, con- 
trolled the starting gate (a three-color starting pole), gener- 
ated the sound of three engines revving, and could also 
say, Drivers, start your engines.' How's that for an applica- 
tion of your "lowly" Atari? 

All this razzle-dazzle can be done through the joystick 
ports, using the simple controllers described in this and 
previous articles. The three-color starting pole used the 
high-powered light controller, and the voice was synthe- 
sized with Cheep Talk (issue 29) . The same photodetec- 
tor circuit used in the racetrack can also be used to build 
a light pen: read on. 

The operating system. 

Hardware is useless without software, so let's see how 
your Atari handles the hardware. The Apple, Commodore 
64, and the Atari all use the same microprocessor, have 
64K of memory, input/output systems, sound, graphics and 
more. What makes Atari so much better? First is the use 
of special hardware such as ANTIC and POKEY, but the 
main difference between otherwise similar computers is 
in their operating systems. 



The Atari OS is unique in its use of what are called 
"shadow registers". These are locations in RAM which 
hold a value used by the hardware, such as the screen color 
used by ANTIC. The OS reads these shadows and writes 
the contents to the hardware sixty times a second during 
the interval between the drawing of each video screen. 
Changing the shadow changes the hardware register in be- 
tween screens. 

Conversely, the content of some hardware registers is 
transferred to the RAM. Included in this group are the 
states of the joystick pins, which are transferred from the 
hardware at 54016 to RAM at 632 for plug 1, and 633 for 
plug 2 . BASIC reads these locations with the commands 
STICK(O) and STICK(l). The states of the joystick triggers 
are transferred from locations 53264-53267 to 644-647 and 
can be accessed by the BASIC STRIG(0-3) command. Note 
that on 400/800 computers there are four joysticks and trig- 
gers. On the newer lines there are only two, so we'll study 
only joystick ports 1 and 2. 

The transfer to shadow registers occurs every Veo sec- 
ond, or every 17 milliseconds (.017 seconds). This may 
seem fast to you, but consider that the response time of 
the phototransistor is measured in nanoseconds, (or mil- 
lionths of a millisecond) . It's easily possible for the sen- 
sor to respond to a break in the light beam so quickly that 
the joystick pin returns to its resting state before BASIC 
(or even the OS) can sense it. 

The 6502 processor, operating at top speed, can sam- 
ple the state of the joysticks every five machine cycles or 
every 2 .8 microseconds. Listing 1 is a BASIC/machine pro- 
gram that will work with either the three-channel optical 
sensor (using the A outputs) to detect breaks in three light 
beams, or with three pushbuttons attached to the joystick, 
to create the heart of the TV quiz game. This is the core 
of the program which was used for the Pinewood Derby. 
For demonstration, you can use a joystick simulating three 
optical events with the forward, backward and left mo- 
tions, to imitate three optical events or buttons pushed. 

Type and save the program, then run it and see how 
fast you can go through all three motions. No matter how 
I tried, I couldn't do any two motions in less than ^/eo 
second — so the program can discriminate order of events 
to 35 microseconds, but can only resolve time to Veo sec- 
ond. This timer is good for most applications, but ties up 
the processor and prevents it from doing anything else. 

Fortimately, there's another way to detect short events 
without tying up the processor: use the trigger inputs! Plug 
a joystick into plug 1 and try the following program: 
leO PRINT STRIGCOl :GOTO 100 

When you run this program, you should see a long line 

of Is imtil you press the trigger. Then you'll see Os, as long 

as you hold dawn the button. Now add the following lines 

and run again: 

50 GRftCTL=53Z77 
60 POKE GRaCTL,4 

As before, you'll see Is until you press the trigger, and 
then Os. But this time the Is won't come back once the trig- 
ger is released. This "latch" is controlled by bit 2 of 
GRACTL (a contraction of GRAphics ConTroL) at location 



PAGE 30 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



53277. A 1 in bit 2 (4 in decimal) sets the trigger latch, 
while a clears it. So, to reset the trigger register to 1, 
poke GRACTL with 0. If you hook the photo sensor into 
the trigger line (instead of the joystick pins) and set the 
trigger latch, then any optical event, no matter how short, 
will be captured and held for as long as you want. It will 
show up in both the hardware and software registers un- 
til you reset GRACTL. The only problem is that the trig- 
gers are not independent. They're either all latched or not, 
either all reset or set. This kind of "sample-and-hold" elec- 
tronics frees the main processor from having to constant- 
ly monitor the inputs to detect short events. 

Light pens. 

Besides the latch, one other thing happens whenever any 
trigger input is set to 0: the GTIA hardware notes where 
the electron beam is on the screen face, and records the 
column and row into hardware registers (which are then 
copied into RAM by the OS during the vertical blank). The 
hardware locations are 54284 for the column and 54285 
for the row, with the respective shadows being 564 and 
565. 

These column/row values are not like those in the graph- 
ics screens. The row values correspond to the scan lines 
on the screen and run from about 16 to 111, depending 
on how much of the picture is actually displayed by your 
TV. Similarly, the column value is in "color clocks" and 
goes from about 67 on the left to 227, then wraps aroimd 
to about 7 on the right. Again, the amount of picture which 
is actually displayed will vary these values, and the posi- 
tions are unaffected by the graphics mode. 

All we need to do is build one-third of the light sensor 
in Figvire 3, attach the B output to the trigger line (pin 6 
on any joystick) and presto — instant light pen! Use the 
parts listed in Figure 3 and assemble on a thin piece of 
perf board, or make a small printed circuit. I added a small 
pushbutton (Radio Shack 275-1571) which switches joy- 
stick pin 1 to make it compatible with other light pens. 
This little device works because the output is 1 when 
there's no light on the sensor As the electron beam cross- 
es the field of the phototransistor, it causes conduction and 
produces a input to the joystick trigger, which in turn 
causes the light pen values to be updated. Total cost is 
about $10.00. 1 don't pretend that this is a professional qual- 
ity light pen, but the circuitry is similar to another light 
pen I bought a couple years ago. 

Mine is very accurate on the row, but often scatters on 
the column position. You can use the pen to make menu 
selections, draw on the screen, or perform other inputs. 
Listing 2 is a short example of how to use the light pen. 
the luminance of the screen must be high to trigger the 
pen, usually 10 or 12. 

Finally. 

If you're an Atari diehard (as I am), you may still be 
using an 800 or 400. If you are, you're lucky enough to 
have four joysticks to use — comprising a full 16-bit in- 
put/output port with four latchable trigger lines. If you use 
a newer version, you only have two, but you also have a 
full 64 or 128K of memory available. Unfortunately, there 
are always tradeoffs. But, if you have an XL or XE and need 



Switch 



H 



R2 

'00° S500 

onms ^E «u_,c 



Pin 7 



1-4 



SCR 



8 



Radio Shack 276-1067 or any SCR 
Figure 4. — Latch circuit. 

more than two trigger lines, or need to have individually 
resetable latches, then you can use the following circuit 
on any joystick pin to create a pseudo-latch. 

This circuit uses the properties inherent in a Silicon 
Controlled Rectifier (SCR) to act as a latch. SCRs were 
originally designed for use in power control circuits, to 
chop up house current — such as in light dimmers. They 
allow current to flow only in one direction, but not until 
the gate is opened. Once current flow begins, it continues 
until the flow drops below a certain minimum level (simi- 
lar to a toilet tank starting with the flush, not stopping 
until the tank is empty). Flow stops when house current 
changes direction, every Veo second. The SCR will then 
not allow the backward flow; current drops to 0; and con- 
duction stops imtil the next gate trigger. 

In any case, momentarily closing the switch in Figure 
4 causes the SCR to start conducting. This acts like a short 
on the input line and registers a for that pin. Rl is needed 
to increase the current flow to exceed the minimum latch 
needs. If isolation is needed, use a Radio Shack 276,134 
optoisolator with triac output (a triac is two SCRs back 
to back, to allow current flow in both directions), as in 
Figure 1. To reset the latch, turn the joystick port around 
to output and drop the latched line to 0, thereby shorting 
the current flow aroimd the SCR and stopping conduction. 
Finally, return the port to input: 

5 REM SEE BITS 'M PIECES tt3 

10 PORTft=54016:PflCTL=54018:RESET=PEEKt 

PflCTL) :SET=RESET-4 

100 UALUE=PEEKCPORTA} :IF UALUE=25S THE 

N 100 

110 ? UALUE;CHR$(253) 

120 POKE P0CTL,SET:P0KE PORTA, 255: POKE 

POCTL, RESET 
130 REM SETS PORT A TO OUTPUT 
140 POKE PORTA, UALUE:REM LATCH OFF 
150 POKE PACTL,SET:POKE PORTA, 0:POKE P 
ACTL, RESET 

160 REM RETURNS PORTA TO INPUTS 
170 GOTO 100 

The last. . .finally. 

At last we come to the end. Next month, we'll look at 
analog or paddle inputs and, ultimately, construct a 
mouselike device to aid in text editing. Until next month: 
happy circuits, and keep tinkering. S 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / RAGE 31 



Astra is excited about the "NEW" Atari... 
That's right, we are excited, but not just 

about the new ST computers... 

We are supporting the 8 bit Atari line 

with four precision disk drives! 

The 1001 is where we start. This is where the other 
drive companies stop. The lOGl is a single or TRUE 
double density, single sided drive. It has a built in 

printer interface. The 1001 has a direct drive motor, 
not a belt driven one. 

ttttMKU 

You sag gou need more? You are looking for a drive 
that is single or double density and double sided too. 
You also want a built in printer interface and direct 
drive motor with precision formatting. Then this is... 

"The ONE" by Astra 
SUSSJK 

Perhaps you don't need to keep 360 kbytes of data 

on a single disk. You prefer the utility of a dual 

drive system. Word processing, spreadsheets, and 

data bases are all made more powerful and easier 

to use with a dual drive system. And we have... 

the "3001" by Astra 

Still not enough? You want brute storage capacity! 

You want a single or double density, single or double 

sided, dual drive system. You want... 

the "BIG D" by Astra 
7S0 kbytes of storage in one system! 



^*<FISTfiRSVSTeMS, INC. 

2500 South Fairview/Unit L 

Santa Ana, California 92704 (714) 549-2141 

CIRCLE #118 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




•At»-i IS a reg trdOemark ot Alan Carporalion 



O.K. we are also excited about 
the ST line. As proof we offer... 

20 megabyte hard drive 
1 megabyte 3.5" microfloppg 

All in one system! 



How i5 that for excitement? 
Add this system to your SBOST or 1040ST 

system and enjoy the power and utihty 

of a great computer with enough storage 

to tackle the job. 



Lighted front switch 

Lighted busy light 

Surge protected 

Muffin fan for super cooling 

5 1/r wide ^ 4 1/2'' high 

ir long 





HlDUSETEflPlECE 

mausB pad % 

bit Astrs 
hceps desh ana bdusc cleaner 

Duieterl lillSHJ8LE |Smiother| 
(It's a nouse) uBcluii 



Yep, 


it's 


coming soon! 


CEni 


roniCB 


pr 
far 


nier cablE 


ftst 


ra iDD 


1 * 


"ThE DflE" 




asD 


iniErfacE 








□ nly 


ash 


your d 


EBiEr..5i4 95 



IE " l/D CflfiLE 

CREdTEST THIHC SinCE THE PUSHUP m\ 

Chain ynur periphErals 
uiithpu+ hanging ihE cat 

heeps dEsh neaiEr 



5ugg, list 




Bits &^ Pieces continued 



Art Obstetrician-Gynecologist by day, Lee Brilliant, M.D. 
turns into a bug-eyed computer monster by night. He start- 
ed in 1983 with a TI 99/4A and rapidly moved to Atari. 
He's programmed on AppJe, Tl, Commodore and IBM, but 
prefers his old 800. He loves to tear computers apart to see 
bow they tick — using a scaJpeJ.' 



Listing 1. 
BASIC listing. 

P£ 10 DATA 104,169,6,162,0,157,8,6,232,22 

4,12,208,248,133,18,133,19,133,20,169, 

1,133,204,165,204 
tJ 20 DATA 201,4,240,68,173,0,211,73,255, 

41,7,240,247,133,203,162,0,160,0,165,2 

03,70,203,41,1 
IP 30 DATA 208,11,232,200,200,200,224,3,2 

08,240,76,35,6,189,0,6,208,232,165,204 

,230,204,157,0,6 
GL 40 DATA 232,165,20,153,3,6,200,165,19, 

153,3,6,200,165,18,153,3,6,200,76,68,6 

,96 
CR 50 FOR S=8 TO 97: READ D:P0KE 1548-1-5, D: 

NEXT S 
liJ 55 REM INSTALL MACHINE LANGUAGE TIMER 

IN PAGE 6 
tffi 60 ? CHR$tl25J;CHRSf253J;CHR$t253);" P 

RE55 TRIGGER TO START TIMER" 
KZ 70 IF STRIGC0J=1 THEN 70 
S» 80 ? CHR$C125);" TIMING 

» — II 

ISM 100 A = USRC15481 :REM START TIMING CYCLE 
. RETURN TO BASIC ONLY AFTER 3 EVENTS 
RECORDED. 
HZ 105 REM THE ORDER IS STORED IN 1536 TO 
1538, TIMES IN 3 BITE INCREMENTS FROM 
1539 TO 1547 
5ii 110 ? "IS"!? "CAR 1","CAR 2", "CAR 3" 
DM 120 ? PEEK(1536),PEEK(1537},PEEK(1538) 
US 130 ? " KXMMMKMK ELAPSED TIME XXKKKK 

4H(" 
TP 140 TIMEl=PEEKC1539J-f256KPEEKC1540J-f25 

6*PEEKCi541J 
Zt 150 TIME2 = PEEK(1542)■^256»PEEKC1543)+25 

6«PEEKtl544) 
LJ 160 TIME3=PEEKC1545J+256»PEEKtl546J+25 

6KPEEKC1547J 
HZ 170 ? TIME1,TIME2,TIME3 
W^ 180 REM TIME IS IN 60THS OF A SECOND 



Listing 2. 
BASIC listing. 

VX 10 REM KKXKKKKKKKKMKKKKMK 
9t 20 REM *LIGHT PEN » 
m 30 REM Kby Lee Brilliant^ 

UL 40 REM KMXXMKKKKKKKXKKKKK 
LH 80 P0RTA=54016:X0FFSET=80;Y0FFSET=18 
IH 84 REM ****** + + + + + + + + ***■*■*** + + + **+ + + + 
m 85 REM " XOFFSET AND YOFFSET 

MILL VARY MITH EACH LIGHTPEN 
AND TV COMBINATION 
X^ 86 REM ■l-l"t-f-l-f-t-l--l--f-f-l--i- + + -l--f-f-f-l--«--«-l--l--l--l--l"l--l--l- 
m 90 GRAPHICS 0:POKE 710,0:P0KE 709,14 

X4 100 ? "IS":? :?_" ■■":? " Hi l. gra 

PHics 3":? "_m^" 

£S 110 ? :? " ^1":? " ^M 2. GRAPHICS 

»E 120? :? " ^H":? " ■■ 3. GRAPHICS 

-711 m f II H^l" 

ZL 125'POKE 564,0:P0KE 565,0 

PS 130 IF PEEKtP0RTAJ=255 THEN 130 



m 140 X=PEEKC564) -XOFFSET :Y=PEEK {565) -YO 

FFSET 
rr 150 IF X<12 OR X>25 THEN 125 
IP 160 IF Y>7 AND Y<17 THEN GR=3 : MAX=40 : G 

OTO 300 
HK 170 IF Y>22 AND Y<32 THEN GR=5:MAX=80! 

GOTO 300 
Ha 180 IF Y>40 AND Y<50 THEN GR=7:MAX=16e 

:G0T0 300 
pa 190 GOTO 125 
6K 300 GRAPHICS GR:POKE 712,14:P0KE 708,0 

:diu=7-gr:color 1 

KX 310 IF PEEK CPORTAJ 0255 THEN 310 

JO 320 XLIM=MAX-l:YLIM=MAX/2-l:DIU=7-GR 

Sft 330 IF PEEK (PORTA) =255 THEN 330 

Da 340 X=PEEKC564) :Y=PEEK(565) 

T6 350 IF X<25 THEN X=X+228 

VT 360 X=X-80!Y=Y-18 

Se 370 IF NOT DIU THEN 390 

|4I> 380 X = X/DIU:Y = Y/Diy 

eV 390 IF X<0 THEN X=0 

QK 400 IF X>XLIM THEN X=XLIM 

ri 410 IF Y<0 THEN Y=0 

5T 420 IF Y>YLIM THEN Y=YLIM 

TB 430 PLOT X,Y 

Kti 440 GOTO 320 



Listing 3. 
Assembly listing. 

l»DERBY TIMER « 

Itby L«« Brllli«nt» 

P 

t SYSTEM EQUATES 
I 

HOLD - 203 
KOUNT - 204 
rORTft • S4016 

(START TIMER 

I 

»" »0600 
CAR .BYTE 0,0,0 
TIME .BYTE 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

PLA I NEEDED FOR U8R 

IDA »0 I CLEAR BUFFERS 

LD« #0 
CLEAR 3TA CAB, X 

INX 

CPX *12 

PNE CLEAR 

STA IS I ZERO CLOCK 

STfl 19 

STA ro 

LDA «l 

STA COUNT 

START LDA COUNT J ALL T EVENTS? 

CMP •« 

8E0 EXIT (YES, THEN QUIT 

SENSE LDA PORTA (DETECT EVENT 

EOR «235 (INVERT RESULTS 

AND 07 (LOWER NIBBLE 

BEO SENSE ( IF NO EVENTS, 

■ THEN LOOP 

STA HOLD (STORE RESULTS 

LDX »0 

LOV 110 

SELECT LDfi HOLD (TEST BITS 

LBR HOLD (ONE AT A TIME 

AND •! 

BNE ALREADY (EVENT OCCURRED 

NEXT INX (NO EVENT, 

I ADVANCE BUFFER 

INY 

INY 

INV 

END CPX «T ( ALL BITS TESTED-" 

BNE SELECT tNO, TRY A6AIN 

JMP START (YES START AGAIN 

ALREADY LDA CAR,X (EVENT RECORDED 

( ALREADY^ 

BNE SELECT (YES, KEEP TESTING 

RECORD LDA COUNT (NO, RECORD RESULT 

INC COUNT 

STA CAR.X (RECORD ORDER 

LDA 20 (RECORD TIME 
STA TIME.Y 
INV 

LDA 1? 
STA TIME.Y 
INY 

LDA 13 
STfl TIME.Y 
INY 

JMP END 
EXIT RTS (ALL DONE ^ 

• 



PAGE 34 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



REVIEW 






Comp-U-Temp 



APPLIED TECHNOLOGIES INC. 

Lyndon Way 

Kittery, ME 03904 

(207) 439-5074 

Version 1.0: 8 Channels, 2 Sensors, 

Software, Interface, Hard Copy 

$89.89 
Version 2.0: Same as above, plus data logging to disk 

$109.95 
Version 3.0: 16 Channels, 4 Sensors, 

and other features of version 2 

$179.95 



by Matthew J.W. Ratcliff 

Comp-U-Temp is a unique product with 
a special-purpose application. This hard- 
ware and software allows you to connect 
up to sixteen thermistors (electronic tem- 
perature sensors) to a single joystick port 
on your Atari. They can be monitored, dis- 
played and printed. In versions 2.0 and 3.0, 
data may be logged to disk, too. 

The sensors handle a range from -15 to 
+ 180 degrees Fahrenheit. This is an ex- 
pensive "educational tool" for the home, 
but may be used in small businesses, 
where temperatures are a concern (com- 
puter rooms, greenhouses and chemistry 
classrooms). 

The autoloading BASIC software first 
presents a menu for displaying tempera- 
tures, editing sensor information (names 
and alarm setpoints), or printing temper- 
ature data. Alarms may be set for high and 
low limits. You may change locations of 
sensors and alarm points, editing them af- 
ter the original list is completed. If a chan- 
nel is not defined, a default name of NOT 
ASSIGNED is set. All channels are moni- 
tored and displayed. 

You reboot the computer to get back to 
the main menu and select a temperature- 
monitoring function. You may display only, 
or display and log data (to printer, disk, or 
both). Before displaying data, select a sam- 
ple rate, from once every fifteen seconds 
to once every four hours. 

The display (version 2.0 was reviewed) 



is a simple graphics mode 2 text screen. 
Each sensor's identification is shown ad- 
jacent to its most recent reading. A flag 
character is printed next to the reading, if 
high- or low-limits were exceeded. If any 
temperatures are out of range, the screen 
changes color and an alarm sounds. You 
can send each sample to the printer. 
Should you have version 2.0 or 3.0 for disk 
logging, each sample can be "appended" 
to a specified data file. The program places 
a maximum limit of 150 data samples to- 
tal, if you're recording to disk. 

My major complaint is with the disk fil- 
ing. First, you must pay $20.00 extra for 
the disk logging version. The program disk 
may be copied for backup, but the BASIC 
programs are protected. They cannot be 
LISTed or LOADed; they are RUN only So, 
if you need disk logging, it will cost you 
$20.00. 

Worse, the program opens the data file 
for appending (rather than leaving it open, 
or using random access files). Each time 
another data point is to be recorded, ev- 
ery file sector (and its link) is read. When 
you're trying to record data at fixed 15- 
second intervals, you'll get anxious seeing 
data points being taken farther and farther 
apart as the file gets larger 

The limit of 150 data points is absurd, 
too. A good program would run a directo- 
ry on your data disk, diagnose free disk 
space (from the FREE SECTORS line), and 
tell you how many data points you can 
read. It could estimate total data acquisi- 



tion time by checking free disk space 
against your selected recording rate. 

The software is cumbersome, overall. I 
see no point in protecting BASIC code; it's 
useless without the hardware. Sometimes 
one must be able to get data quickly and 
accurately. Temperatures are typically sig- 
nals that vary slowly and do not require 
high sampling rates, but should be faster 
than every fifteen seconds. The sampling 
rate should be constant, too. The file ap- 
pend problem noted above is significant 
for faster sampling rates. 

Comp-U-Temp is supposed to have ap- 
proximately 1 degree resolution. I found 
my body temperature low by almost 3 
degrees — a minor point, but if you want 
high-accuracy data, you won't get it here 
(a limitation of the paddle digitizer of the 
Atari, not the hardware). 

To be fair, the Comp-U-Temp will give 
you access to temperature data in quanti- 
ty, at a reasonable price. The documenta- 
tion is brief and accurate, but provides no 
technical information on how the hard- 
ware works. I would like to see a less ex- 
pensive, 2-channel version, along with 
time and temperature software (indoor and 
outdoor). I can see this used in smaller 
businesses, where temperature must be 
monitored on an "occasional" basis. With 
programming examples on how to compute 
temperatures from these "nonlinear" 
devices, there might be more applications 
in classrooms, as well. H 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 35 



ATARI USERS' GROUPS 



San Luis Obispo Atari Computer Enthusiasts 
P.O. Box 4156, San Luis Obispo, CA 93403 
Meetings; BBS; newsletter: Slo-Pokes. 
President; David Mulvey. 

Santa Barbara Atari Computer Enthusiasts (SBACE) 
P.O. Box 3678, Santa Barbara, CA 93130 
Meetings; BBS; newsletter President; JimPatchell. 

Atari Computer Club of the Palm Beaches 

605 S.W. First Court, Boynton Beach, FL 33435 
Meetings; BBS; newsletter; The Pokey Press! 
President; Jeff Hasse. 

Mid Florida Atari Computer Club (MFACC) 

887 Benchwood Drive, Winter Springs, FL 32708 
Meetings; newsletter; MFACC Bulletin. 
President; Craig Kaplan. 

Fort Leanenworth Atari Group (FLAG) 

PO Box 3233; Ft. Leavenworth, KS 66027-0233 
Meetings; newsletter. President; Jeff Barker. 

Bluegrass Region Atari Computer Enthusiasts (BRACE) 
PO. Box 13063, Lexington, KY 40583 
Meetings; newsletter President; Dan Claudy 



Atarians of Maine User Group (A-MUG) 
Box 1088, Westbrook, ME 04092 
Meetings; BBS; newsletter President; Tom O'Brien. 

Kansas City Atari Computer Enthusiasts (KCACE) 
P.O. Box 5286, Kansas City MO 64112 
Meetings; newsletter. President; Larry Copenhaver 

Southern Nevada Atari Computer Club (SNACC) 
PO. Box 27617 Las Vegas, NV 89126 
Meetings; BBS; newsletter President; Terry Wiszt. 

National Atari Association (NAA) 

35 Pleasant Avenue, Begenfield, NJ 07621 
Meetings; BBS; newsletter 

Westmoreland Atari Computer Organization (WACO) 
230 Clairmont Street, North Huntington, PA 15642 
Meetings; newsletter; WACO Printout. 
President; Don Stoughton. 

Austin Atari Computer Enthusiasts (AACE) 
8207 Briarwood Lane, Austin, TX 78758 
Meetings; BBS; newsletter; Neuron. 
President; Dave Mann. 

Southside Tidewater Atari Technical Users' Society (StATUS) 
4836 Honeygrove Road, Virginia Beach, VA 23455 
Meetings; BBS; newsletter; Status. 
President; Gene Rodriguez. 



ATTENTION USERS' GROUPS 

If you would like your organization to be listed here, send information (and newsletter, if appropriate) to ANALOG 
Computing Group Listing, PO. Box 23, Worcester, MA 01603. ANALOG Computing is not responsible for errors. 



Infbcom introduces feurnewgani 

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"Leather Goddesses" is sure to 
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One's really warped. 

Then there's "Trinity."™ It 
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through a time warp into a mis- 
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One's a real circus. 

It has been said that the 
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Are the pages of your recipe books covered with your recipe ingredients? 

Fed up at guessing amounts when a recipe serves five but you want it for two? 

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Please write to us for tnlormation on all ol our products for Atari computers. 

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Every package includes an inteffral set of props 
to excite your semes ami eriMance the game. 

and save your hide from a per- 
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you'll need to stretch your 
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One's really haunting. 

Wrapping up this new quartet 
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So you'll die to replay it again 
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Panasonic 
KX-P1092 



PANASONIC INDUSTRIAL CO. 
One Panasonic Way 
Secaucus, NJ 07094 
(201) 348-7000 
$599.00 

by Pamela Rice Frank 

When I finally reached the decision that 
— in order to increase my writing produc- 
tivity and relieve my impatience — I had to 
have a faster printer, I followed the same 
steps which had led to the pm-chase of my 
Atari 800XL, 1050 drive, AtariWriter and 
1027 printer. . . I started reading everything 
I could find on the subject. A Consumer 
Reports article on computers had con- 
vinced me Atari was definitely the right 
computer choice. A similar article in the 
June 1985 edition of the same magazine 
listed the Panasonic KX-P1091 (the mod- 
el below the one reviewed here) as the dot- 
matrix printer with the best features and 
value for the price. 

Although I wanted a printer that would 
give me graphics capabilities, my major 
concern was the appearance of the print. 
As a writer, I want my manuscripts to go 
out with as much in their favor as possi- 
ble. I figured: the cleaner the copy, the bet- 
ter the chances. 

Once I saw the near-letter-quality [NLQ] 
print on the Panasonic, I knew this was 
the printer I had to have. In this mode, the 
print appearance is "true" letter-quality, not 
near-letter quality. The font created by this 
printer is hard to distinguish from that 
produced by a typewriter or daisy-wheel 
printer. 

I also found the Panasonic to be quiet, 
producing only a low-pitched hum while 
printing, rather than a shrill-sounding 
squeal. 

Now, the only problem was the speed. 




The 1091 is rated the same 120 characters 
per second (CPS) as the Star Gemini lOX, 
but takes almost twice as long to print a 
page in NLQ, rated in that mode at only 
19.3 CPS. 

Then I discovered the Panasonic KX- 
P1092. Listing at $599.00, it retails for 
about $100.00 more than the 1091. It boasts 
a draft speed of 180 CPS, 112 CPS propor- 
tional type and 33 CPS in NLQ mode. The 
KX-P1092 has the 10-inch carriage width, 
enough to accommodate business-sized 
envelopes — either individually or tractor- 
fed, since it includes those options. 

Fan-folded, tractor-fed paper is a snap 
to load. (That was one thing I was able to 
do without the manual.) The standard 
tractor is also adjustable, meaning that the 
printer can take such off-size items as ad- 
dress labels, without the optional adjust- 
able-width tractor some printers require. 

The printer does a fine job on friction- 
fed individual sheets, although dip switch 
2-3, the paper out detector, must be placed 
in the on (or inactive) position, in order 
to print the entire page. 

Setting up the KX-P1092 was a snap. 
The manual does an excellent job of ex- 
plaining this procedure. Even though I'm 
definitely a nontechie, I was able to get my 
printer up and running after a quick glance 
at the instructions. 

However, once it was up and running, 
I borrowed my friend's Star manual for 
help. Although the Panasonic manual has 
an index (something the Star manual lacks) 
the Star manual definitely offers an easier- 
to-understand format and explanations. 

The Panasonic KX-P1092 is a versatile 



IBM graphics and Epson-compatible print- 
er It supports 96 ASCII characters, 96 italic 
ASCII characters, 32 international charac- 
ters (eleven countries), 64 block graphics 
and 132 IBM-PC special characters. Along 
with the above-mentioned proportional 
printing, it also includes pica, elite, ital- 
ics, expanded, emphasized, (compressed) 
super/subscript, compressed, etc. Howev- 
er, these custom fonts can only be used in 
the draft mode. The KX-P1092 has a mem- 
brane keyboard front panel across the left 
top of the printer In addition to draft and 
NLQ modes, the standard italic, NLQ italic 
and proportional modes may also be selec- 
ted, by an easy flick-of-a-switch method. 

Since I hope to have an ST soon, I chose 
to use the dip-switch configuration neces- 
sary for the IBM mode, which is what the 
ST supports. With this configuration, I 
found the Epson RX-80 printer driver sup- 
ported all AtariWriter commands. (I have 
not yet tracked dov^Ti a KX-P1092 driver, 
so I'm unsure how that works with it.) 
Also, with this setup, when I chose the 
Panasonic option in Broderbund's The 
Print Shop, pictures were printed with an 
extra line feed. Pictures are fine when the 
AXIOM ST option is used. (Atually, these 
dip switches are very simple to change, 
since they're located just inside the front 
cover You don't even have to remove the 
ribbon cassette to reach them. I just hate 
messing around with that kind of thing. 

Another feature that sold me on the 
Panasonic KX-P1092 was the cassette rib- 
bon. I hate fumbling with ribbon spools. 
The Panasonic's seamless fabric ribbons 
are rated at a service life of 3-million 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 39 



S^Oue* 




PUTEZ CALC'TO WORK 
FOR YOU AND BENEFIT 
FROM THE RESULTS 



ttik File 



EZ CALC^^is a fully implemented GEM^"^ 
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use. Ttils is by far the most powerful 
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yet, all commands are mouse controlled 
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also uses less memory than other spread- 
sheets for the ST, leaving more room tor 
your data and formulas. If you've never 
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^ Built in sort routine 
^ Developed exclusively tor ttie Atari ST 
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^ Split-screen capabilities 
^ Note Pad 



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makeEZ CALC a fast, extremely easy- 
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EZ CALC includes an easy to use 10 
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EZ CALC lets you attach a personal 
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SHIPPING INFO: Minimum $2 90 Ground $4 75 Air Actual 
Cost depends on weight Call (503) 683-5361 lor information 
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the manufaftturer If any item purchased from us fails to per- 
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with another copy of the same program otherwise no soft- 
ware IS returnable 

. 2 Day Air Shipping AVAILABLE • 



CIRCLE #122 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Ei Review 



continued 



characters. However, they do cost more 
than the standard typewriter ribbons used 
by the Star — around $9.95. This figures 
out to about 4 cents per double-spaced 
typewritten page, around twice the cost of 
a printed page on the Star. 

The KX-P1092 is a 9-wire dot-matrix 
printer. Panasonic hsts the dot configura- 
tion at 12x18 in the NLQ mode. (I haven't 
counted; I'll take their word for it.) The 
Panasonic printers produce a squarer- 
shaped dot than others, which could ac- 
count for the clean, crisp appearance of its 
NLQ letters. 

The KX-P1092 is a bidirectional (in draft 
and NLQ modes) , logic-seeking printer. It 
prints unidirectionally in graphics mode. 

I'm more than pleased with my KX- 
P1092 — I love it! My 1027 has served me 
well for the last two years, doing the job 
when I wanted a printer to simply plug in 
and use, without contending with the in- 
terface, dip switches and control codes of 
third-party printers. But, if you're ready 



to expand your printing world. I can think 
of no better way to enter the fascinating 
world of printing versatility than with a 
Panasonic KX-P1092. fl 

Pamela Rice Frank is a free-lance writ- 



er, as well as a part-time dispatcher for the 
local police. Co-editor of her Atari user 
group's newsletter and editor for JR's Com- 
puter's newsletter, she's owned her 800XL 
for two and a half years. 



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CIRCLE #123 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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Winter Games 26 

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Personal Pascal 51 

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Flight Simulator 37 

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Learning Phone 26 

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Print Shop 27 

Companion 25 

Graphics Libraries IS 

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CIRCLE #124 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 41 



UTILITY 




M/L Editor 



For use in machine language entry 



by Cla3rton Walnum 



M/L Editor provides an easy method to en- 
ter our machine language listings. It won't al- 
low you to skip lines or enter bad data. For 
convenience, you may enter listings in mul- 
tiple sittings. When you're through typing a 
listing with M/L Editor, you'll have a com- 
plete, runnable object file on your disk. 

There is one hitch: it's for disk users only. 
My apologies to those with cassette systems. 

Listing 1 is M/L Editor's BASIC listing. 
Type it in and, when it's free of typos, save 
a copy to disk, then run it. 

On a first run, you'll be asked if you're 
starting a new listing or continuing from a 
previously saved point. Press S to start, or 
C to continue. 

You'll then be asked for a filename. If you're 
starting a new listing, type in the filename 
you want to save the program under, then 
press RETURN. If there's already a file by that 
name on the disk, you'll be asked if you wish 
to delete it. Press Y to delete the file, or N 
to enter a new filename. 

If you're continuing a file, type in the name 
you gave the file when you started it. If the 
program can't find the file, you'll get an er- 
ror message and be prompted for another file- 
name. Otherwise, M/L Editor will calculate 
where you left off, then go on to the data en- 
try screen. 

Each machine language program in ANA- 
LOG Computing is represented by a list of 
BASIC data statements. Every line contains 
16 bytes, plus a checksum. Only the numbers 
following the word DATA need be con- 
sidered. 

M/L Editor will display, at the top of the 
screen, the number of the Une you're current- 
ly working on. As you go through the line, 
you'll be prompted for each entry. Simply 
type the number and press RETURN. If you 
press RETURN without a number, the default 
is the last value entered. 

This feature provides a quick way to type 
in lines with repetitions of the same number. 
As an added convenience, the editor will not 
respond to the letter keys (except Q, for 
"quit"). You must either enter a number or 
press RETURN. 



When you finish a line, M/L Editor will 
compare the entries' checksum with the 
magazine's checksum. If they match, the 
screen will clear, and you may go on to the 
next line. 

If the checksums don't match, you'll hear 
a buzzing soimd. The screen will turn red, 
and the cursor will be placed back at the first 
byte of data. Compare the magazine listing 
byte by byte with your entries. If a number's 
correct, press RETURN. 

If you find an error, make the correction. 
When all data's valid, the screen will retinn 
to grey, and you'll be allowed begin the next 
line. 

Make sure you leave your disk in the drive 
while typing. The data is saved continuously. 

You may stop at any time (except when you 
have a red screen) by entering the letter Q for 
byte #1. The file will be closed, and the pro- 
gram will return you to BASIC. When you've 
completed a file, exit M/L Editor in the same 
way. 

When you've finished typing a program, 
the file you've created will be ready to run. 
In most cases, it should be loaded from DOS 
via the L option. Some programs may have 
special loading instructions; be sure to check 
the program's article. 

If you want the program to run automati- 
cally when you boot the disk, simply name 
the file AUTORUN.SYS (make sure you have 
DOS on the disk). 

That's M/L Editor. Use it in good health. H 



The two-letter checksum code preced- 
ing the line numbers here is not a part 
of the BASIC program. For fiirther in- 
formation, see the BASIC Editor II, in 
issue 47. 



Listing 1. 
BASIC listing. 



AZ 1« DIH BFC16),MSIO,*tai,B*Cl],F$C15) 

.FlSCJlS] 
LF 11 DIH HaD$C4) 
BN 2« LIMErieea:RETRN=lS9IBACKSP=126lCHKS 

UH=e:EDXT=B 
CO 31 GOSUB 45S:P0SITI0II It.BiT ■'Start «r 
Continue? ";:G0SU8 SBBiT CHR$Tai 



ZG 4B POflTION U.f.f "FILENAHE") lINPUT F 

SrPOKE 752,1!? ■■ " 
FE 51 IF LENCFJXI THEN POSITION 20,101? 

GOTO 40 

NF 60 IF FSC1,2J<>"D:" THEN F1$="»I"IF1*C 

3]=F$:G0T0 sa 

KL 70 FlS=Fi 

TN 00 IF CHRSC«>::"S" THEN 120 

FO 99 TRAP 430: OPEN tt2,4,e,Fl$:TRAP 110 

HO 100 FOR X=l TO 16: GET tt2,A:NEXT X:LINE 

=LINEtlO:GOTO 100 
HH 110 CLOSE tt2:0PEH lt2,),0,Fl$:G0T0 170 
VT 120 TRAP 160:0PEN n2.4,0,Fll :GOSUB 440 

: POSITION 10,10;? "FILE ALREADY EXISTS 

!!":P0KE 752,0 
ZU 130 POSITION 10,12:? "ERASE IT? "i:GOS 

UB 500: POKE 752,1:? CHR$(A] 
VH 140 IF CHR$IA>="N" OR CHRSCA)="n" THEN 

CLOSE n2:G0T0 30 
OG 150 IF CHR$(A)<>"V" AND CHR$(A)<>"y" T 

HEN 130 

BH 160 CLOSE tt2:0PEN il2,0,0,Fl$ 

IE 170 GOSUB 450: POSITION lt,l:? ■ liliMMil.'H 

aSSM: ";LINE:CHKSUN=o 
GH 100 L1=3:F0R X=l TO 16:P0SITI0N 13NCX< 

101tl2i(CX>Sl,Xt2:POXE 752,0:? "BYTE «" 

;X; ; : GOSUB 310 

XH ISO IF EDIT AND LrO THEN BYTE=BFCX> :G0 

TO 210 
FY 200 OYTErVALCNi) 
OZ 201 modS^nI 

eu 210 POSITION 22,X«2;? BYTE;" " 
YZ 220 DFCX]=BYTE:CHKSUH=CHKSUH«BYTE»X:IF 

CHKSUN>SSSS THEN CHKSUH=CHKSUH-10000 
HS 230 NEXT X:CHKSUH=CHKSUIHLINE:IF CHKSU 

M>S7SS THEN CHKSUH=CHKSUN-10000 
IC 240 POSITION 12,Xt2:P0KE 752,0;? "CHEC 

KSUN; "i :L1=4:G0SUB 310 
EH 250 IF EDIT AND L=0 THEN 270 
OH 260 C=VALIN$] 

SY 270 POSITION 22,X+2;? Ci" " 
IL 200 IF C=CHKSUH THEN 300 
DI 2S0 GOSUB 440 ;EDIT=1:CHKSUH=0: GOTO 180 
LH 300 FOR X=l TO 16;PUT 112, OF CX) ; NEXT X: 

LINE=LINEtlO;EDIT=0;GOTO 170 
FV 310 L=e 
LG 320 GOSUB 500: IF A=ASC("a") AND X=l AN 

D NOT EDIT THEN 420 
PO 330 IF AORETRN AND AOOACKSP AND IA<4 

OR A>57) THEN 320 
DX 331 IF A::RETRN AND NS="" THEN NS=HOD$ 
TD 335 IF A=RETRN AND L=0 AND X>1 THEN 35 


JR 340 IF CIA=RETRN AND NOT EDIT! OR A=B 

ACKSP] AND L=0 THEN 320 
DM 350 IF A=RETRN THEN POKE 752,1;? " ";R 

ETURN 
CG 360 IF AOBACKSP THEN 400 
SA 370 IF L>1 THEN N$=N$C1,L-1] ;GOTO 3S0 
AS 300 NS="" 

RE 3S0 ? CHR$CBACKSP);:L=L-1:G0T0 320 
BB 400 L=Ltl:IF L>L1 THEN A=RETRN:GOTO 35 


HX 410 N$IL)-CHR$fAJ :? CHR$(A) ; ;G0T0 320 
KN 420 GRAPHICS 0;END 
VT 430 GOSUB 440: POSITION 10,10;? "NO SUC 

H FILE!":F0R X=1 to 1000; NEXT X: CLOSE 

n2:G0T0 30 
FD 440 POKE 710, 48: SOUND 0,100, 12,0: FOR X 

=1 TO 50;NEXT X;S0UND 0,0,0,0;RETURN 
HY 450 GRAPHICS 23:P0KE 16,li2:P0KE 53774 

,112:P0KE 55S,0;P0KE 710,4 
XR 460 DL=PEEKC560>t2S6)tPEEK 1561) 44: POKE 

DL-l,7e;P0KE DL«2,6 
HN 470 FOR X=3 TO ]S STEP 2:P0KE DL4X,2:N 

EXT X: FOR X=4 TO 40 STEP 2; POKE DL4X,0 

ZH 400 POKE DL*41,65;P0KE DL442, PEEK 1568) 
:POKE DL443,PEEKC561);P0KE 07,8 

AC 4S0 POSITION 2,0:? "analog n1 editor"; 
POKE 55S,34;RETURN 

HZ 500 OPEN ltl,4,0,"K:"!GET ltl,A;CLOSE 111 
: RETURN 



PAGE 42 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



REVIEW 






P:R: Connection 



■CD INC. 

1220 Rock Street 

Rockford, IL 61101-1437 

(815) 968-2228 

$79.00 P:R: Connection 

$15.00 Centronics printer cable 

$15.00 RS232 modem cable 

by Matthew J.W. Ratcliff 

The P:R: Connection (we'll call it PRC 
hereafter) is the best interface produced for 
Atari computers since the 850. The Atari 
850 interface allowed you to connect a 
Centronics interface printer and up to four 
RS232 devices to your Atari. Most people 
didn't need all four — one or two maybe, 
but not four. 

The 850 interface has been scarce for the 
past couple of years. There have been af- 
fordable printer interfaces on the market 
for Ataris in the $40.00 to $80.00 price 
range, but there was no reliable R: inter- 
face for standard RS232 devices. 

A techie note: the PRC is remarkable. It 
contains two chips for buffering RS232 
lines. The rest of the box is made up of 
capacitors, resistors and one square cus- 
tom chip from Rockwell International. 
That little chip has a microprocessor, 
ROM, RAM and I/O ports for all the in- 
terface ports in the box. It's truly a techni- 
cal wonder! 

The PRC consists of a printer interface, 
P:, and two RS232 ports, Rl: and R2:. The 
first RS232 port supports all the necessary 
handshaking lines for complete modem 
control. The second does not include all 
the control lines, but is still quite usable. 
(Both implementations are virtually iden- 
tical to those of the 850.) The printer and 
modem cables available from ICD are solid- 
ly built, a comfortable length of about 6 
feet. 

The PRC box itself is small, about 5V4X 
3V4X1", so it won't take up much real es- 
tate on yo\ir desk. The serial bus cable and 
an extra bus connector for daisy chaining 



are on one side, with the three interfaces 
on the opposide side. The extra bus con- 
nector is a nice touch. Most other "afford- 
able interfaces" don't have an extra bus 
connector, to save on the production costs. 
Such devices become a "dead end" in your 
daisy chain. If you have more than one 
such dead-end device (XM301, 410 record- 
er, printer interface, etc.), cable juggling 
will become a real nuisance. 

You will find no power switch or pow- 
er supply for the PRC. Since it uses cus- 
tom low-power circuitry, it can get its 
power from your computer. This will pose 
a minor problem for 1200XL owners, since 
that computer has a "current limit" resis- 
tor on the 5-volt supply line. The manual 
explains (in appendix E) how to replace 
this resistor with a jvmiper. If you have a 
little soldering experience, this is easy to 
do yourself. Otherwise, a "hardware hack- 
er" friend — or just about any computer 
center — could do it for you with the in- 
formation provided in the manual. 

My first test of the PRC was to replace 
the old faithful 850. The 850's cables for 
the 825 printer, Hayes modem and 520ST 
connection were hooked to the PRC. I fired 
up the printer and talked to it, with no 
problems from any of my software. I hook- 
ed up the Gemini lOX and ran some Print 
Shop graphics dumps to it, without a 
hitch. I booted up my favorite version of 
Amodem Plus, and it worked the first time, 
every time. 

Next, I set up Rat*Term in the capture 
mode (a modem program I wrote ages ago 
and never finished, but it does support R2: 
and 9600 baud). I booted up the 520ST 
with ST-Term by Matthew Singer and up- 
loaded a text file. The PRC had no prob- 



lem accepting the data at 9600 baud. 

Just to get picky, I hooked up the 1020 
printer at the same time — it also responds 
as a P: device. With the 1020 off and the 
825 on, my LPRINT statements printed 
flawlessly. Next, I powered down the 825 
and put the 1020 on-Une. The LPRINT 
statements went to the 1020 with no prob- 
lem. I found that, with both printers on at 
the same time, only the 1020 would re- 
spond. 

There's also an internal switch for "auto 
Une feed," most printers can perform. This 
switch gives you that feature at the PRC, 
should you have an older printer that 
doesn't support it. This auto-line-feed fea- 
ture is a nice touch for ST owners who'll 
be swapping the same printer between the 
two systems. You can just set the auto-line- 
feed jumper in the PRC and forget about 
fussing with the line-feed dip switch on 
the printer itself. (A word to the wise: 
never swap your printer between two com- 
puters with any power on. I did this while 
testing the PRC — and zapped the Gemini 
and the ST. The Gemini was repaired in 
short order, but the chip to repair the ST 
was harder to find and replace. ) It would 
be a good idea to get a Centronics switch 
box if you plan to do this frequently. 

ICD has paid great attention to detail 
here, and has produced a device extreme- 
ly compatible to the 850. My only minor 
(very minor) complaint is that the switches, 
along with a power switch, should have 
been made available at the side of the box. 
For example, switching between the old 
faithful 825 printer and the Gemini on oc- 
casion, I need a convenient way to handle 
the auto-line-feed control. 

Some software may not be compatible 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 43 



R3 Review 



continued 



with the PRC, because its program makes 
direct calls to the SIO, bypassing the tradi- 
tional CIO entries. For software that does 
cause problems, ICD provides a file called 
PRC.SYS. It is an "850 translator" that 
should solve any problems (say, with the 
newer version of HomeTerm] . 

If you're thinking about stepping up 
from an 835 or 1030 to a standard inter- 
face 300/1200 (or 2400) modem, you'll be 
pleased with a couple other files on the 
disk provided by ICD. The immensely 
popular 1030 Express terminal program is 
provided as the new 850 Express. And 
CompuServe users will be happy to know 



ATARI® INDEX 



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seeing that in ANALOG last year ... or 
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Wastirngton Restdenis Add 8 1 % Sales Tax 



CIRCLE #125 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



THE SKUNK- The ultimate In disk backuo. 
This software creates unprotected backup 
copies of over 200 commercial titles. 
For personal archival use only. A must 
for all ATARI users. 

$19.99 

THE HACKERS TOOLKIT- For the serious 
hacker. A compilation of super utilities 
including sector editor, disassembler, 
boot disk to binary file, cartridge copy 
programs, vardlaler for 1030 & Hayes 
modems, many more. The finest package 
anywhere . 

S19.99 

THE SUPREME B.8.S.- For both 1030 i 
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Sead check or momay order to: 

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that TSCOPE has been provided on this 
disk as an updated RSCOPE. If you move 
up to a new modem when you get the PRC, 
you have excellent pubUc domain terminal 
software to put you on-line right away! 

The manual does an excellent job of 
describing the XIO commands which con- 
trol the R: ports. I found it much more 
readable than the old 850 interface manu- 
al. If you want to make your own interface 
cables, the documentation provides the 
data. For the advanced user, ICD even sup- 
phes PRC's SIO commands and a complete 
source Usting of its R: handler source code. 

Eons ago, the 850 interface provided the 



standard interfacing we needed for the 
8-bit Atari computers, at a pretty hefty 
price (I paid as much for the interface as 
I did for my printer). When the 850's price 
finally came down, it was virtually extinct. 
At a very, very affordable $69.95, the PRC 
gives you all the standard interfacing fea- 
tures you'll ever need. Buying standard in- 
terface devices such as Centronics printers 
and RS232 modems, your peripherals may 
then be used on other computers, such as 
the 520ST. The P:R: Connection is my pick 
for Atari product of the year. I highly 
recommend it if you still have any unmet 
interfacing needs. H 



Looks Like a Ferrari 
Drives Like a Rolls 
Parks Like a Beetle 

Style, Performance and Cost 
Effectiveness make the Indus GT Disk 
Drive the best buy for any Atari eight 
bit computer. Future Systems 
recently acquired exclusive, world-wide 
manufacturing and marketing rights for 
the Indus GT. The GTs exceptional 
standard features still include: 

• Single/Enhanced/Double Density 
Operation (90/127/180 KByte) 

• Faster ReadAVrite Speeds (Up to 4 
times faster) with Synchromesh 

• Digital Displays Showing Current 
Track Location, Drive Number and 
Density, Error Codes and Write 
Protect Status 

• Built-in Pneumatically Dampened, 
Smoked Plexi-glass Dust Cover 

• Whisper Quiet Operation 

• Includes DOS XL, Wordprocessor, 
Data Base Manager, Spread Sheet 
Software 

• One Year Warranty 

Future Systems has improved the 
basic GT package by adding: 

• GT Speller, a SpelUng Checker for 
the GT Estate Wordprocessor 

• RAM130, a RAM Disk Utility for 
Atari 130XE Owners 

• INITSYNC.COM, a utility which 
speeds up booting by turning on 
Synchromesh during boot up. 

And has made available a host of 
optional equipment and accessories: 




• RAM Charger - a 64 KB RAM 
Module which plugs into existing 
GT Disk Drives. For a suggested 
retail price of only $129.00 this 
module provides: 

Synchromesh 11 - a faster and 
more powerful version of 
Synchromesh, with RAM 
buffering functions on any Atari 8 
bit computer 

CP/M 2.2, a disk operating 
system which gives Atari Owners 
access to more than 10,000 new 
software titles (including worid 
classics like Word Star, dBase II, 
SuperCalc), extends the life and 
protects the investment you have 
made in Atari Hardware, provides 
a means where by data files (and 
diskettes) may be interchanged 
with IBM Computers, and more. 

• Extended Warranty - an additional 
year's warranty if your's has expired 

• Technical User Notes and ROM 
Source Code Documentation - a 
programming guide to the GT 

• Dust Covers - attractive, heavy-duty 
weatherproof nylon, additional 
protection against spills and dust 

• Head Cleaning Kits - Wet/Dry kit to 
clean the read/write head and keep 
your GT in top running condition 

For more information or the name of 
your closest dealer, contact: 

Future Systems, Inc. 

9811 Owensmouth Avenue, Suite 9 
Chats worth, California 91311 
(818) 407-1647 



CIRCLE #127 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PAGE 44 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



TMBJimRisr 

AfjtGJiZiUE 



NOVEMBER 1986 



(«<>00#***OOCCO«*.><^ 



ISSUE 8 



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THIS 

Alert boxes _ 
ST status rep^rf 



MM^BiSSBi* 



One good 



III 



3D GRAPHICS 




deserves another... 

and another... and another... 



and another... and another.. 



3D GRAPHICS 

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ST INTERNALS 

Essential guide to the inside 
information of the ST. 
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library. 450pp $19.95 



GEM Programmer's Ref. 

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MACHINE LANGUAGE 

Program in the fastest lang- 
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ST TRICKS & TIPS 

Fantastic collection of pro- 
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ST GRAPHICS & SOUND 

Detailed guide to graphics 
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Modula2. 2S0pp $19.95 



ST LOGO GUIDE 
Take control of your ST by 
learning ST LOGO—the easy 
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Topics indude: file handling, 
recursion- Hi Ibert & Sierpinski 
curves, 2D and 3D function 
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ST PEEKS & POKES 

Enhance your programs with 
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BASIC Training Quid* 
Thorough guide for learning 
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DetEuied programming funda- 
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Tutorial problenrw give hands 
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BASIC to C 

Move up from BASIC to C. If 

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ST Beginner's Guide 

Written for the firsthand ST 
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Illustrations, diagrams. Gloss- 
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The ATARI logo and ATARI ST are fc-ademarks of Atari Corp. 



Optional diskettes are available for $14.95 each. 
Call now for the name of the dealer nearest you. 
Or order directly using your MC, Visa or Amex 
card. Add $4.00 per order for shipping. Foreign 
orders add $10.00 per item. Call (616) 241-5510 
or write for your free catalog. Dealers inquires 
welcome- over 1400 dealers nationwide. 



Abacus 



^ff^»tttt 



ffl 



P.O. Box 7219 Dept.NBGrand Rapids, Ml 49510 
Phone 61 6/241-5510'Telex 709-101 'Fax 616/241-5021 



CIRCLE #128 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ffSTi 



TMJEjirAffisr 

OP/EfiArOfi'S 
MJIGjiZiNE 



LOG 



ISSUE 8 
NOVEMBER 1986 



f£Jin/ff£S 



f// 

ST DISK BONUS PROGRAM 

Stock Performance Tracker James Luczak 49ST 

Track up to 50 stocks, with as many as 250 quotes eacti. 

Status report D.F. Scott 51ST 

Atari's plans— for the ST line and beyond. 

Printer graphics tutor Matthew J.W. Ratcliff 66ST 

Bit-image graphics are within your grasp with this tutorial. 

Alert boxes from ST BASIC Matheu Spolin 82ST 

The how-tos for getting those message boxes into your programs. 



ff£mivs 



y/ 



Megamax C (Megamax, Inc.) 

and Mark Williams C (Mark wiiiiams co) . . . Douglas Weir 75ST 

Two impressive C compilers are examined and compared. 

Games for your ST David Plotkin 79ST 

Monkey Business and Delta Patrol (The Other Valley Software), Ma- 
jor Motion and Time Bandit (MichTron) are scrutinized. 

ST-Log readers should also note that there is a review of Infocom's Trinity at the end 
of Panalf striltes! in our regular pages. 



coiums 



V/ 

C-manship Clayton Walnum 57ST 

lan's Quest Ian Chadwick 61ST 

Ian is in the market for entertainment software— and finds it's no game. 

ST news 65ST 

ST index to advertisers 86ST 




ST-Log is normally printed as a center section in ANALOG Computing (ISSN 0744-9917), published monthly for $28 ($36 in Canada, $39 
foreign) per year by ANALOG 400/800 Corp., 565 Main St., Cherry Valley, MA 01611. No portion of this magazine may be reproduced 
in any form without written permission of the publisher. Contents copyright © 1986 ANALOG 400/800 Corp. 




Perfect Balance 



Now the scales are in your 
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Yes, please rush me 
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Product 



Qty. Price Total 



Dac-Easy Accounting 69.95 

Dac-Easy I^yroll 49.95 

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#446 



CIRCLE #129 ON READER SERVICE CARD 







tock 

Performance 
Tracker 



Track stock 
exchange activities 
like a pro— at iiome. 

BONUS DISK PROGRAM 



»»SWl««?- 



by James Luczak 



Stock Performance Tracker is an invest- 
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tivity of a stock over a period of time. 
Anyone can use Stock Performance Track- 
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Even if you've never looked at the finan- 
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SPT to follow activities on the stock ex- 
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The only requirement for using SPT is 
a newspaper that contains the stock ex- 
change listings. Standard S- Poor's Stock 
Guide is also handy, to gather information 
about the stocks you wish to follow. How- 
ever, the Stock Guide is not necessary for 
you to use SPT. 

Features. 

SPT tracks up to fifty stocks, for a max- 
imum of 250 quotes each. 



Closing prices are stored in revolving 
files. This means that stocks can be tracked 
for an indefinite period of time. After the 
250th entry, additional entries are stored 
at the start of the file, replacing the oldest 
quotes one at a time. 

A data sheet is produced for each stock 
tracked, showing if you made or lost mon- 
ey based on the last closing price. The data 
sheet also shows what the long-term and 
short-term taxes are, plus your profit after 
taxes. 

A stock performance chart is produced 
for each stock tracked. The chart displays 
the activity of the stock, the historical 
high, the historical low and the purchase 
price. If using a color monitor, the stock 
track will be green when above the break- 
even price, or red when below or equal to 
the break-even point. 

All data files are easily accessible. You 
can correct errors or adjust parameters in 



any file. Any information you can enter, 
you can edit. 

The data sheet, stock performance chart 
and a listing of all stocks being tracked can 
be output to a printer. 

A handy stock form can be output to a 
printer. The stock form can be used to jot 
down closing prices. 

SPT supports both color and mono- 
chrome monitors. I hope that you make a 
killing, fl 

Jim Luczak maintains and operates elec- 
tronic telephone switching and processing 
equipment. He's been writing computer 
programs since W79. He bought his first 
Atari in 1980, and has written programs 
in BASIC, C, LOGO, FORTH, Action!, and 
6502 assembly. He enjoys writing dedicat- 
ed database programs. 



ST- LOG 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 49ST 



IF YOU CAN FIND 

A BETTER ATARI ST PROGRAM 

WE'Ll BUY IT FOR YOU! 

Full GEM Interfacing, convenient Quick Keys, and many other unique features of our own. 






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© 1986 Timeworks, Inc. All rights reserved. 
" Offer expires 90 days after date of original purcliase. 
■" Registered trademarK of Atari Corp. 



For the Atari 520/1040 Computers.' 

Suggested Retail List Price: 
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Available now at your favorite 
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TO ORDER CALL: 
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*^!o1lc^ 



Status report 

ST SECTION 



Just how is Atari's future 
(and ttiat of the ST) 
shaping up? 



by D.F. Scott 



This article explores issues vital to the 
future of Atari Corp. Among our sources 
are: Michael Katz, Executive Vice-Presi- 
dent in Charge o/ Entertainment Electron- 
ics; Leonard TramieJ, Vice-President in 
Charge of Software: Shiraz Shiv;i, chief de- 
veloper of the "biitter" chip for the ST; and 
Jim Tittsler, developer of the ST's IBM PC- 
compatibiJity unit. Other sources have 
asked to remain con/identiaJ and not be 
directly quoted. 

The material here is the ST-oriented por- 
tion of a complete overview of Atari Corp.'s 
plans and possibilities. We suggest, to ob- 
tain the comprehensive picture, readers 
also refer to the 8-bit section of the report, 
on page 13. The future of Atari is depen- 
dent upon ail of its products. 

First things first . . . 
the TTs are coming. 

A new machine is in the works, and it's 
shrouded in misinformation. From Atari's 
own corporate heads, with the inconsisten- 
cies ironed out, here's what we're free to 
assume: the CPU of the TT (Thirty-two/ 
Thirty-two) will be the 68020, supporting 
a 68881 math co-processor. One obvious 
benefit from the use of these chips: full 
commimicability with the ST. The CPU 
will not be National Semiconductor's 
32000, as previously thought. 

The operating system will be UNIX V, 
the full multi-user version by AT&T. Cur- 
rent implementations of this multitasking 
system give programs or tasks an operat- 
ing priority alongside physical devices, as 
if each program were a "virtual device" in 



itself. They also feature exclusive access 
to a "C-shell," or a type of runtime pack- 
age which handles C-language routines in 
a manner more familiar to GEM users. 

The TT exists now. Prototype units are 
running in the labs. Several Atari sources 
are describing the TT as "VAX-in-a-box." 
It's obvious someone high up at Atari 
wants employees and the media to promote 
the product in that manner. 

One Atari source compares the TT to 
products from Apollo, a company based in 
Chelmsford, Massachusetts. Apollo now 
manufactures graphics workstations based 
on the 68020. These, like the TT, have a 2 
Mb RAM base. Using 68881 floating-point 
co-processors, Apollo's Domain worksta- 
tions are clocked at 16 MHz. A color raster 
display of 1280x1024 pixels chooses from 
a palette of 16 million colors in analog 
representation. It can plot 100,000 floating- 
point-transformed 3-D vectors per second, 
with an area-fill rate of 125-million pixels 
per second. We're no longer in the Ami- 
ga's ballpark. 

Atari's projected TT price tag is from 
$1,200.00 to $3,000.00. But Atari's market- 
ing department is stalling. Apollo is a rela- 
tively small company, with small sales 
figures, on the Atari scale. By one estimate, 
if Atari scores nearly as well with the TT 
as Apollo has with Domain, Atari could 
sell 50,000 TTs annually, an amount con- 
sidered "disastrous" by Atari standards. 

Atari is currently considering several fi- 
nal packages for the TT. The leading can- 
didate would use the ST as an input/output 
device, linked through the TT's Direct 
Memory Access port. It would then be, in 
a sense, an ST upgrade (yet smother one, 



as we shall see). But shipping the TT in 
this form alone may confine TT owners to 
a subset of ST owners, limiting the ma- 
chine's market potential. 

Atari also has to consider the question 
of user support. It discoimected its 800 
phone number years ago, so it relies sole- 
ly upon computer specialty stores for user 
service and education. Where department 
stores are concerned. Atari relies on the 
owner's manual for user support. How then 
can a corporation market a machine, one 
it claims will outperform two DEC VAX 
760 mainframes, with nothing more from 
the manufacturer than a 90-day warranty? 

There are education and support centers 
in chain stores, known as Value-Added Re- 
sellers. VARs haven't considered Atari pro- 
ducts for an instant. The most likely reason 
isn't the mass-market name, but the need 
for a big value to add to in order to resell. 
In other words, "Power without the Price" 
is powerless to VARs, and VARs are the 
Apollo domain. Direct competition is most 
likely out. 

So the TT's domain may be the special- 
ty store, where a corporation's systems an- 
alyst or consultant may not expect to find 
a 32-bit UNIX workstation. At the special- 
ty store, it could be sold in a variety of 
package deals. 

Here's where the machine may find its 
saving grace: it's a multi-user workstation. 
Buyers would purchase more than one ST 
for terminals, maybe even enough to out- 
fit an entire office. 

On the bad side, specialty stores current- 
ly committed to Atari might not be able to 
afford to keep enough STs in stock for that 
kind of low-price, high-quantity buying. 



ST- LOG 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 51ST 



SSTCftie 




»(sk File 



EZ CALC^^is a fully implemented GEM™ 
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Extensive use of the GEM windows 
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// 



ST 

Status report continued 



However, if the price were low enough, (and 
it should be), a company placing a large or- 
der might just find the patience to wait a 
mere couple of weeks. 

The TT also interferes with Atari's plans 
for the ST. If a more capable ST than the 
1040 were to emerge — say a 2080 — that 
machine would go to the specialty stores, 
and the 1040 would be moved to the mass- 
market arena. But the 520 is a smart enough 
terminal. With half a megabyte and a 68000 
CPU, "genius terminal" is a more fitting 
term. Unfortunately, Atari has handed the 
520 solely to the mass-market; and the cor- 
poration consultant is unlikely to go to a 
department store for a set of office ter- 
minals. 

Atari may have to go back on its prom- 
ise to mass-merchants and market the 520 
in specialty stores once again. Or it may 
rely on private wholesale distributors to sell 
the 520 to specialty dealers. The idea has 
not yet been discussed publicly, but in this 
reporter's opinion. Atari could produce a 
downgraded 520 terminoJ-onJy machine as 
part of a TT package deal. This way, the 
TT may — or may not — connect to the ST. 

Certainly the TT is too much computer 
for checkbook-balancing and recipe-fUing. 
It would play the meanest game of Star 
Raiders the galaxy has ever known. But 
Atari is afraid the buyer may stare at this 
colossal product of progress and ask, "So, 
what's it for?" 

Consider the following: the Macintosh 
has practically created the desktop pub- 
lishing industry. The ST is giving birth to 
the home computer artist. I see a revolu- 
tion in which the TT will be the catalyst: 
desktop engineering. The 32-bit mass- 
market micro may give birth to the free- 
lance engineer. Optimistically speaking, 
the whole industry may flip over forward 
— and the creative, tinkering programming 
geniuses may finally have their turn in 
space. 

As one Atari spokesman put it, "this is 
the future." 

ST Hardware. 

This is the present. If ever there's to be 
an Atari star, the ST is bound to be it. At 
every major show, wherever there's an ST, 
there are hundreds of awestruck people in 
front of it. The future right hand of the TT 
is currently breaking ground quite well on 
its own. 

Atari itself, though, sees the ST (Six- 
teen/Thirty-two) in a different light: as an 
incomplete machine. Its other half is still 
in the lab. The promised "bhtter" enhance- 
ment, for instance — (the chip that can 
move blocks of memory, virtually at once) 
is still being tested. GDOS, the portion of 
the ST's Virtual Device Interface current- 
ly missing (the part that would allow the 
machine to perform object-oriented graph- 
ics tasks) is promised in program form for 
the near futiu-e, until its ROM version be- 
comes Expansion #1. Atari admits that 



GEMDOS, which controls computer in- 
put/output, is bug-ridden, but Digital Re- 
search, its author, may not be willing to 
debug the system. Atari may perform this 
task itself — which makes for ROM Expan- 
sion #2. Finally, when the blitter chip ar- 
rives, the entire screen graphics system 
will change. Output may appear similar, 
but Mfill be plotted much faster. This makes 
for ROM Expansion #3. 

We can expect GDOS soon, perhaps by 
press time. The new GEMDOS is slated for 
January. The blitter may not be ready that 
soon. Until Atari can finally say the ST is 
a complete machine, third-party software 
development may be put on hold. 

The blitter chip was originally billed as 
an enhancement to the 1040, but Shiraz 
Shivji tells us it's now being worked into 
the 520's architecture. No decision has 
been made concerning where to seat the 
chip in the 520 (the 1040 should have a 
slot for it) but, as Shivji points out, "It's 
not going to be through the user port. Our 
intent is to be able to upgrade all the 520s 
that are out in the field." 

"The way this co-processor works," says 
Shivji, "is that it sits on the bus until it's 
invoked. Obviously, you'll need the soft- 



ware to invoke it." Which may mean it 
waits for GDOS. 

Shivji also stated that the new chip will 
not be as much of a graphics enhancement 
as some have been led to believe: "Let me 
make this perfectly clear: It will not give 
you greater resolution. It will not give you 
more colors. It gives you a lot more speed. 
I also need to add that it is a trons/orma- 
fion engine that you can use, not just for 
display. With the blit operation — block 
move — you can do the screen, or you can 
use it for other areas of memory, other ap- 
plications not involving the screen." 

Lab tests are currently showing an aver- 
age speed increase in the ST by a factor 
of five with the blitter chip. While it's 
Atari's latest response to the Amiga, the 
chip is also reminiscent of technology pres- 
ent in the Atari 8-bit product line, which 
programmers have grown to respect. 

As we've noted. Atari is venturing deep 
into IBM territory, hoping to carve a niche 
for itself in the "business," or "serious" 
market. Atari has no emulator for the IBM 
corporate image, but that image is either 
heralded greatly or criticized greatly, and 
many PC-clone buyers made their pur- 
chase just to spite Big Blue. Anyway, Atari 




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CIRCLE #132 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ST- LOG 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 53ST 



// 



ST 

Status report continued 



is now targeting the market whose buying 
decisions seem to rely upon reports of 
what IBM corporate executives ate for 
breakfast. 

Thus the PC-compatibility attachment to 
the ST — as yet unnamed, so I'll just call 
it the Big-Blue Box (or 3B, for short). Its 
developer, Atari's Jim Tittsler, tells us it 
contains the expected 8088 CPU, which 
can use the ST's 68000 as a co-processor 
if necessary, and will support an 8087 
math co-processor Using the ST's I/O 
(which is reportedly being revised in the 
new GEMDOS), it hogs the space of the 
full ST monitor In other words, the models 
currently being tested override the ST, 
though future software enhancements may 
allow a PC task to run in a separate win- 
dow of ST GEM, while the ST is doing 
something else. No word yet whether 3B 
will have its own RAM, but it probably 
won't have its own 5y4-inch disk drive — 
instead, slots will be available for SVt- 
inchers, and the current SF354s and 314s 
may be used for 3y2-inch IBM-formatted 
software. 

According to Tittsler, the prototypes are 
currently allowing upgrades of PC files to 
ST-legible files, most notably from Lotus 



1-2-3 to VIP Professional, and from dBase 
III to dBMan. The speed at which some 
PC applications are run may be faster or 
slower on the 3B than on the PC, unless 
an 8087 — or perhaps the acclaimed V20 
chip — is used. 

While downplaying his own product, 
Tittsler describes its intended market: 
"Mostly we see this as a bridge to let peo- 
ple take advantage of their older software, 
because you can get better performance 
with software that's written directly for the 
68000. . . If (people) have spent a large 
portion of their lives learning how to ef- 
fectively use Multiplan or something, they 
don't want that training to be useless." 

Tittsler, further downplaying his prod- 
uct, calls it "just an add-on appendage. . . 
It's intended to give the people who have 
STs — or who want to take advantage of the 
newer technology of an ST — the ability to 
still run older-generation software." He ad- 
mits it's possible, but not likely, that Atari 
may write software specifically for the 3B. 

So it's obvious that Atari is seeking the 
buyer who was at first taken aback by the 
ST's dazzling appearance, the one who, af- 
ter seeing Neo-Chrome, Isl Word, and dB 
Master One, asked, "Yeah, but what does 



it do? Can it run Lotus?" The company is 
also attempting to sway the person who in- 
vested thousands in 8086/8088-based soft- 
ware into finally taking the step to use of 
the next-generation computer. 

Atari hopes to speed up progress in 
plugging the numerous small holes in the 
ST. But, in reviewing this report, one may 
get the impression that Atari wants to slow 
down progress just long enough to profit 
a bit more from its spoils. It's easy to see 
why. It would be a major blunder for Atari 
to cast the yearling ST into the realm of 
obsolescence by introducing a 32000-chip- 
based system for about the same price. 

So the TT will nm on a 68020, and thus 
become a family member, paired with it 
like a brother The box I call the 3B is 
Atari's attempt to profit from the fact that 
IBM is viewed as the axis upon which the 
computer world revolves. At its surface are 
the clones, held there by the centrifugal 
force of repulsion from the corporate axis. 
There's still a profit to be made from the 
older generation — until the ST's earth- 
quakes settle— and 68000/68020-based 
machines constitute the new axis. 
ST Software. 

In the process of turning heads. Atari 



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CIRCLE #133 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PAGE 54ST / NOVEMBER 1986 



ST- LOG 



Corp. has acquired some frustrated ST own- 
ers. The hbrary of ST software is growing 
steadily, but is still not as profuse, or as 
well-backed, as the older generation of soft- 
ware. The ST owner's frustration occurs 
while awaiting a breakthrough. It's here we 
see Atari trying to speed up progress, to 
make Atari into Big Grey. 

To that effect, there's good news: Micro- 
soft is joining the ST league. It is working 
with Atari to make a GEM-based version 
of the blockbuster program Word for the ST, 
to be called either Word or Write. One 
source says the program should resemble 
Word for the Macintosh. Another states he 
feels Microsoft is unsure what the program 
should resemble, since the company must 
undergo the humiliating task of adapting 
Word to GEM, a product of rival Digital Re- 
search. A superior Word using GEM may 
jeopardize the future success of the ver- 
sion which employs Microsoft's own Win- 
dows. 

Word, both for the Mac and the PC, in- 
cludes extended laser-printer support, be- 
yond mere dot-matrix. It's considered by 
many to be a tool for desktop publishing, 
an industry made possible (in large part) 
by the Macintosh. Of desktop publishing, 
Leonard Tramiel says, "That phrase is so 
overused that it no longer means any- 
thing." 

'As far as being able to support a laser 
printer is concerned," the 'Vice-President 
continues, "there's half-a-dozen laser prin- 
ters out there, which emulate so many 
different (dot-matrix) printers that any 
product can support laser power. . . So vir- 
tually every word processor at this point 
supports laser printers; it's actually diffi- 
cult to write one that doesn't." 

Beyond the emulation of dot-matrix 
printers, Tramiel is unsure that preprint- 
ing layout will be a feature of Word, say- 
ing, "I'd have to be clairvoyant to tell you." 
Contradicting other sources, Tramiel con- 
firmed that Atari is working with Micro- 
soft to develop a superior product. 

Superior or mediocre. Atari has scored 
a victory in acquiring Microsoft's assis- 
tance. There's only one microcomputer I 
can name, to date, which has thrived with- 
out being somehow shaped by the hand of 
Bill Gates at Microsoft, and it is the ST. 
That should be an indication of the ma- 
chine's strength — it has independence, not 
"compatibility." 

It's not indication enough, though, for 
Lotus Development Corp. (1-2-3, Jazz) and 
Ashton-Tate (dBase III, Framework, Mul- 
tiMate), the two other largest software 
manufacturers. Both, according to one 
source at Atari, are ready and willing to 
write versions of their best for the ST, pro- 
vided the magic number has been reached: 
1,000,000. Once a million STs have been 
sold, and a huge worldwide customer base 
established, we'll see the world's best- 
selling programs running on an Atari. 



Then, it will be no contest. All the buy- 
er's excuses will be gone. The ST will run 
the best, and run them better and faster 
than anything else. If there's something 
that wouldn't otherwise run, the 3B box or 
DataPacific's MacCartridge (which Atari 
is staying clear of, due to possible legal ac- 
tion by Apple) will make it work. But we 
need a million out there, and that won't be 
easy. 

Where do we stand in the meantime? 
We have Microsoft on our side now. Word 
will be first; and, of course, there will be 
MS-DOS for the 3B box. Without the box, 
the ST will run dBMan and VIP Profes- 
sional, which generate results so close to 
their IBM-league work-alikes that Jim Titts- 
ler's men can successfully convert files 
from one program to the other — without 
any noticeable difference. 

Atari admits the current version of ST 
BASIC is bug-ridden, perhaps even a mis- 
take. Microsoft may remedy that situation, 
and indications from Atari are that, with 
the necessary money, we may see an 
MBasic interpreter for the ST. 

With so many companies marketing 
utilities and programming languages for 
the ST, what could possibly be lacking? 
Atari's answer comes in two names: Lo- 
tus and Ashton-Tate. Atari would like to see 
those companies join the list of ST de- 
velopers, for the sake of their names alone. 
After all, if the genuine items run on the 
ST, it must be a solid machine (in the eyes 
of potential dealers). And that will be seen 
when there are a million STs "in the field." 

So Atari is wondering how to sell a mil- 
lion, and here's where the "TT" comes into 
the picture. The TT will sell STs for "gen- 
ius terminals." A small office complex 
could use (and afford) a TT system net- 
working a half-dozen STs, giving the 
16/32-bit machine an entirely new, broad- 
scope market. 

Imagine a TT system with an ultra-high- 
resolution display. In one corner of the dis- 
play, dBase III is sorting out metal parts. 
In another. Word shows a document detail- 
ing the cost of those parts. In a third, the 
IBM-emulation window is running a 3-D 
tally spreadsheet like VP Planner. In the 
ST window, there's a Neo-Chrome diagram 
of a part. Finally, in the center, the TT is 
rotating a 3-D cutaway image of the future 
shuttle booster rocket. 

This type of technology is not just a pos- 
sibility; if marketing comes to a decision 
soon, we may be seeing a TT/ST compo- 
nent system in retail outlets by late 1987. 
It could carve a new niche as the first 
32-bit machine capable of running the fa- 
miliar software of the 8/16-bit era. 

This does pose a problem for ANALOG 
Computing: will this mean another schism 
in readership? We hope not! 

But onward ... if there's anyone Atari 
supporters feel threatened by, it's the 
potential dealer or buyer who publicly 



claims that the company responsible for 
Asteroids is incapable of manufacturing 
the TT — that game-playing and data- 
processing are two separate worlds, and 
ne'er the twain shall meet. By now, we're 
well acquainted with the person whose 
guilty conscience brings forth the state- 
ment that only kids play video games; 
adults are too busy doing real computing 
to notice. Too often creativity gets tossed 
aside in favor of "productivity." Still, as 
presented in Orwell's 1984, the notion that 
some higher person is watching over our 
every move, passing judgment over our 
productivity, is a mistaken one — that is, 
unless we are captives of our paychecks. 

Entertainment Electronics. 

Atari's roots are in game machines, and 
that's nothing to be ashamed of. The crea- 
tive genius who invents or programs a 
computer is the same genius who toys 
around with it. Still, the 8-bit Ataris have 
always had to be proven and fought for. It's 
as if the machines themselves were a 
cause, like unionization or the abolition of 
apartheid . 

Atari began with game machines. The 
mind that will play for hours will, often, 
program in a creative way, will invent a 
new kind of wheel. Having its roots in the 
game market makes Atari Corp. no less a 
computer in the business world. 

The current ST line is bringing Atari into 
the ring in the "real" world. It is creating 
a vital excitement in the computing com- 
munity. And the "game machine" revenue 
feeds the growth of all Atari products. 

Atari has some choices to make, direc- 
tions to choose. But, if Jack Tramiel has 
proven anything, he's shown the world that 
Atari's options are wide open. H 



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CIRCLE »134 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ST- LOG 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 55ST 



OMrstiTBeivD's nr 

LfUiVE^SElli 




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TREND 



CIRCLE #164 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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Computing/ST-Log issue 41. 

ST-Check (written by Clayton Wal- 
num) is designed to find and correct 
typing errors when readers are enter- 
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the article, you may send for back is- 
sue 41 ($4.00). 

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• GEM BASED 



CIRCLE #170 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



-MANSHIP 



by Clayton Walnum 



Everyone give a hearty cheer. This month we'll be finish- 
ing up the most grueling details of programming in C, so 
that next month we can start learning about GEM. It's been 
a long time coming, but you can't bake a cake until you've 
heated the oven, right? 

Last month's program listing overflowed with new ma- 
terial. Consequently, we didn't have time to cover most of 
the program's details. So guess what the first item on the 
agenda is? If you have last month's listing, take it out. 
Otherwise, just read along; I'll try to make this as self- 
contained as possible. 

Unfinished business. 

At the top of the listing, beneath the block of defines, 
you'll see a function, fopen(), being declared as return- 
ing a pointer to type Fl LE . If you think back, you'll remem- 
ber that any time a fimction is going to return something 
other than an integer, it must be declared. But what the 
heck is FILE, anyway? We've never discussed this data 
type, have we? 

Actually, in a way, we have. Last month, we talked about 
structures — data types that are specifically tailored by the 
programmer. FILE is a structure defined in the stdio.h file, 
containing the data elements required to handle file I/O. 

Wait a minute. That fopen() isn't our function. Except 
for the function calls, this guy is nowhere to be found in 
oin- program listing. 

That's true. It's a library function. Now, one would think 
that, if whoever composed the stdio.h file went to all the 
trouble to set up the FILE structure, he would have at least 
gone to the extra effort to make fopen() "ready to go," by 
declaring it as returning a pointer to FILE and finishing 
the job. 



For some strange reason, the version of stdio.h that 
comes with the Atari developer's kit doesn't include the 
declaration, so we must do it ourselves. If you have the 
Megamax compiler, however, you can delete this declara- 
tion from the program; they did award us the courtesy of 
finishing the job. 

By the way, the sample listing we're discussing was de- 
veloped using the Megamax-C development system. I in- 
cluded the function definition only to make the listing 
more compatible with the Atari development kit. 

As for the file declaration for fclose(), you can ignore 
it. It was included in error and is unnecessary, since this 
function returns an integer, not a pointer to FILE. 

A quick loolt at GEiyfl. 

Just beyond the file declaration for fopen(), there are 

declarations for a number of global arrays: work in[], 

work out[], contrl[], intin[], ptsin[], intout[], and ptsout[]. If 

you've looked at some of the C source code for various 
GEM programs in the public domain, or those published 
in magazines, you've noticed that these arrays are almost 
always present. In fact, you've probably seen some of them 
used in ST BASIC programs, as well. 

All the above arrays have one thing in common: they 
provide GEM a place to store or retrieve information about 
the program. This information can then be easily manipu- 
lated by the programmer. 

I know, I know. I told you we weren't going to be get- 
ting into GEM imtil next month. But we are going to learn 
a little about initilizing a GEM program, since the cursor 
control functions I used in last month's listing are found 
in the VDI portion of GEM. 

What's VDI? GEM is made up of many libraries of func- 
tions, each of which is responsible for handling a certain 
portion of the system's activities. These libraries are 



ST- LOG 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 57ST 



// C-manship 



continued 



grouped into two major units, called AES (Application En- 
vironment Services) and VDI (Virtual Device Interface). The 
libraries making up the AES handle such things as win- 
dows, dialog boxes, menu bars and event processing. (An 
event is some action from the user, such as typing a letter 
or moving the mouse.) The VDI contains the subroutines 
to control the ST's graphics, as well as some mouse and 
cursor control functions. 

Since GEM is capable of handling several programs at 
once (such as using a desk accessory with a word proces- 
sor), there has to be a way of keeping one job separate from 
another. GEM tackles this by assigning each program and 
its associated device (in our case, the screen) a "worksta- 
tion" which can then be referred to by an identifier knovra 
as a "handle." The first thing any GEM application must 
do is open a workstation. 

Which brings us back to the arrays that started this dis- 
cussion. When we open a workstation, we have to tell GEM 
how we want the system's attributes initialized. What col- 
or should the text be? And should it be shadowed? Or may- 
be bold? What style fill do we want? Solid? Checkered? 

All these attributes should be placed in the array work 

in[] before we open the workstation, since that's where GEM 
is going to expect to find them. 

We're not going to worry, at the moment, which elements 
of the array hold information for which attribute. We're just 
going to take it on faith that work in[10] must be initial- 
ized to 2, and the rest will be perfectly happy at 1. 

After we've set up the array, we tell GEM to open the 

workstation with the v opnvwk[] call: 

v_opnvwkCwork_in,&handle, work_out) ; 

The parameter work in is the address of our array work 

in[], which contains the attribute information we wish 

to pass to GEM. And &handle is the address where GEM 
should store the handle, the integer value that will allow 
us to refer to this program's workstation. In our sample pro- 
gram, it's the address of the variable handle, which is de- 
fined after the work in[] and work out[] arrays at the top 

of the listing. The parameter work out is, of course, the 

address of our array work out[]. 

When we open the workstation, GEM will load the 

work out[] array with all the information a programmer 

needs about the workstation. For instance, work out[12] 

will contain the number of hatch styles available, while 

work out[13] will contain the number of colors that can be 

displayed at one time. We don't have to be concerned with 
this information now, but it is important that you under- 
stand why we need these two arrays. 

You can see the mechanics of opening a workstation in 

the open vwork() function of the program listing. Also, at 

the end of nnain(), notice the function call: 

v_c I svwk (handle) ; 

This closes the workstation to further output. The argument 
handle is the device handle passed to you by the 
V opnvwkO call. 

And a peek at VDI. 

The remaining five arrays, contrl[], intln[], ptsin[], ptsout[] 
and intout[] are directly associated with the VDI. The first 



three are used to pass information to the VDI routines, 
while the last two provide a means for the VDI to return 
information to the program. These arrays are used by GEM 
for its own purposes; you need do nothing more than 
declare them at the beginning of your program. It's ironic 
that, although C is considered to be a lower-level language 
than BASIC, when manipulating the VDI from ST BASIC, 
you must deal with the VDI arrays yourself rather than leav- 
ing them to the system. 

Moving along. 

If you've spent the time to examine last month's program 
listing, you were probably wondering what was going on 
with the function call: 

Cconws ("FIRST NAME: ■■}; 

This function does nothing more than write a string to the 
screen. Why didn't I just use printtQ and avoid all this con- 
fusion? It has to do with another discovery I made concern- 
ing Megamax-C. With Megamax, printfQ won't print 
anything until it encoimters a Vn. This makes handling 
prompts tricky, if you want the user's input on the same 
line as the prompt. Resorting to Cconws() solved this pro- 
blem. 

Another new function call, fscanfO, was used in the sam- 
ple program in the disk file() function. 

fscanf (p_file, "Xd", &nuM_recsJ; 
fscanf (p_f ile, "Y.s", recp->street) ; 

This is similar to scanfQ except it retrieves and formats in- 
formation from a file, rather than from the keyboard. In fact, 
the only difference between the two calls is the addition 
of one argimient, the pointer to the FILE structure. Other- 
wise, it contains the same conversion specifications as its 
cousin, followed by the addresses where the data should 
be stored. The first example above reads an integer from 

the file and places it in the integer variable num recs. The 

second reads a string from the file and places it in the struc- 
ture member street. 

The opposite of fscanfQ is fprintfQ. In our sample listing, 
it's called within the function save__file() like this: 

fprintf (p_f ile, "J^dVn", nuM_recs); 
fprintf (p_f ile, ">:s\n", recp->city); 

This function is almost identical to printfQ, the only change 

being the extra argument, the pointer to the FILE structure. 

In the first example, we're printing to the file the integer 

value stored in num recs, followed by a newline. In the 

second, we're printing to the file the character string stored 

in the structure member city, also followed by a newline. 

The VDI cursor stuff. 

If you look at the functions screenQ and pos curQ in the 

program listing, you'll see the cursor control function calls 
I mentioned earlier. In order to take advantage of these func- 
tions, you must first make the call: 

v_enter_cur (handle] ; 

This gets you out of graphics mode and into text mode. In 
this function, as with all the following, handle is the work- 
station identifier that was returned to you by the 

V opnvwkQ call. 

We can position the cursor anywhere on the screen by 



PAGE 58ST / NOVEMBER 1986 



ST- LOG 



passing the X,Y-coordinates to the function vs curad- 

dress(): 

vs_curaddress (handle,!;, XI ; 

Notice that the coordinates are passed in the opposite or- 
der of what you'd expect; that is, Y followed l^ X. Also, 
keep in mind that we're now in text mode. The cursor lo- 
cation is based on character positions, not raster coor- 
dinates. In mediimi-resolution text mode, the screen's size 
is interpreted as 80x24, whereas in graphics mode it's 
640x200. Quite a difference! 

Printer output. 

I don't know if it's a difference between Megamax-C and 
the Atari development kit, or just plain bad luck, but I had 
an awful time getting printer output. I have a feeUng the 
solution I incorporated isn't as elegant as it might be, but 
I had to settle for it imder the pressure of time. So, with 
that disclaimer in mind . . . 

Take a look at the function printerQ in the sample listing. 
The first thing we have to do is check to see if the printer 
is on. 

status = Cprnoutco); 

The line above accomplishes this by sending a null charac- 
ter to the printer. If the printer times out, a will be 
returned by the function. Another way to check the print- 
er is with the function CprnosQ which returns a nonzero 
value if the printer is ready to receive: 

status = CprnosC); 

We then open a file to the list device: 

p_file = fopenf'LST:", "w") ; 

After this call, p file will contain a pointer to a structure 

of type FILE. The first argument passed to fopen() is the 
filename, in this case, the list device. The second parame- 
ter tells the function the attributes we want the file to have. 
There are six possibilities: 

r. . . read only 

w. . create for writing 

a. . append (write at end of file) 

r -f . . . update (read and write) 

w+ . . .create for update 

a + . . . random read or write 
If the open was not successful, the fimction will return 
a null pointer. 

Now comes the tricky part. The file we just opened is 
a disk file. We want to send the output to the printer The 

pointer p file is now pointing to our FILE structure. The 

fifth member of this structure, fd, is a file descriptor. If 

we replace the value in fd with a 3, we'll fool the system 

into sending the output to the printer: 
p_file->_fd = 3; 

Now, we can output the data using fprintfQ. When we're 
done, we close the file: 

fcloseCp_f ilel ; 

The function fcloseO will return a if successful, or an EOF 
(-1) if an error is encountered. 

Finally, since we ended up opening a disk file, we want 
to get rid of the evidence: 

unlink C"L5T:"J; 



The function unlinkQ will remove the directory entry for the 
filename passed. It returns a if successful, or a -1 if an 
error is encoimtered. 

The problem with the above method of obtaining print- 
er output is that a disk must be present in the drive. 
Odds and ends. 

That covers all the material from last month's sample pro- 
gram. We have a final task to complete, before we can move 
on to GEM: touching on a few details of the C language 
we haven't yet covered. 

What do you make of the following line? 

z = IX < 4J ? X : y; 

Believe it or not, this is nothing more than a shortcut ver- 
sion of: 

if tx < 4J 

z = x; 
else 

z = y; 

The ?: is a conditional operator that requires three oper- 
ands. The first operand (within the parentheses) is the ex- 
pression that's tested. If it's true, the statement yields the 
evaluation of the second operand (between the ? and ;). If 
the first expression is false, the statement yields the evalu- 
ation of the third operand (between the : and ;). Here's an- 
other example that'll get the highest value of two vari- 
ables: 

highest = Cx > y) ? X : y; 

C also has a construction similar to BASIC'S ON. . .GOTO: 

switch (exp) { 
case 1 : 

printfC'exp = 1"J ; 

break; 
case 2 : 

printfC'exp = 2"J ; 

break; 
case 3 : 

printffexp = 3"J ; 

break; 
default : 

printfC'exp < l or > 3"); 

The switch statement works by first evaluating the expres- 
sion in the parentheses, then checking the following labels 
to see if there's one that matches the expression's value. If 
there is, program execution jimips to the matching line and 
continues until it encounters the statement break. But what 
if there's no match? What if, in the above example, exp is 
not 1, 2, or 3? That's where the label default comes in. Pro- 
gram execution will jimip to this line if none of the other 
labels match. Otherwise, if there's no default, it'll jump to 
the next hne following the end of the switch statement (af- 
ter the closing brace). 

What happens if we leave out the break statements? 
Remember I said that, once the expression following switch 
is evaluated, the program jumps to the matching label and 
continues until it encounters a break? The program doesn't 
care if there's no break before the next label. It'll go on, 
past the succeeding labels (ignoring them), and execute ev- 
ery statement it finds — xmtil it either finds a break or 
reaches the closing brace. In the example above, if we left 
out all the break statements and exp evaluated to 2, the 



ST- LOG 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 59ST 



^C-manship 



continued 



output would look like this: 

exp = 2exp = 3exp < l or > 3 

Under the same conditions, if exp evaluated to 3, we would 

S66I 

exp = 3exp < 1 or > 3 

A new loop. 

We've become very used to the while and for loop con- 
structions. Both these are entry condition loops; that is, 
the loop conditional is checked be/ore each iteration of 
the loop. There's another loop construct we've ignored so 
far, the do while loop. 

The do while construct is an exit condition loop. The 
loop conditional is evaluated after each iteration: 

X = e; 
do i 

++x; 

printfC'x = Xd\n", x) ; 
} while ix < 4); 

The above would print values of x from 1 to 4. Contrast 

that with: 

X = 0; 

While C++X < 4J { 

printfC'x = >Cd\n", x) ; 
) 




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which will print values of x from 1 to 3. 

And now. . . 
break, continue and goto. 

We talked about the break statement earlier, in conjunc- 
tion with switch, but it can also be used to get out of for, 
while, and do while loops. When used in a nested loop con- 
struction, it only terminates the loop in which it's used. 
The outermost loops will continue normally. 

while Cx < 10) C 
while iv < 10) { 
if {y == 5) 

break; 
else 
printffy is not 5\n"); 

+*y; 

} 

+ + XJ 

} 

Another method of affecting loop execution is with con- 
tinue. When continue is encountered within a loop, the loop 
doesn't terminate, but, instead, starts the next iteration. 

X = O; 

while tech = getcharO) != ■«') C 
if fch = ' ■) 

continue; 
SCX++J = ch; 
} 
Finally — though I hate to mention it, due to its inevit- 
able abuse — C has a goto statement. The keyword goto is 
followed by the label identifying where program execu- 
tion should continue: 
goto print-nane; 

print_naMe: printf CHawe: Y.s", nane) ; 

Quite frankly, there's little or no use for the goto statement 
in a structured language like C. The same goes, though 
not as strongly, for break and continue, except when the 
former is used within a switch statement. There's almost 
always a more structured and elegant way to get around 
the use of these statements. If you're a BASIC program- 
mer, it will take you a while to get accustomed to struc- 
turing your programs in such a way as to avoid the use 
of a goto. But, trust me, it can be done — and the results 
are much more readable than BASIC'S typical tangle. 

The end again. 

Next month, as I promised, we'll begin programming 
with GEM. I know you've been waiting a long time, but 
you'll find your patience rewarded. Now that you know 
most of the fundamentals of programming in C, it's time 
for some fun! S 



CIRCLE #136 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PAGE 60ST / NOVEIVIBER 1986 



ST- LOG 




'*^'« 



te' 



, ..Slat- 






r 






' ?^", 



ST ne^vs 

and information 

by Ian Chadwick 

I think I'll write a column about games. That should 

be easy, right? I already know and enjoy Time Bandit. I'll 

/ just drop by the local Atari dealer, watch a bunch of screens, 

take notes, then come home. Nothing to it: add a passel of sage 

comments to my notes and I have a column. Okay. . . 

"Got anything new in games? Like chess? Or a wargame? Something 

intellectual." 

"Here! I have this wonderful new game. It's called Rogue, from Epyx," 
the salesman said. He leaned over to report, in a confidential voice, 
"It was taken from a mainframe game." And he winked, conspira- 
torially. 

Mainframe? The last time I saw a mainframe playing games was when 
the awesome might of the University of Toronto's computer system 
massed to match me at 3-D tic-tac-toe. It lost. That was back in the 
days when a terminal meant a printer with a keyboard, and a video 
output was called a CRT. No one had CRTs then. "Show me." 

Oops. He's in medium resolution, and it won't load. I see a message 
about "Low-rez" on the screen. It must be a translation from a main- 
frame that didn't speak EngUsh. They must mean "low-res"! He changes 
his modes, regardless. Click, click, he taps the mouse. Ah. . .color, 
graphics! 

"It has twenty-six levels," the clerk mutters, almost adoringly. I type 
in my name and the first screen comes up, full of neat little walls and 
a little caricature of a character who looks like Bilbo, being chased by 
W«-u a bat. 

"Nice graphics," I say, trying to dodge the bat. 
"Watch. Here, go there. No. Open the door, that one. Watch out for 
the hobgoblin! Oh. Oh, dear." 

I'm dead. Well, that was short. Twenty-six levels, eh? I choose "new 
game." Whirr, whirr, whirr. Back to the same initial picture. What? No reboot without having to go back to square one? Sigh. Try again. 
Ah, an ice monster. Hack, stab, hack, stab. I defeat it! ^N\\at five miserable gold pieces? Grrr. . . 

Okay, so I go on. I get attacked by bats and emus. Why do I feel like I'm fighting in Australia? Okay, down the stairs. There's an amulet 
I have to find. Use the zoom; ah, there's the stairway. What? A letter I attacks me. Hmm. . .killer alphabets. 



%- 


m 




m 4 


w 


tdk 


♦» 


1 


A^ 


i^ 



Jf^M^:* 



V-'V" 



';**(^*- 



ST- LOG 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 61ST 



//lAN^S QUEST continued 



"That's an ice monster," the salesman in- 
forms me. In the same chmate as emus? 
I wonder. Trudge, trudge. Oops. I throw my 
bow at a centaur. Sigh; It's lost. Now I go 
around trying to stab monsters with ar- 
rows. Of course, I die. Again. 

"Can you win at this thing?" 

"I don't know, but it has twenty-six 
levels!" 

"That doesn't answer my question." 

"But twenty-six levels! Who cares if you 
win? Think of all the fun!" 

Okay, so it's fun. It's also not very origi- 
nal in concept, but if a new user has never 
heard of or played Dungeons & Dragons™ 
— say, if you just came from Mars — it's a 
nice introduction. It's not Time Bandit, but 
then again, where else can I fight emus? 

Okay, so it's nicely done; I admit it. He 
beams at me and tells me it has twenty- 
six levels again. I saw only three of them. 
I don't know if I could last another twenty- 
three. At least I can save a game and re- 
turn to it later (well, it also makes you quit 
the game if you save it. . .). My version 
of Time Bandit doesn't allow that. Maybe 
Gord will send me a new one. 

"What else have you got?" 

"You're gonna love this one: Temple of 
Apshai." 

"Huh? I played that on my TRS-80 Mod- 
el 1. Around the last ice age." 

"The Trash 80 didn't have graphics. Or 
sound. Watch this." He boots it up, in low- 
res, just in case we get attacked by a "low- 
rez" warning. Hmmm. 

"This has a predefined character called 
Brian Nailfoot. Sounds clumsy." 

"You can change it," he says. 

"No, leave it. I don't want to get too at- 
tached to him." Let's see, 140 pieces of sil- 
ver. He's been moonlighting. Better buy a 
shield, some armor, a what? A Bastard- 
sword? Don't ask; it's only a game. Buy one 
anyway. Oops, I'm not strong enough. Can 
I take a Charles Atlas course first? No? 
Okay, get the broadsword. What about a 
bow? Twelve? Offer nine. No? Try ten. No? 
Eleven? Come on. . .okay, twelve. And it 
says Vm a hard bargainer — for paying what 
he asked! Artificial stupidity. . .so buy 
what you can and save the character Now, 
let's try our mettle. 

Ah, it's animated. I walk forward. No, 
not that far, stupid. Argh. Hit by a skele- 
ton. Come back! Wait. No, hit it, bounce 
off, ohhh. . . I'm dead. Try again. Okay, 
fire a few arrows. That killed it. Grab the 
treasure. Hmmm. Trash. Sigh. What are 
my options? YUxir? What's that, a Martian 
pet? Must be from the same guys who put 
"low rez" in the last game. 

More trash. Boring. Who keeps their 
trash in little treasure cases in a dungeon? 
Carry on. . . All this trash. At least these 
are neat monsters. I have mushrooms, a 
cloak and kelp. Some treasure. I have 
mushrooms growing in my basement al- 
ready, and who needs kelp? Maybe if I 



wanted to open a sushi bar. . . Ah, there's 
a likely looking box. And a spider. Surely 
I can defeat a spider, right? Wrong. I die, 
again. 

"Okay, try this one." He pushes me aside 
and boots up Swords of Kadash, from Pen- 
guin Polarware. Penguin? I wonder if it'll 
be full of polar bears and ptarmigans. 
Nothing like killer ptarmigans. Nope. It's 
another D&D^" clone, I think. A slice off 
the old bologna, as they say. I read the 
opening message. Accursed villains? My 
favorite foes. I enter the dungeon. I choose 
a joystick. 

It's not as well done as Rogue, even Ap- 
shai. Maybe on a par with something 8-bit, 
like Crypts of Terror. Remember that 
game? Ho hum. I keep hitting myself with 
my own arrows. I die. A lot. Luckily, this 
game has a benevolent deity, and I get rein- 
carnated. A lot. It's a lot like Lode Run- 
ner, without quite as much fun. I pop the 
disk. It wasn't a lot hke D&D^" after all, 
much to its detraction. 

"Anything else?" 

The clerk looks at me in exasperation. 
"If you don't like fantasy role-playing 
games, maybe you'd prefer something 
more action oriented." Why should I tell 
him I played D&D™ when he was still in 
diapers? These are good games, sure, but 
I'm not all that keen on fighting green 
slimes and magic centipedes. Ores give me 
hives. 

"Mudpies. Hey, this is fun. You'll love 
it. Trust me." I shiver when anyone says 
those words. A lawyer once used them to 
me. I'm still recovering. Mudpies, he tells 
me, is from MichTron. I wait with baited 
breath. Another Time Bandit perhaps? 

"What's the point of the game?" 

"You have to throw mudpies at the 
clowns and clear them off the screen," he 
says. Mudpies? Not very manly. "Make 
sure you keep your energy level up." 

"How do I do that?" 

"See those McDonald's bags? Those are 
fries. Eat them, the milkshakes and the 
burgers whenever your food indicator 
turns red. But not too many." 

Not too many is right. I don't even eat 
that stuff in real life. How can I do it here? 
Besides, I'm a vegetarian. He shows me 
how to throw a pie. I bonk a clown. The 
others gang up on me and throw bowling 
pins. Sheesh! 

All I have are mudpies! More come out 
of the holes in the walls. Bonk! Bonk! 
Bonk! Sigh. "I know, don't tell me. It has 
twenty-six levels, too." 

"Look, this is good. Red Alert, from An- 
tic. You've heard of them." He nudges me 
in the ribs. I try not to nudge him back 
with the disk drive. He boots up the game. 
"You put your cities anywhere you like, 
then you put yoiu^ missile silos and laser 
bases to protect them." He spreads the 
items across a map of North America. 

"Don't put one there." I say. 



"Where, here? That's Toronto! Your 
hometown." 

"I know. Just don't put one there. It 
would make me queasy if I lost it." 

"All right. I'll put it here. That's Detroit." 
Right. Who cares if they take out someone 
else's hometown? "Watch." The missiles 
start coming in over the pole. Zap, blam. 
Subs pop up and shoot from the oceans. 
Argh! There goes San Francisco! What? 
What happened to Miami? The damn 
Cubans had missiles, and they fired at me! 
Sneaky weasels! I'll nuke 'em myself. Huh? 
I can't hit the Cubans? My mood goes 
black. So do my cities. More missiles ap- 
proach. My silos are empty, my lasers 
drained. Boom, boom. Game over. 

"Like that?" 

"No. Too much like real life. Sort of like 
watching 'The Day After' over and over 
again. How about something less violent?" 

"Do you like 007 movies? Here, try Ma- 
jor Motion." 

I do. I'm driving a car with a front-aimed 
machine gun. Always wanted one of those 
things on the highway. I blast a few nasties, 
bump others off the road; then — squeal! — 
I skid into a tree. Some guy with spikes 
on his wheels ripped my tires! Grr. . . the 
truck drops me back on the road again. 
Wait! That guy wdth the spikes is still there, 
waiting for me to get out of the truck. 
Squeal! Grr. . . Next time I get a missile, 
I fire at him from behind. Hee, bee. . . 
wait! Nothing happened! Argh. Squeal . . . 

Okay, this calls for serious action. I clear 
the road. What are tourists doing on attack 
alley, anyway? What! Some F15 slipped 
down from 12-o'clock high and nuked me. 
Okay. Try again. "Hey! That's a clone of 
this car!" I say. "How do I kill it?" 

"You don't. You just have to get in the 
truck and hope it goes away." 

"Where's the truck?" 

"You'll have to wait." I can't. The clone 
which I can't kill is very apt at killing me. 
Too bad. I was just starting to like this 
game. I never like to play games where I 
don't have at least a 50-50 on an opponent. 

"How about something cerebral?" I ask. 

The clerk is a disappointed man. He 
boots up Electro Solitaire & 21, from Soft 
Logik. "Well, there's always this. . ." 

"Now you're talking. Black jack? I'm a 
whiz. Let's see. . ." I sit down and play a 
hand. Hmmm. It doesn't bother to tally my 
score. Sloppy, I think to myself. I win! 
Dealer goes bust. What? The screen says 
"Your up $20." My up what? Could they 
possibly mean "you're"? Same guys who 
came up with "low rez," I bet. Must be a 
conspiracy to have all the illiterates in the 
world band together and write software. 
I try again. This time, it's a push. The deal- 
er wins. Huh? Shouldn't it be a tie, and the 
money stays down? I give the clerk back 
the disk. "I want a game that knows the 
rules," I say, simply. I didn't add from some- 
one who knows the basic rules of English. 



PAGE 62ST / NOVEMBER 1986 



ST- LOG 



He just shrugs and gives me Cards from 
MichTron. 

"Ah, this is more hka it," I say. The clerk 
beams. Five games in one. Blackjack, Poker 
Squares, Klondike, Cribbage and Solitaire. 
Hmmm; just called Solitaire? What's that? 
Ah! It's La Belle Lucie, an old and popu- 
lar version of solitaire. Klondike looks fa- 
miliar, except I can't select the more 
common three-card (rather than one) draw 
method. Oh well, let's try Blackjack. 

Hmmm. I have 13 showing. At least it 
tallies my score. "How do I get another 
card?" 

"Press 1." 

"Huh? No mouse option? Why not press 
H for hit? You know, and S for stand? 
Mnemonics, you know. . ." 

"Just press 1," he snarls. I do. I get an 
eight. Twenty-one. I win. 

"What's this?" 

"It's where you enter your name and bet 
amount." 

"I just did. Last turn." 

"You have to enter it every turn. It's easy; 
just press RETURN." 

"Can't I tell it to use the figures for 
good?" 



"Why? It's easy!" 

"No mouse option?" Nope; he shakes his 
head. I'm a real nitpicker, he figures. I try 
again. It's a push situation. Ah! It lets it 
stand. Good work. Someone read the rules 
before they attempted to program. But the 
keyboard entry method doesn't overwhelm 
me. So I won't play Blackjack. The rest look 
good. "Wrap it. I'll take it." 

The clerk falls off his chair in surprise. 
A sale? From me? I get up to leave. "Wait!" 
he shouts. "Don't you want to see Universe 
U?" 

"What happened to Universe I?" 

"It's not out for this machine." 

"Call me when it is. Meanwhile, I'll 
practice my solitaire." 

"But what about the adventures? Sun- 
dog? The Pawn? King's Quest 11?" 

"What happened to King's Quest I? Don't 
tell me — it's not out for this machine." 

"Hacker? Borrowed Time? Hitchhiker's 
Guide to the Galaxy?" 

"Next time!" I say and close the door be- 
hind me. I look back for a brief moment 
and see the clerk grabbing boxes of adven- 
ture games from the shelves, his mouth 
still moving. Calling out games, I guess. 



Well, I got something. . .not chess, like I 
had really hoped, and not a wargame, but 
something to while away those idle mo- 
ments when I don't have time for a Time 
Bandit session. Maybe I'll go back and 
look at the adventures next month. 

I walk down the street and pass a 
McDonald's. I hurry past, afraid some nut 
with a pie in his hand will come at me.H 

Ion Chadwick is the author of Mapping 
the Atari and other nonsense. He lives in 
Toronto with his wife and their small me- 
nagerie, none of whom are willing to learn 
any computer languages. He is currently 
writing mystery fiction, because he wants 
to publish something people can read in 
the John. 



Announcing . . . 

ST'TERM2.o 



by 
Matthew R. Singer 



ST-Tcrm 2.0 is the ultimate Atari ST communica- 
tions program for the serious BBS'er . . . 

ST-Term features the familiar commands of 
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advantage of the power of the Atari ST. 

Compare the features of ST-Term with Comm 
packages costing two to four times its 29.95 price 
and you1l find there is no more feature packed 
terminal emulator you can buy for your ST. 



VT 52 emulation with keypad 

VT 100 subset emulation 

Full RS232 control 

Baud rates 300-9600 

Full/Half Duplex 

Remote echoing 

Line feed to^e 

Atari 8 bit Atascii Emulation 

Wrap around toggle 

20 macro keys with built in editor 

Clock 

Connect time/billing calculator 

Multiple setup files 

64K capture buffer 



Kermit (Batch file transfer) 

Xmodem protocol 

Atari 8 bit Amodem protocol 

Promoted/Throttled Ascii uploads 

Printer spooling 

Full status screen 

400 entry audodialer with 

Redial 

10 dialing prefixes 

Automaticaiy sets RS232 
Full DOS commands without exiting 

type copy dir 

print delete chdir 

format rename chdrv 



To Order or ForTcchnical Assistance 
Phone 301-552-2517. 



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7348 Green Oak Terrace, Lanham, MD 20706 

CIRCLE #137 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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DIGITAL'REALiTY 



JOURNEY TO A REGION 

SPACE KNOWN AS THE PLANET EARTH. 



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DIGITAL REALITY HAS CREATED A NEW EXPERIENCE 
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EARTHSPACE IS ENTERTAINING AND SCIENTIFIC 
AND WILL ENLIGHTEN YOU WITH ITS ST COLOR EN- 
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PAST, PRESENT, AND FUTURE OF THE EARTH AND 
EXPLORES THE DIVERSITY OF LIFE ON OUR CHANGING 
DYNAMIC PLANET. SOME OF THE TOPICS COVERED ARE: 
THE BIOSPHERECOUR PLANET-WIDE ECOLOGY SYSTEM), 
NATURE'S LIFEFORMS AND LIFEFORCES, THE AT- 
MOSPHERE, DNA, AND THE DYNAMICS OF PHOTOSYN- 
THESIS. EARTHSPACE, IN ITS SLIDESHOW FORMAT, 
WAS CREATED FOR PEOPLE OF ALL AGES. . . 
SO TURN ON YOUR ST COMPUTER AND ENTER INTO 

THE COLORFUL DIGITAL REALITY OF 

E/\RTHSF>Pi.GE 

EARTHSPACE WAS PRODUCED WITH THE HELP OF 
BATTERIES INCLUDED. 

EARTHSPACE AT $35. 9 5 EACH. 
TO ORDER: SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER OR CALL 
FOR C.O.D. ADD S3. 00 FOR SHIPPING/CANADA $4. 00 
FOREIGN S5.00. N.Y.S. RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX. 
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362 W.BROADWAY N.Y.,N.Y. 10013 ( 617)-487-1274 
ATARI ST IS A TRADEM.ARK OF ATARI CORP. 
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CIRCLE #138 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ST-LOG 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 63ST 



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The 514" disk drive for the ST 

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CIRCLE #140 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PAGE 64ST / NOVEMBER 1986 



ST- LOG 



y/ 



ST ne^vs! 



DONT BELIEVE IN GHOSTS? 

A full moon is rising over the tower's bat- 
tlements as the surf pounds against the cliffs. 
You're in Cornwall, England at a friend's re- 
quest, to investigate ghosts in the castle. 

While here, you learn of a valuable object 
hidden somewhere in the castle. So, along 
with the ghost mystery, you've a treasure 
hunt — and you aren't the only one looking! 

There are four variations to Moonmist, the 
latest text adventure from Infocom, all on the 
same disk. Each "game" has its own puzzles, 
hiding place, treasure and solution. Infocom 
calls this an "introductory" adventure, for 
ages 9 and up. The company also says this 
one isn't just male oriented, but has a lot of 
appeal for women. 

In traditional Infocom style, you get 
trinkets with the game: a visitor's guide to 
TresylUan Castle, two confidential letters from 
your friend and an iron-on transfer 

Retail is $39.95, for both the ST and 8-bit 
lines, from Infocom, Inc., 125 CambridgePark 
Drive, Cambridge, MA 02140 — (617) 492- 

6000. CIRCLE #119 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



UPDATED FAST/BASIC 

Philon has released an upgrade of their BA- 
SIC compiler Version 1.35 includes full 
graphics interface through support of the 
GEM VDI graphics interface. Graphics out- 
put is produced by using PEEKs and POKEs 
into GEM VDI. Philon also has a BASIC in- 
terpreter out, Henry's Fundamental BASIC. 

Philon Fast BASIC-M, version 1.35 is 
$129.00, from Philon, Inc., 641 Avenue of the 
Americas, New York, NY 10011 — (212) 807- 

0303. CIRCLE #194 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



File Op-tions 



IT'S YOUR Q! 

ST-Pool is designed to be an ac- 
curate simulation of a pocket bilUard 
table, giving you the option of play- 
ing any pool game you like. Several 
variables can be selected, including 
table color and rack set-up. Cue stick 
movement can be altered to any de- 
sired angle and finely adjusted. 

On-screen beads keep track of 
scoring, and further precision of the 
ball can be achieved by adding "Eng- 
lish." Games can also be saved or 
loaded to disk. 

For color ST systems, $34.95. Shelbourne Software S5rstems, Inc., 7221 Rising Sun Ave., Suite 
191, Philadelphia, PA 19111 — (215) 725-5644. circle #193 on reader service card 




EASY TO INSTALL RAM 

Terrific Peripherals now offers their EZRAM 520, a 512K RAM upgrade for the 520ST. Now, 
1 megabyte of RAM is easily obtainable with the fairly simple-to-install board . 

A total of thirteen solder connections 
are required. They are made to a tem- 
plate board, not directly to the ST moth- 
er board, reducing the risk of component 
damage. Low power consumption mini- 
mizes heat build-up and the danger of 
overloading your power supply. 

EZRAM is shipped with a memory di- 
agnostic program and three additional 
accessory programs, plus a game. And 
there's a 180-day warranty, too. 
EZRAM is priced at $199.00. You may order it from Terrific Peripherals, 17 St. Mary's Court, 
Brookline, MA 02146 — (617) 232-2317. circle #i76 on reader service card 




ELECTRONIC SPREADSHEET 

EZ Calc gives you complete mouse control 

Desk File Connands Print Recalculation Defaults Help 




A NEW GUIDE TO GEM 

The Atari ST Explored is a recently released book covering the 
ST's GEM operating system and ST languages. It's written for any- 
one considering 
an ST, who'd 
like an idea of 
its capabilities. 
Experienced 
users will get 
in-depth info 
on icons, win- 
dows, menus 
and interfaces, 
BASIC, Logo 
and assembly. 
By John Braga, 
the 250-pages 
are from Kuma 
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of over seventy spreadsheet commands and drop- 
Funrtions down menus, plus the ability to de- 
fine, move, copy and clear cells or 
multiple columns. With the split- 
screen feature, you can copy or move 
data between windows, and a library 
of thirty functions is available simply 
by dropping down a menu. A built- 
in calculator with memory can be ac- 
cessed via keyboard or mouse. And 
more: a notepad, use of the function 
keys, and an on-line help menu. 

At $69.95. Royal Software, 2160 W. 
11th, Eugene, OR 97402 — (503) 683- 

5361. CIRCLE #122 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




SL-5^^ 



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07357-4335. circle #194 on reader service card 



ST- LOG 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 65ST 



TUTORIAL 



y/ 



Printer graphics 

tutor 



Here's the help your manual 

doesn't give you, to do 

bit-image graphics on your 

Epson, Epson compatible, or Prowriter. 



by Matthew J.W. Ratcliff 



There is no such thing as a standard when it comes to 
printer graphics. Epson was one of the first with an ex- 
pensive "Graftrax" option for their earliest MX-80 printers. 
Since that time, many "Epson-compatible" printers have 
come out, none of which is 100 percent. As the demand 
for inexpensive home printers with graphics capabilities 
has increased, several standards — of sorts — have become 
dominant. First and foremost is Epson; then there's the 
Prowriter. Earlier NEC printers used the same graphics 
commands as the Prowriter, but their more recent models 
are Epson compatible. 

One of the most widely known Epson compatibles is the 
Star Micronics Gemini printer series. Their graphics and 
other features have closely followed that of the Epson, but 
have always been just a little behind. The SG-10 has an 
"IBM mode" switch which comes closer than any other 
previous model, but is still not totally compatible. I've been 
informed that their newest NX-10 indeed has a 100 per- 
cent Epson-compatible mode. Being a true Missourian, I'd 
have to see it to believe it. 

The problem with learning how to do bit-image graph- 
ics on your own printer is the printer's manual. I have yet 
to see one written by a real programmer. If it were, you 
wouldn't see silly cartoons in it, or the useless sample pro- 
gram listings (which are, more often than not, incorrect). 
In this tutorial, I hope to show how your computer can 
speak graphics to your Epson or compatible, or Prowriter. 
Many other printers follow one of these pseudostandards 
to some degree, so you should still get some use from these 
pages. 



Printer manuals make two major mistakes in teaching 
you bit-image graphics. First, nearly all graphics exam- 
ples are symmetrical, either vertically, horizontally, or 
both. This is confusing to a novice trying to figure out 
which comes first, what's the top or bottom, and when 
the computer starts sending graphic bytes. Also, they al- 
ways use LPRINT statements. This can cause real "mys- 
tery" problems, because the computer tries to help you out. 
I'll explain more on the technical problems you can run 
into with printer graphics, after we get the basics down. 

Bit-image grapliics. 

The phrase bit-image graphics is used frequently in 
reference to printers and graphics. Once your printer has 
been put in the graphics mode with the proper "escape 
sequence," it accepts subsequent bjrtes from your computer 
verbatim. Each byte is made up of 8 bits. Each bit becomes 
a dot in your final printer graphic. If a bit is 0, then the 
pin in the dot-matrix print head associated with that bit 
will not fire, thus leaving a white dot in your printout. 
If a bit is set, then the pin will fire, to create a black dot 
on the page. The summation of all these dots, controlled 
a bit at a time, is referred to as "bit-image graphics." 

While learning how to do printer graphics, you'll prob- 
ably define your picture on graph paper, filling in squares 
where you would want a dot printed. From here, it's a sim- 
ple task to convert from graph paper to a bineiry represen- 
tation. Each black dot will be a 1, and each white dot a 
0. The binary data, grouped in chunks of 8, must be con- 
verted to decimal bytes for your data statements. A value 
is placed on each bit in a byte, as shown in Table 1 below. 
You simply add up the values for each bit that's set (IJ and 
you have the decimal representation. A programmer's cal- 



PAGE 66ST / NOVEMBER 1986 



ST-LOG 



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SOFTWARE 



INFOCOM 

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Deadline $34.99 

Enchanter $29.99 

Hitchhiker's Guide $29.99 

Infidel $34.99 

Planetfall $29,99 

Sea Stalker $29.99 

Sorcerer $34.99 

Stare ross $34.99 

Suspect $29.99 

Suspended $34.99 

Wishbringer $29.99 

Witness $29.99 

Zork I $29.99 

Zork II $29.99 

Zork III $29.99 



MINDSCAPE 

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MUSE SOFTWARE 

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Hex $27.99 

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SUBLOOIC 

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ATARI 520ST 
Hardware/Peripherals 

Atari 520 CPU $369.00 

Atari 124 Monochrome Monitor $149.00 

Atari 1224 14" Color Monitor $329.00 

Atari 354 Single Sided Drive $149.00 

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Atari 804 Graphic Printer $219.00 



(5) 3V2" DS/DD $9.99 



BLANK DISKETTES & ACCESSORIES 

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Call toll-free: 1 800 233-8950 

Outside the U.S.A. 717 327-9575 Telex 5106017898 

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CIRCLE #142 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



^Printer graphics continued 



culator with binary capabilities is very helpful in this proc- 
ess. (The Casio FX450, which has extensive hexedecimal 
and binary calculation features and sells for under $30.00 
is also a full-function scientific calculator and never needs 
batteries; it's solar.) 

Table 1. 



7 


6 

1 


5 

1 


4 

1 


3 

1 


2 


1 
1 


<- Bit Positions 

1 


1 
2 


1 
6 


3 


1 
1 


1 
1 




1 
1 


1 

1 <- Bit Values 


8 


4 

1 


2 


6 


8 


4 


2 


1 


1 
1 


1 



1 
1 


1 






1 
1 


1 
1 


Sample Binary Representation 
of Decimal 166 
=128*1+64*0+32*1+16*0 
+8*0+4*1+ *1+1 *0 
=128+32+4+2=166 



Bytes to graphics. 

The print head in a dot-matrix printer is made up of a 
vertical colmnn of small pins. When your printer outputs 
text, it fires these pins in a predefined sequence from a 
character set "bit map" it stores in its own ROM. When we 
want to send it bit-image graphics, we must first tell the 
printer, "accept the following 43 bytes of data as graphics," 
for example. The printer expects what we commonly refer 
to as an "escape sequence." When most printers see a 
CHB$(27) (escape code), it knows that a command follows. 

After sending the proper escape code, the bit-image 
graphics bytes follow. Part of the escape code tells the print- 
er how many bytes to interpret as graphic data. That way, 
escape characters within the graphics data won't inadver- 
tently be interpreted as more commands. 



When printing simple text, the top seven of nine pins 
are used for uppercase, and lowercase which doesn't re- 
quire descenders. The lower seven of nine are used for 
lowercase characters with descenders (such as p, y, q, etc.). 
The bottom pin is turned on whenever continuous under- 
line is enabled, also. When we're sending graphics data 
bytes to the printer, we take control of the top eight pins. 
Here, it's best to think in binary. When you send a graphic 
byte to the printer, each bit controls an individual pin in 
the print head. For the Epson and compatibles, you can 
see in Figure 1 that the least significant bit controls pin 
8 and the most significant bit controls the top pin, pin 1. 
In the case of the Prowriter and its compatibles, the reverse 
is true, as shown in Figure 2 . The least significant bit con- 
trols the firing of the top pin of the print head, and the 
most significant bit controls pin 8. 

Take a look at Figure 3. Here, a simple graphic of a space 
shuttle is defined. It's eight dots high and thirteen dots 
wide. Each dot column is defined by a single graphic byte 
from your computer. To make it easier to visualize, think 
of rotating the print head, pivoting at the bottom, to the 
left for Epson and to the right for Prowriter. In the figure, 
I've taken care of all the arithmetic for you. If your graphic 
must be taller, you can create it on a larger grid. You sim- 
ply break it up vertically in groups of eight rows. You would 
send the graphics data for the first row (after the appropri- 
ate escape codes), print a carriage return (and line feed for 
the ST), then the next row — and so on. More details later. 

The computer and printer. 

At this point, you should type and run the appropriate 
program. If you have an ST and an Epson or compatible, 
type and run the first program example. It will print our 



Epson/Gemini 

Graphic byte from computer's memory. 



Prowriter 

Graphic byte from computer's memory. 



1 

a 

3 
4 

B 
B 
7 
S 
S 







The most significant bit maps to the top pin 
of the print head, the least significant to the bottom. 

Figure 1. 

Epson/Gemini graphics byte to print head control example. 

ST DISK FILE: EPSGEM.PI3 

A DEGAS high-resolution graphics file. 







The most significant bit maps to the BOTTOM pin 
of the print head, the least significant to the TOP. 

Figure 2. 

Prowriter graphics byte to print head control example. 

ST DISK FILE; NECPRO.PI3 

A DEGAS high-resolution graphics file. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

B 

7 

S 

9 



PAGE 68ST / NOVEMBER 1986 



ST- LOG 



shuttle in single-, dual- and quad-density graphics, respec- 
tively, ten shuttles per line. Note that Line 120 has a lower- 
case z as part of its escape code sequence. That's the code 
used to set the Gemini lOX (or SGlO in the Star Mode) 
in quad density. This should be changed to an uppercase 
Z for Epson and other, more compatible printers. The same 
change should be made for the second program listing, 
but at Line 130. This is for 8-bit Atari computers equipped 
with Epson or compatible printers. 

Listing 3 is for Prowriter or compatible owners, and ST 
BASIC. Finally, Listing 4 is for 8-bit Ataris and the 
Prowriter. If you're using a Prowriter compatible (like an 
older NEC printer), you may find that all shuttles look the 
same size. Some are graphics command compatible with 
the Prowriter, but do not have variable dot densities. 

The escape codes. 

Each printer has a certain character sequence, usually 
preceded by the escape character, CHR$i27), that tells it 
what special function to perform. For the Prowriter, you 
must send the escape code, followed by the ASCII equiva- 
lent of the letter S, which is 83. Immediately following that, 
the Prowriter expects four characters telling it how many 
graphic bytes follow. This must be an ASCII string, pad- 
ded with Os, if necessary. Graphics density on the 
Prowriter is set by selecting print pitch, as shown in the 
sample programs. On the ST, for example, we could use 
the following to tell the Prowriter that 265 bytes of bit- 
image graphics data is on its way: 

LPRINT CHR${27J;"50255"; 

Then 265 bytes of bit-image graphics data must follow. 

For the Epson and compatibles, the printer expects the 
escape character, followed by a lead-in code. This code 
tells the printer that bit-image graphics bytes are on their 
way and selects density, as well. Changing print pitch has 
no effect on the density of graphics, as it does with the 
Prowriter. 

After the lead-in code, the Epson or compatible expects 
2 bytes telling it the total number of bit-image graphics 
characters to follow. The first byte sent will be the low byte, 
followed by the high byte. So, if we were sending 265 bytes 
of graphic data to an Epson, it might appear as follows 
on the ST: 

LPRINT CHR$C27J ;"K";CHRSt9J ;CHR$C13 ; 

Why 9 and then 1? What is 9+256*1? That comes out 
to 265. Old 8-bit Atarians should be familiar with the high- 
byte, low-byte format of addressing in the machine. The 
Epson thinks similarly. 

Bit-image graphics density determines the total num- 
ber of dots per print line, and how close together the dot 
spacing will be — as you can see from the samples. Single- 
density graphics on the Epson come out to 480 dots per 
line; dual is 960, and quad density gives you 1920. On 
the Prowriter, setting 10 characters per inch (CPI) print 
pitch will give you 640 dots per line in subsequent bit- 
image graphic functions. Setting 12 CPI gives 786 dots per 
line, 17 CPI results in 1088, and proportional spacing will 
select 1280 dots per line. Look at the listings to see how 
these are selected with different escape code sequences. 



Why not LPRINTs? 

Notice that none of the programs use the LPRINT state- 
ment any more than is absolutely necessary. The LPRINT 
poses particular problems on most computers when it 
comes to bit-image graphics. On the 8-bit Atari, the 
LPRINT is sent from a 40-character print buffer in the com- 
puter. If your LPRINT line is less than 40 characters, then 
the rest of the line is padded with NULLs, CHR$(0). This 
really goofs up the bit-image graphics count, set up with 
the escape code. 

On the ST, I found no problems with LPRINT, but avoid- 
ed it anyway. Note that our space shuttle is thirteen dot 
columns wide. In the escape code sequence for the Ep- 
son, telling the printer how many graphics dots are to fol- 
low, there will be a CHR$fl3) sent. On the ST, the 
operating system is smart enough to know if an ASCII 13 
is being sent at the end of a line, and, thus, should be fol- 
lowed with a LINE FEED, CHR$flOJ. If not at the end of 
a line, then only the CHR$(13J is sent, immolested. While 
testing some of my routines on the IBM PC, however, I 
found that their BASICA always sends a line feed after a 
CHR$fl3J, whether it's at the end of a line or not. I used 
the "out 0" command with the ST BASIC, because I knew 
this couldn't possibly be misinterpreted by the computer. 
This simply tells the ST to send a single byte out port 0, 
the printer, no questions asked. The LPRINT may have 
some other hidden "features," where it might misinterpret 
graphic data going to your printer. On the 8-bit Atari, PUT 
Ul (where you had previously done an OPEN #1,8,0,"P:"), 
is equivalent to the "out 0" command of the ST. 

In the Epson example above, we were sending 265 
graphics bytes to the printer. That poses a problem on 
some computers. Sending the CHR$(9) to the printer from 
the LPRINT works fine on the ST, but another computer 
I use interprets a CHR$f9j as a TAB character. The com- 
puter thinks, "a tab character. . . let's help out by convert- 
ing that to eight space characters." Of course, that will 
clobber your bit-image graphics, too. The CHR$(9j doesn't 
pose a problem on the 8-bit Atari or ST computers, but 
it's something to keep in mind if you work on other 
(heaven forbid), non-Atari computers. 

In the ST BASIC sample listings, note the "width Iprint 
255" command. Similar to IBM BASICA, ST BASIC as- 
sumes that your printer is only 80 colimms wide. Normally, 
ST BASIC will automatically send a carriage return and 
line feed to your printer once every 80 characters you send 
to it, if you don't. If you're running a 15-inch carriage print- 
er (such as the Gemini 15X or the Epson FX185), then your 
printer can handle 132 characters per line. This can be set 
from ST BASIC with a "width Iprint 132" command. How- 
ever, when it comes to bit-image graphics, we may send 
as many as 1920 graphics bytes in quad density without 
a return. When ST BASIC sees that you have set the width 
of the printer to 255 columns, it shuts off all checking and 
will not send a carriage return/line feed combination, un- 
less told to under your software control. 

Additional 8-bit iimitations. 

One thing many 8-bit owners don't realize is that you 
absolutely cannot send a CHR$(155J to your printer. Why? 



ST- LOG 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 69ST 



J/Frmier graphics continued 



The 8-bit Atari uses a 155 as a carriage return represen- 
tation. The printer driver in the 850, P:R: Connection or 
similar printer interface, always converts the 155 to a stan- 
dard return value of 13. What if you wanted to send 155 
graphic bytes to your Epson on an 8-bit Atari? You can't, 
because the printer interface helps you out: 

10 OPEN 01,8,8,"P:" 

20 PRINT ttl;CHR$C27);"K";CHR$C155) ;CHR 

$C0); 

In the above segment of code, the printer interface would 
see the 155 coming out and convert it to a 13 before it got 
to your printer. (The same holds true if you use PUT 
#1,155.) Then your Epson would expect only 13 graphic 
bytes, while you want to send 155 of them. Of course, the 
simplest solution is to change your setup to send 156 
graphic bytes, instead. You could then send a dummy 
graphic byte at the end, without messing up the picture. 

Usually, with screen dimips and other graphic utilities, 
you're sending an entire line of bit-image graphics. You 
know ahead of time how many bytes need to be sent, and 
can avoid that particular problem. But what if your bit- 
image graphics line going to the printer happens to have 
155s in it? They'll be converted to 13s by the printer in- 
terface and goof up the graphic. Many graphic dump util- 
ities for 8-bit Ataris have this little-known bug. A smart 
graphics utility would look for 155s and convert them "on 
the fly" to 153s, possibly (which are similar enough in bit- 
image graphics to go uiuioticed]. 

P:R: Connection ovwiers should also take note of another 
special feature where they get unwanted help. If you're 



sharing the printer between the ST and 8-bit Atari, as I 
do, then you probably have the line feed switch set in the 
P:R: box. That way, you don't have to change the auto-line- 
feed dip switch in the printer when you swap it between 
the two computers. Whenever the P:R: sees a 155 going 
to the printer with this switch set, not only does it con- 
vert the number to a 13, it also sends a line feed, 10, to 
follow up (similar to the problem noted above with the 
IBM). 

This problem never appears in The Print Shop. The pro- 
gram avoids the potential 155 problem in a completely 
different way. The Print Shop always drives the bottom sev- 
en of eight pins on the Epson, or the top seven of eight 
on the Prowriter, used for bit- image graphics. This results 
in the lower seven bits of each graphic byte being used 
to define the image, with the most significant bit always 
0. In other words, the maximum value of any graphic byte 
going to the printer is 127, so the 155 glitch will never ap- 
pear. The programmable line feed of the printer is adjust- 
ed under software control for proper vertical alignment 
of your graphic rows. 

Vertical spacing on Epson. 

It's not likely that all your graphics will be only eight 
dots high, as are the sample programs. Line spacing for 
your printer is normally set for text at about Ya of an inch, 
or sixty-six lines per page maximum. For bit-image graph- 
ics, we want each graphic line to stack one exactly above 
the next, with no extra white space between. On the Ep- 
son and Gemini printers, assuming eight bit-image graph- 



Shuttle 
Graphic 
Example 



Epson/Gemini 
Data Bytes 



1 ? 1 e 1 5 1 4 1 3 i S 1 1 1 
















1 





1 








1 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 










1 








1 


1 










1 








1 





1 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 






















1 
















1 





1 
















1 





1 










1 


1 








1 













i 








1 













1 








1 











i 


i 





i 

















1 


1 









dec 

10 

1£7 

169 

169 

1E7 

33 

37 

37 

57 
41 

41 

E6 
IE 



•_#_ 

_♦_ _*_ " 

__♦_ ♦_ _♦ «_][ 

"♦_ !._♦.♦. ♦ 

* _# §_ »___ 



1 S 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 111S13 



Figure 3. 

Shuttle bit-image graphics example. 

ST DISK FILE: SHUTTLE.PI3 

A DEGAS high-resolution graphics flle. 



Prowriter 
Data Bytes 



dec 


7 1 G 1 5 1 4 1 3 i E 1 1 1 




S0 





1 





1 














£54 




i 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 





149 










1 





1 





1 


149 










1 





1 





1 


S54 




1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 





13E 
















1 








164 







1 








1 








164 







1 








1 








156 










1 


1 


1 








148 










1 





1 








148 










1 





1 








88 





1 





1 


1 











48 








1 


1 















PAGE 70ST / NOVEMBER 1986 



ST- LOG 



ics, you'll want y72 line spacing. If only using seven pins, 
as in the The Print Shop, then set 772- The vertical spac- 
ing is set on the Epson and compatibles with the ESCAPE- 
A command, followed by a byte (between and 127), 
specifying the new setting in 72nds of an inch for each 
line feed the printer does. In ST BASIC, it could be set 
with the following: 

LPRINT CHR$C27);"ft";CHRSC8J; 

Or, avoiding LPRINT as suggested, the following would 
work just as well: 

OUT 0,27:0UT 0,ft5CC"fl") :OUT 0,8 

Both the Epson and Gemini printers have another 
programmable line feed control, the ESCAPE-J command. 
On all Gemini printers through the SG-10 (whether in the 
Star or IBM mode), this programs the line feeds in incre- 
ments of 144ths of an inch. 

On the Epson, however, it programs in increments of 
216ths of an inch. This "minor incompatibility" has been 
a major source of headaches for Gemini owners over the 
past few years. Any time you get Epson-compatible graph- 
ic software that gives you extra white space between ev- 
ery graphic line on your Gemini, you can bet they're using 
the ESCAPE-J command, instead of the more universal 
ESCAPE-A. 

Why would anyone want to use ESCAPE-J? Well, the 
dots line up properly using the yyz-inch increment, but 
sometimes graphics dump routines need even finer con- 
trol over the line feed, to adjust for aspect ratio (propor- 
tionality) in your output. 

If the newest Gemini, the NXIO, programs in increments 
of 216ths of an inch with the ESCAPE-J command, then 
maybe — just maybe — it's finally 100 percent Epson com- 
patible. 

Vertical spacing on Prowriter. 

The Prowriter's line feed is progranuned in increments 
of 144ths of an inch, with the ESCAPE-T command. To 
set y72- or 'yi44-inch line spacing, you can use one of the 
following from ST BASIC: 

LPRINT CHR$ C27J ; "TIB"; 
or, 

OUT 0,27:OUT 0,ft5CC"T") :OUT 0,ftSCt"l"J 
:OUT 0,A5Ct"6") 

A final Epson note. 

As more escape commands have been added to newer 
Epson and Gemini printers, some are followed by a to 
disable, or 1 to enable a particular feature. For example, 
the following turn on continuous double-width printing 
on the Epson and Gemini printers: 

LPRINT CHR$t27J ;"W":CHR$tlJ 



or: 



OUT 0,27:0UT 0,flSCC"W"J :OUT 8,1 

(continued on next pagej 
ST-LOG 



.otX/.-^., 



^^ 



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the successor to Pascal 



w 
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I FULL interface to GEM DOS, AES 

and VDI 
I Smart linker tor greatly reduced 

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Pascal} designed Modula-2 to replace Pascal 



,'i^^^S^ '■ 



Added features of ft^odula- 

I CASE has an ELSE and may contain ■ 

subranges 

I Programs may be broken up into ■ 

Modules for separate compilation ■ 

I Machine level interface ^ 
Bit-wise operators 

Direct port and Memory access ■ 
Absolute addressing 

Interrupt structure ■ 



2 not found in Pascal 

Dynamic strings that may be any 

size 

Multi-tasking is supported 

Procedure variables 

Module version control 

Programmer definable scope of 

objects 

Open array parameters (VAR r: 

ARRAY OF REALS,} 

Elegant type transfer functions 



Ramdisk 
Benchmarks (sees) 

Sieve of Eratosthenes; 

Float 

Calc 

Null program 



Compile 

6,2 

6.4 
5.5 
51 



4,3 
4,8 
4,2 
3,2 



3.5 
8,3 

3,3 



Optomized 
Size 

2600 bytes 
4844 bytes 
2878 bytes 
2370 bytes 



MODULE Sieve; 


MODULE Float; 


CONST Size = 8190; 


FROM MattiLibO IMPORT sin. In, exp, 


TYPE FlagRange = [O.Sizel; 


sqrt, arctan; 


FlagSet = SET OF FlagRange; 


VAR x,y: REAL; i: CARDINAL; 


VAR Flags: FlagSet; 


BEGIN CST-.SA-.JS--) 


i: FlagRange; 


x:= 1.0; 


Pnme, k, Count. Iter: CARDINAL; 


FOR i:= 1 TO 1000 DO 


BEGIN CSS-.SR-.SA* •) 


y:= sin (x); y:= In (x); y:= exp (x); 


FOR lter:= 1 TO 10 DO 


y:= sqrt (x); y = arctan (x): 


Count:= 0; 


x:=x-'0.01; 


F!ags:= FlagSet(), (■ empty set ■) 


END; 


FOR i:= TO Size DO 


END float. 


IF (i IN Flags) THEN 
Prime:^ (' " 2) * 3; W:= i + Prime: 






WHILE k <= Size DO 


MODULE calc; 


INCL (Flags, k); 


VAR a,b,c: REAL; n, i: CARDINAL: 


k:^ k + Prime: 


BEGIN (■$T-,$A-,$S--) 


END; 


n:= 5000; 


Count:= Count + 1: 


a:= 2.71828: b:= 3.14159; c:= 10; 


END; 


FORi:= ITOn DO 


END; 


c:= c'a: c:^ c*b; c:= c/a: c:= c/b; 


END; 


END: 


END Sieve. 


END calc. 



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CIRCLE #143 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 71ST 



>/ Printer graphics continued 



I've frequently seen this shown (translated to ST BA- 
SIC) in printer manuals, as follows: 

LPRINT CHR$C27);"H1" 

This is wrong, however, and will not work. Many printer 
manuals show it incorrectly. The Epson and Gemini 
printers expect a CHR$flJ not 1, or CHB$(49). This does 
get confusing. 

Now, the newer Epson FX printers don't care. They'll 
accept either of the above as a valid command sequence, 
but only the former will work properly on the Gemini and 
many other Epson compatibles. In other words, Epson is 
making up for deficiencies in their past documentation 
with updates in the printer's ROM control software. It will, 
of course, create more confusion among other Epson com- 
patible users. 

Normally, if the third byte of an escape code is shovni 
as a or 1 only, then send CHB$iO] or CHB$(1] not 0, 
which is CH¥{$[48}, or 1, which is CHR$f49j. If you use 
the former, you'll be guaranteed compatibility with vir- 
tually all Epson-compatible printers (and older Epson 
models), not just the newest Epson FX series. (I wonder 



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CIRCLE #144 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



if Star Micronics caught this little trick before releasing 
their new NX/NL printer series? If not, then it stilJ isn't 
100 percent Epson compatible, is it?) 

Wrap up. 

I hope this tutorial has helped you understand how to 
speak graphics to your printer The sample programs were 
kept brief and simple, so you can see the essence of 
computer-controlled printer graphics. Armed with this 
more accurate information and specific program examples 
for your computer, you should be able to make more sense 
out of your printer manual — and tackle that printer graph- 
ics utility you've been wanting to write. 

I would like to thank Phil Bunch of Comm Tech com- 
puter services in St. Louis, Missouri for his valuable 
Prowriter assistance in developing this tutorial, fl 



The two-letter checksum code preceding the line 
numbers in the 8-bit BASIC listings here is not a part 
of the BASIC program. For further information, see 
the BASIC Editor II in issue 47. 



Listing 1. 
ST BASIC listing. 

10 fullw Ziclearw 2:width iprint 255 

20 gotoxy 1,1:? "SHUTTLE Graphics:" 

30 for jy.=i. to 3 

48 on j'/. goto 50,60,70 

50 ? "Single"; ; Iprint "Single Density 

Graphics:":goto 80 

60 ? "Dual"; : Iprint "Dual Density Grap 

hics:":goto 80 

70 ? "Quad"; : Iprint "Quad Density Grap 

hies:" 

80 for iJ^=l to 10 

90 out 0,27:on jy. goto 100,110,120 

100 out 0,asc f"K") :goto 130:ren sgl de 

ns Graphics Select 

110 out 0,asc t"L"J :goto 130:reM dbl de 

ns Graphics Select 

120 out 0,asc C"z"J :reM Genini, use "Z" 

for Epson printers 
130 out 0,13:out 0,0:reM Lo,Hi bytes o 
f total Graphics chrs 
140 restore 
150 for ky.=l to 13 
160 read a^:out e,ay. 
170 next ky. 
180 Iprint " "; 
190 next iy. 

200 iprint: iprint:? " done.";chr$(7> 
210 next jy, 
220 closew 2 
230 end 

240 data 10,127,169,169,127,33,37,37,5 
7,41,41,26,12 



ST CHECKSUM DATA. 

(see page 56ST) 

10 data 754, 902, 900, 426, 855, 766 
, 861, 47, 801, 34, 6346 

110 data 14, 240, 514, 549, 956, 342 
, 399, 757, 401, 812, 4984 

210 data 381, 435, 786, 180, 1782 



PAGE 72ST / NOVEMBER 1986 



ST- LOG 



Listing 2. 
BASIC listing. 

SJ 10 GRAPHICS 0:POKE 752,1 

TV 20 ? "Shuttle Graphics:" 

m 30 OPEN ttl,8,0,"P:" 

£C 40 FOR J=l TO 3 

P7 50 ON J GOTO 60,70,80 

m 60 ? "Single";:? ttl;"Sin3le Density Gr 

aphics:":G0T0 90 
KS 70 ? "Double";:? ttl;"Dual Density Grap 

hics:":GOTO 90 
ML 80 ? "Quad";:? ttl;"Quad Density Graphi 

cs:" 
£J 90 FOR 1=1 TO 10 

m 100 PUT ttl,27:0N J GOTO 110,120,130 
m 110 PUT ttl,ASCC"K") :GOTO 140 : REM sgl d 

ens graphics select 
Itf 120 PUT ttl,aSCC"L"l : GOTO 140: REM dbl d 

ens graphics select 
m 130 PUT ttl,ASCC"z"} :REN GeMini quad se 

1, use "Z" for Epson printers 
99 140 PUT ttl,13:PUT ttl,0:REM LO,Hi bytes 

of total graphics bytes to send 
CK 150 RESTORE 
TO 160 FOR K=l TO 13 
fZ 170 READ A: PUT ttl,A 
m 180 NEXT K 
PI 190 ? «l;" "; 
FS 200 NEXT I 

TE 210 ? ttl;? »l!? " done." 
11 220 FOR W=15 TO STEP -0.15:S0UND 0,6 

0,10,M:NEXT H:SOUND 0,0,0,0 
fit 230 NEXT J 

m 240 POKE 752,0:CL0SE «1 : ? "*« Finished 
»*" 

09 250 END 

m 260 DATA 10,127,169,169,127,33,37,37,5 
7,41,41,26,12 



Listing 3. 
ST BASIC listing. 

learw 2:width Iprint 255 

l:? "SHUTTLE Graphics:" 

to 4 

50,60,70,80 

ts";: iprint "640 Dots/Line 

oto 90 

ts";: iprint "786 Dots/Line 

oto 90 

ots";: iprint "1088 Dots/Li 

goto 90 
ots";: iprint "1280 Dots/Li 

on jy. goto 100,110,120,130 
ct"H"):goto 140:reM 640 Do 
elect 

ct"E"J:goto 140:reM 786 Do 
elect 

cC"Q"]:goto 140:ren 1088 D 
select 

ct"P"J:reM 1280 Dots, Prop 
nt Select 
to 10 

:out o,asc C"S"} :reH select 
raphics 
0013"; :ren 13 Graphics byt 



10 fullw 2:c 
20 gotoxy 1, 
30 for jX=l 
40 on jy. got 
50 ? "640 DO 

Density :":g 
60 ? "786 Do 

Density ;":g 
70 ? "1088 D 
ne Density:" 
80 ? "1280 D 
ne Density:" 
90 out 0,27: 
100 out 0,as 
ts, 10 CPI s 
110 out 0,as 
ts, 12 CPI s 
120 out 0,as 
ots, 17 CPI 
130 out 0,as 
optional Pri 
140 for i^=l 
150 out 0,27 

bit inage g 
160 Iprint 
es to send 
170 restore 
180 for ky.=i. 
190 read ay.i 
200 next kX 
210 Iprint " 
220 next iy. 



230 Iprint : Iprint:? " done.";chrS(71 

240 next jy. 

250 closew 2 

260 end 

270 data 80,254,149,149,254,132,164,16 

4,156,148,148,88,48 



ST CHECKSUM DATA. 

(see page 56STJ 

10 data 754, 902, 902, 710, 99, 140, 

995, 55, 228, 587, 5372 

110 data 605, 715, 574, 948, 64, 809 
, 558, 965, 351, 380, 5969 

210 data 738, 382, 821, 390, 444, 79 
5, 866, 4436 



Listing 4. 
BASIC listing. 



10 GRAPHICS e:POKE 752,1 
TV 20 ? "Shuttle Graphics:" 
GO 30 OPEN ttl,8,0,"P:" 
ER 40 FOR J=l TO 4 
RS 50 ON J GOTO 60,70,80,90 
ES 60 ? "640 Dots";:? ttl;"640 Dots/Line D 

ensity:":GOTO 100 
TC 70 ? "786 Dots";:? ttl;"786 Dots/Line D 

ensity:":GOTO 100 
PP 80 ? "1088 Dots";:? «l;"1088 Dots/Line 

Density:":GOTO 100 
P2 90 ? "1280 Dots";:? ttl;"1280 Dots/Line 

Density;" 
ME 100 PUT ttl,27:0N J GOTO 110,120,130,14 


OJ 110 PUT ttl,ASCt"N") :GOTO 150:REM 640 D 

Ots, 10 CPI select 
Bft 120 PUT »1,ASCC"E"I :GOTO 150:REM 786 D 

Ots, 12 CPI select 
KX 130 PUT »1,ASCC"Q"] :G0T0 150:REM 1088 

Dots, 17 CPI select 
XO 140 PUT »1,ASCC"P") :REM 1280 Dots, Pro 

portional Print select 
QV 150 FOR 1=1 TO 10 
RP 160 PUT »1,27:PUT ttl, ASC C"5"J : REM Sele 

ct Bit Inage Graphics 
m 170 PRINT ttl;"0013"; :REM 13 Bytes of g 

raphic data 
CQ 180 RESTORE 
TU 190 FOR K=l TO 13 
FH 200 READ A:PUT ttl, A 
GO 210 NEXT K 
OM 220 ? «i;" "; 
FY 230 NEXT I 

TK 240 ? ttl:? ttl:? " done." 
10 250 FOR W=15 TO STEP -0.15:S0UND 0,6 

0,1O,M:NEXT H:SOUND 0,0,0,0 
GO 260 NEXT J 
VJ 270 POKE 752,0:CL05E ttl:? "»» Finished 

4H(" 
OH 280 END 
its 290 DATA 80,254,149,149,254,132,164,16 

4,156,148,148,88,48 



to 13 
out Q,ay. 



ST- LOG 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 73ST 



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PAGE 74ST / NOVEMBER 1986 



ST- LOG 




y/ 



Megamax C 

and 

Mark Williams C 



MEGAMAX C FOR THE ATARI ST 

MEGAMAX, INC. 

Box 851521 

Richardson, TX 75085 

(214) 987-4931 

$199.95 



MARK WILLIAMS C 
MARK WILLIAMS CO. 
1430 West Wrightwood Ave. 
Chicago, IL 60614 
$179.95 



by Douglas Weir 



Time flies, doesn't it? Only twelve 
months ago the ST was beginning to ap- 
pear in stores. Soon after that I was com- 
piling my first program with Alcyon C. (t 
finished linking sometime in early Febru- 
ary of this year My second one is a spe- 
cial Christmas project (Christmas 1988). 
I hope it finishes soon — I'm already be- 
hind schedule. 

But seriously, folks . . . When the Mega- 
max C compiler arrived, I had been try- 
ing for several hours to link a desk acces- 
sory version of a GEM demonstration pro- 
gram with DRI's Link68. In desperation I 
turned to Megamax. In less than 15 
minutes I had the program compiled and 
linked. It ran beautifully. I've never used 
Alcyon since. 

Megamax C (MMC) is distributed on 
two single-sided disks. Included is the 
compiler and linker, plus a disassembler, 
code improver, Ubrarian and resource con- 
struction program (similar to the Resource 
Construction Set supplied with the Atari 
Developer's Kit). These programs can be 
run from a GEM-driven shell program also 
included, or directly from the desktop (as 
.TIP applications) , or with any command 
shell processor (the manual mentions 
Beckemeyer C-Shell as an example; I used 
the command.tos from Atari). 

The MMC shell includes a "make" fea- 
ture for compiling and linking multiple 
source files. A GEM-driven editor is also 
supplied. It operates more or less on the 
1st Word model, but I found it rather clum- 
sy and used 1st Word instead, with no 
problem. 



Compiling and linking a program is very 
easy, partly because there are essentially 
no compiler or linker options. Only one 
soiirce file can be compiled at a time. The 
output object file will be written to the 
same disk (and directory) as the source 
file. Error messages are written to the 
screen and also to a file named errors.out, 
on the same disk as the source file. 

A "Megamax" folder is required to be 
in the root directory of the disk the com- 
piler or linker is on. This folder contains 
the libraries and header files. 

The compiler is one-pass, and as a re- 
sult it is fast — almost unbelievably so at 
first (some timings are given in Table 1, at 
the end of this review). Also as a result, 
and in the true C spirit, error checking is 
limited. I never realized I had a redefined 
macro in a fairly large GEM program I had 
written, until I put it through the Mark 
Williams compiler. But that's part of the 
language. As the famous French program- 
mer, Gaston de Gautou, said, "The C, she 
is a harsh mistress, no?" 

The linker's lone option allows you to 
override the default name (a.out) and des- 
tination of the output file. Of course, you 
can also specify extra libraries to be 
searched. 

The MMC library system is very simple. 
Virtually everything (including AES and 
VDI calls) comes out of syslib, which is 
searched automatically. There are two oth- 
er libraries. Double. I is used for double- 
precision arithmetic, and ace. I is used 
when linking desk accessories (the only 
extra step in creating an accessory). Other- 
wise, you specify libraries only when you 
want to use ones created with the MMC 
librarian. 



Some peculiarities should be noted. 
First, the linker builds on its disk a tem- 
porary file from which the rim file is fi- 
nally written, and it must have enough 
space to do so. For those using only flop- 
py disk drives, this means the linker has 
to have a disk pretty much to itself (except 
for the Megamax folder and libraries). The 
location of this temporary file (in contrast 
to that of the destination file) cannot be 
overridden. 

Second, there is no list of linker error 
messages in the manual. Some of these 
can be a bit mystifying. MMC does not al- 
low the size of separate data structures 
(such as arrays or structures) , or the data 
segment as a whole, to exceed 32K bytes. 
You can easily get around this by declar- 
ing pointers instead, then allocating what- 
ever memory you need at runtime with 
callocO or malloc(). If you forget about this 
and, say, declare a 32000-element array of 
int, you may get a reasonable error mes- 
sage from the linker, saying you've exceed- 
ed the allowable data space, but you could 
instead get the message couldn't find some 
local labels. This is the linker's way of tell- 
ing you the data segment is exhausted. You 
can also get the couldn't /ind message by 
using a label (for example, goto /ail) with- 
out declaring it. 

Object modules produced by the MMC 
compiler are, as you might expect, incom- 
patible with anyone else's. Syslib includes 
bindings for all GEM calls listed in the VDI 
and AES manuals, but not all of them are 
documented in the MMC manual. 

As Clayton Walnum pointed out in an 
earlier installment of C-manship, the be- 
havior of MMC's implementation of get- 
char() is rather odd. The function doesn't 



ST- LOG 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 75ST 



// Review 



continued 



return from a call until it encoimters a car- 
riage return, so you have to use something 
like CconinO to get a character immedi- 
ately. 

You can get the source code for the en- 
tire MMC library, including the GEM bind- 
ings, by sending $50.00 to Megamax. 
Much of the code is written for the com- 
piler's in-line assembler, which is a delight 
to use. In-line assembly code begins with 
the keyword asm and a left-hand curly 
bracket, and is terminated with a right- 
hand curly bracket. Macros can be im- 
plemented with the #define directive. 

The assembler adheres to standard 
Motorola syntax — the only real exception 
is that register names must be in upper 
case. Both local and global variables in 
your program are accessible to the assem- 
bly code; the variables are addressed by us- 
ing register A4 (external and static) or A6 
(local) as a base register. Since in-line code 
is located entirely in the code segment of 
a C program, you can't explicitly write to 
variable space allocated within the code. 
However, if you need to use either of these 
registers for something else, you can save 
it with the trick in Figure 1. 

The assembler has only one bug that I 
could find. The last line of assembly code 
must be commented (e.g., see the ;and re- 
turn in Figure 1), otherwise you will get 
an instruction syntax error from the com- 
piler. The #include directive can be used 
in the middle of asm blocks to include oth- 
er assembly code files. Both C-style and 
Motorola-style comments are accepted; 
you can use the former to comment out 
blocks of code containing the latter. 

Using Megamax to "compile" a large file 
of in-line assembly code will be much 
faster than simply assembling with many 
of the stand-alone assemblers currently 
available. You can iise the MMC disassem- 
bler as an aid to writing optimized in-line 
code, but you can't directly "tweak" the 
compiler's output, since there is no sepa- 
rate assembly pass. The disassembler is as 
easy to use as the other parts of the pack- 
age. 

A "code improver" program performs 
branch optimizations on an object file. The 
manual says that output code is "about 3% 
faster and 10% smaller" than the original. 
The improver affects only the nonlibrary 
portion of your code. 

MMC contains the following important 
extensions: structure and union assign- 
ment, and passing to and from functions; 
character constants can consist of one, two 
or four characters between single quotes; 
significant length of identifiers (variable 
names, etc.) is ten characters; four data and 
two address registers are available for reg- 
ister variables. 

MMC does not allow a program's size to 
exceed 32K bytes. To get around this, the 
compiler implements an "overlay" direc- 
tive that allows you to break up a program 



into smaller parts. Note that these are not 
dynamic overlays; the effect of using this 
directive is simply to generate a multiseg- 
ment program, all of which is loaded into 
memory at rimtime. In other words, over- 
lays are transparent to the programmer. 

The MMC manual comes in a full-size, 
loose-leaf ring binder. The documentation 
is mostly well written, and there is a lot 
of it— over 370 pages. The GEM calls 
(with the exceptions noted above) are 
covered. 

Megamax requires no royalties for com- 
mercial programs developed with its C 
package. It is my favorite C compiler of all 
those now available for the ST. For users 
without a hard disk, it's the only sane 
choice. I love this compiler. 

Mark Williams C (MWC) is not just a C 
compiler — it's more like a way of life. 
MWC came (in my review copy) on two 
double-sided disks (a single-sided version 
is available, according to an enclosed note). 
Installation takes the better part of an hour 
on a floppy-disk-based ST, just to build the 
system's directory structure and copy the 
necessary files. The paperback manual 
contains over 600 pages, every one of 
which comes in handy. The result is a sys- 
tem that has a lot of the feel of a mainframe 
UNIX, but which requires a hard disk for 
optimum performance. 

The compiler is larger than Megamax's; 
the programs that make up its multiple 
passes total over 200K bytes, as opposed 
to 73K for the one-pass Megamax C. This 
means that MWC is slower than Megamax 
C. But you get a lot in return: a rich set 
of compiler and linker options, extended 
error checking (if desired) and the ability 
to link to object modules in standard DRI 
format. 

The compiler is only one of many com- 
mands and utilities available to the UNIX- 
like command processor Others include 
egrep, sort, diff, history, wc and make. I/O 
redirection, pipes and scripts (batch files) 
are supported. This system (called msh for 
micro-shell) is nicer than any of the other 
ST command shells I've seen. 

You must have about 128K bytes of free 
memory to use make. In the command 
shell, you can type mf to find out how 
much memory is available. 

On a floppy system, you obviously can't 
have access to all of MWC's features at the 
same time. Instead, you put msh and the 
utilities on one disk and the compiler on 
the other. There's a full-screen (non-GEM) 
editor, MicroEMACS, with source code 
(which is definitely not "micro"). It's simi- 
lar to Mince and the other EMACS-like 
editors. I used 1st Word instead, and had 
no trouble doing so. 

Also included is a symbolic debugger 
that allows you to monitor the execution 
of a compiled program. The debugger does 
not require a special compilation of the file 
to be debugged, but the file must be com- 



piled under MWC. You can set break- 
points, patch values into memory and dis- 
assemble code. You can display the current 
contents of machine registers, but I couldn't 
find a way to change register values (none 
is mentioned in the manual). The debug- 
ger works only with TOS-type applica- 
tions, not with GEM programs. 

I found it very easy to port my Alcyon 
and Megamax sovirce code over to MWC. 
The modifications involved header files 
only. 

The advertising for MWC mentions 
"Lint-like error checking." Lint is a pro- 
gram included with some C packages to 
check for a lot of the little things that nor- 
mal C compilers don't: variables that aren't 
used, data type mixups, etc. MWC certain- 
ly does much more than the usual check- 
ing. For example, it caught a redefined 
macro that slipped through Megamax and 
Alcyon. It will also notify you of variables 
that have been declared but never used, 
violations of standard C rules concerning 
structures and unions, constant condition- 
als and data type confusions. 

There's a switch that allows warnings of 
deviations from Kernighan and Ritchie. 
This is a simple warning with no further 
elaboration — it's up to you to look at the 
source code and figure out just what the 
violation is. As far as I could tell from test- 
ing, MWC does not check for the follow- 
ing: use of uninitialized variables; use of 
a value returned from a function that has 
no return statement (and which is not 
declared void — this situation is detected); 
statements which are unreachable for var- 
ious reasons; statements with possibly 
confused operator precedences; and cases 
where too many or too few arguments are 
passed to a function. 

Unless you specify otherwise, a source 
file is compiled and linked with one com- 
mand. The linker can be run separately. 
Various compiler switches allow you to 
(among other things) define or undefine 
symbols on the command line, specify in- 
clude files and libraries, generate assem- 
bly source code as output (instead of an 
object file), substitute other programs for 
various passes of the compiler(!), and al- 
low nested comments in the source code. 
The preprocessor can be run separately 
(for example, to generate macros in assem- 
bly source code), and so can the assembler 

However, the letter combinations denot- 
ing compiler and linker switches are case- 
dependent. When you run the compiler as 
a JTP application from the desktop, every- 
thing is translated into uppercase by the 
system, so that many of the options be- 
come inaccessible. Since one of these is the 
hbrary (-1) option, this made the JTP form 
effectively useless for me. However, there 
is enough room on a double-sided floppy 
to hold the command-shell program and 
the compiler, so you can run the latter in 
the normal way. 



PAGE 76ST / NOVEMBER 1986 



ST- LOG 



An easy-to-use archiver will create libra- 
ries from object files. A very useful utili- 
ty called drtomw converts object files in 
DRI (i.e., Atari) format to MWC format. 
You can then link to these modules, as 
well. I have tested all these features, and 
they all work. 

MWC provides bindings for all VDI and 
AES functions. However, the manual does 
not include GEM documentation. 

Creating a desk accessory requires the 
following steps (not given in the manual): 
save a copy of crtsg.o (the normeil GEM 
startup code) in a safe directory. Then as- 
semble the following code, name it crtsg.o, 
and put it in the lib directory (see Figure 
2). 

After you've done this, compile with the 
-VGEM switch. The output should be a 
properly functioning desk accessory. The 
next release of the compiler will have a 
simple switch for creating accessories. 

As I mentioned, the assembler can be 
used alone, but has its quirks. The assem- 
bler directives, data declaration and defi- 
nition keywords are all nonstandard . The 
symbol for immediate data ($, the dollar 
sign) is not only nonstandard but an alias 
of the symbol Motorola uses to denote hex- 
adecimal values. Register lists for the mov- 
em instruction aren't supported, so you'll 
either have to hand assemble your own 
mask values, or push and pull registers 
separately (making sure you preserve the 
right order). Within its limits, the assem- 
bler works fine. You can easily link to the 
object modules it generates, and you can 



also compile/assemble a C source and as- 
sembly source file at the same time, link 
it, and get a runnable program file — cdl 
with one conmiand. There is no in-line as- 
sembly feature. 

MWC includes many extensions and ex- 
tra features. It's sometimes difficult to find 
them, though. Most of the manual (close 
to 400 pages) consists of the Lexicon, an 
alphabetical listing of every term, key- 
word, command or utiUty in the MWC sys- 
tem. There's an enormous amount of useful 
information in the Lexicon, much more 
than in most compiler manuals, and, for 
the most part, it is well organized. But 
there are, inevitably, omissions. Worse, no- 
where in the manual can you find in one 
place a set of specifications for this im- 
plementation of C. Usually, you can look 
up the relevant topic, but in the case of 
identifier length and allowable characters, 
for example, I searched in vain. The sec- 
tion on the assembler gives this informa- 
tion (I assume it holds true for the compiler 
and external labels), but it isn't indexed. 
(It seems that all alphanumeric characters 

plus period (.) and baseline characters ( ) 

are allowed in identifiers, and only the first 
sixteen are significant.) 

The following seem to be the most sig- 
nificant extensions included in MWC: 
peek and poke statements (in byte, word 
and longword sizes); void as function and 
enum as data type; structure assignment, 
passing and returning structures (as op- 
posed to pointers to structures) to and from 
functions; assert and #assert macro and 



directive, to check the values of variables 
and constants at compile and runtime 
(used in debugging); two sort routines 
(shellsort and quicksort), included in the 
function library; initialization of auto ar- 
rays; a Bessel library function; and some 
other miscellaneous math functions. Three 
address registers and five data registers are 
available for register variables in any func- 
tion. If you let it, the compiler will warn 
you when it is reducing "register" storage 
class variables to "auto." 

The license agreement at the back of the 
MWC manual states that no royalties or 
license fees are required for commercial 
programs developed with the package. 

It's difficult to make a hard-and-fast 
choice between MWC and Megamax C as 
the C compiler to buy. For single users, es- 
pecially those without a hard disk, Mega- 
max C is probably best. It's much faster 
than anything else, and its elegant in-line 
assembler is a joy to use. Those for whom 
such issues as object-module compatibil- 
ity with DRI code are important, and who 
have a hard disk, may well prefer MWC's 
many extras. From that standpoint, Mark 
Williams' command shell with its many 
UNIX-like utiUties and wide range of com- 
piler and linker options make it, in my 
opinion, the all-round best choice for seri- 
ous software development on the ST. H 







Figure 


1. 


f* subroutine to savc/rcstorc 


HHC base register *f 


f* De r= 


a => save 


*4, els* restore A4 »/ 1 


reg-aO 
save_a4t 


bsr 
nop 
nop 


flx_a4 


(figure out what to do 
M Bytes enpty space 


flx_a4i 


novea.l 


c«7)t,«e 


iget address of ■save-a4' 




tst.l 




isave or restore? 




bei 


store_a4 


(if save 


get_a4i 


Hovea. 1 


CA8),A6 


lelse restore A4 




rts 




land return 


store_a4i 


novel 


«4, CAOI 


jsave A4 




rti 




(and return 







Figure 


2. 


/The MHC 


version of 


"accstart.s" — 


• shrl 








/shared Instructions 


.globi 




naln_ 




/label of C progran start 


starti 










lea 




estack.sp 




/set top of stack 


Jsr 




naln_ 




/begin progran 


clr.w 




-Cspj 




/code == terninate process 


trap 




*1 




/CEMDOS can 


.bssd 










ustacki 


blkw 1024 




/space for stack == IK 


estacki 


blkl 1 




/top of stack 



Table 1. 



Compiler/Linker Timings and Fiie Sizes 



Filename and sizes 

.c .prg 

DRI: apskel (7259) 10774 

sx (6347) 14407 

wwx (42695) 21069 

MMC: apskel (8840) 5604 

sx (6330) 10153 

wwx (42664) 14397 

MWC: apskel (9126) 8219 

sx (6347) 14198 

wwx (42764) 20134 



Floppy times 


C= 


=3:58, L= 


=3:43 


C= 


=3:45, L= 


=3:40 


c= 


=11:00, L= 


=5:17 


c= 


=0:30, L= 


=0:55 


c= 


=0:23 L= 


=1:05 


c= 


=1:01, L= 


=1:28 


C + L=3:45 




C+L=3;20 




C+L=6:35 





Hard times 




C= 


=2:12, L= 


=1:55 


C= 


=1:55, L= 


=1:48 


C= 


=3:25, L= 


=2:13 


C= 


=0:12, L= 


=0:25 


C= 


=0:09, L= 


=0:30 


C= 


=0:27 l-= 


=0:35 


C+L=1:05 




C+L=1:00 




C+L=1:50 





sx is a TOS file utility; wwx is a GEM windowing demo (see last month's ST-Log). 

C=compile time, L=link time. Times in minutes:seconds. 

File sizes in K bytes. 

Hard disk used was 60MB Supra in 4 15MB partitions. 

MWC floppy version was double-sided, DRI and MMC single-sided. 



ST-LOG 



NOVEMBER 1986 /PAGE 77ST 



AA Rated Soflware 
Atari and Abacus 





TextPro 



lll l ltllll MM t HM I H 



■■ ■ ■ . i . i /. i . . . i . . . - .u ■■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ /li t i.M.r.t.M i ,ur,.u . 



Word processor for the ST 





Create double- »„^ 
sized pictures I* C/ 

FohTCT 




ST DataTrieve 

A simple-to-use and versatile database 
manager. Features help screens; 
lightning-fast operation; tailorable 
display using multiple fonts; 
user-definable edit masks; capacity up 
to 64,000 records. Supports multiple 
files. RAM-disk support for 1040ST. 
Complete search, sort and file 
subsettlng. Interfaces to TextPro. Easy 
printer control. $49.95 



ST TextPro 

Wordprocessor with professional 
features and easy-to-use! Full-screen 
editing with mouse or keyboard 
shortcuts. High speed input, scrolling 
and editing; sideways printing; 
multi-column output; flexible printer 
installation; automatic Index and table 
of contents; up to 180 chars/line; 30 
definable function keys; metafile 
output; much more. $49.95 



ST PaintPro 

A GEI^™ among ST drawing programs. 
Very friendly, but very powerful design 
and painting program. A must for 
everyone's artistic or graphics needs. 
Use up to three windows. You can 
even cut & paste between windows. 
Free-form sketching; lines, circles, 
ellipses, boxes, text, fill, copy, move, 
zoom, spray, paint, erase, undo, help. 
Double-sized picture format. $49.95 




ST Forth/MT 
Powerful, multi-tasking Forth for the ST. 
A complete, 32-bit implementation 
based on Forth-83 standard. Develop- 
ment aids: full screen editor, monitor, 
macro assembler. 1500-h word library. 
TOS/LINEA commands. Floating point 
and complex arithmetic. $49.95 



AssemPro 

The complete 68000 

assembler development 

package for the ST 



ST AssemPro 

Professional developer's package 
includes editor, two-pass interactive 
assembler with error locator, online help 
including instruction address mode and 
GEM parameter information, 
monitor-debugger, disassembler and 



PCBjoard 
Designer 

Create printed circuit board layouts 




Auto-routing, component list, pinout list, net list 



68020 simulator, more. 



$59.95 



Call now for the name of the dealer nearest you. 
Or order directly using your MC, Visa or Amex 
card. Add $4.00 per order for shipping. Foreign 
orders add $10.00 per item. Call (616) 241-5510 
or write for your free catalog. 30-day money 
back software guarantee. Dealers inquires 
welcome-over 1400 dealers nationwide. 



PCBoard Designer 

Interactive, computer aided design 
package that automates layout of printed 
circuit boards. Auto-routlng, 45° or 
90° traces; two-sided boards; pin-to-pin, 
pin-to-BUS or BUS-to-BUS. Rubber- 
banding of components during place- 
ment. Outputs pinout, component and 
net list. $395.00 

ST and 1040ST are trademarks ol Atari Corp. 
GEM is a trademarit o( Digital Research inc. 



Abacus 



f^^^ntm 



iffimm 



P.O. Box 7219 Dept.NB Grand Rapids, Ml 4951 
Phone 61 6/241-5510»TeIex 709-101 'Fax 616/241-5021 



CIRCLE #128 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



REVIEW 



y/ 



>-^*- 



Games for your ST 



Monkey Business 

and 

Delta Patrol 

THE OTHER VALLEY SOFTWARE 

976 W. Foothill Blvd. 

Suite 490 

Claremont, CA 91711 

Color or monochrome $19.95 each 

by David Plotkin 

While the ST is certainly more than just 
"another game machine," its capabilities 
and price make it outstanding in that cate- 
gory — when you finish all your word pro- 
cessing, spreadsheeting, etc. Software 
companies are starting to realize this, and 
games are becoming widely available. I ad- 
mit to being an unabashed arcade-game 
lover (I've only solved two graphics/text ad- 
ventures in my life), so the games review- 
ed here are for ST owners who still love 
a fast shoot-'em-up. 

Monkey Business is a very thinly dis- 
guised clone of Donkey Kong. It's written 
by Ron Fortier, whose name you may rec- 
ognize from such titles as Bruce Lee (Data- 
Soft) on the 8-bit machines. It's not bad for 
a first effort, although it doesn't utilize 
many of the ST's features. 

In Monkey Business, you play an IRS 
agent attempting to collect back taxes from 
"Mr Big." I'll refrain from commenting on 
this story line; most of them are pretty 
dumb, anyway. You must negotiate your 
way from the bottom to the top on each of 
three screens, leaping over or avoiding ob- 
stacles to accomplish your objective. If you 
complete all the screens you start over, 
faster and with more obstacles. 

The three screens are remarkably simi- 
lar to those in Donkey Kong. The barrels 
are there, as are the girders and the 
"springs and elevators." The fourth screen 
is missing, however. Also missing is the 
sequence where the barrels catch fire and 
chase you. This makes the barrel screen 
very easy. 



Major Motion 

and 

Time Bandit 

MICHTRON 
576 S. Telegraph 
Pontlac, Ml 48053 
(313) 334-5700 
Color $39.95 each 

Monkey Business isn't a "polished" pro- 
gram. It suffers from jerky animation and 
sound quality similar to that of the Apple 
II. The animation is jerky due to the lack 
of enough intermediate figures. For exam- 
ple, the ape has only three positions — left, 
center and right. Also, the supposedly 
fierce hounds on the girder screen resem- 
ble irmocent beagles! Despite all this, the 
game is playable. The skill required rises 
just enough on each level to keep it in- 
teresting. If you're a Donkey Kong fan, this 
is the only game in town. 




Don't kill the bystanders 
in Major Motion. 

Delta Patrol, also from The Other Val- 
ley Software, is a game wherein you pilot 
a helicopter across a scrolling landscape, 
shooting the descending aliens to prevent 
the destruction of your refueling dumps. 
There's a marked similarity to both De- 
fender and Choplifter. 

Your joystick controls the chopper, 
which carries an umlimited supply of am- 
munition. You shoot at the aliens descend- 
ing from the top of the screen, dropping 



bombs on your many refueling dumps. 
These dumps are periodically rebuilt by a 
little dune buggy, so running out of fuel 
isn't as big a problem as avoiding colUsions 
with a screenful of aliens — who come at 
you in ever-increasing numbers. As the 
levels increase progress, more and faster 
ahens appear, along with new types, which 
even shoot back! A radar screen at the bot- 
tom of the display informs you of the at- 
tacking aliens' whereabouts. 

Delta Patrol has some cute touches. The 
fuel dumps are little gas stations, complete 
with signs for donuts. The aliens them- 
selves are amusingly designed, using 
bright colors. All screen motion is smooth. 
Finally, your chopper kicks up clouds of 
dust when it gets close to the ground. 

Delta Patrol is a simple game with few 
variations. As such, it may lose its appeal 
after a short while. Like Monkey Business, 
this game leaves virtually untapped the 
graphics and sound capabilities of the ST, 
as well as its huge programming space. 
Delta Patrol will leave the adult arcader 
looking for other challenges. 

A worthwhile challenge to turn to is 
MichTroris Major Motion. Based on the ar- 
cade classic Spy-hunter, it has you using 
your mouse to guide a car down a verti- 
cally-scrolling road, doing battle with all 
manner of enemy vehicles — while attempt- 
ing not to injure innocent bystanders or run 
off the road. Kill too many irmocent ci- 
vilians, and you'll be demolished — by a 
fighter plane. 

Your car is initially armed with just ma- 
chine guns. You may use the guns to oblit- 
erate your enemies, or attempt to run them 
off the road by ramming them. Since many 



ST-LOG 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 79ST 



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CIRCLE #150 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



>/ Review 



continued 



of the enemy vehicles are armored against 
your guns — and are also bigger than you 
are — outrunning them is often the best 
strategy. Periodically, a weapons van ap- 
pears which can arm your car with addi- 
tional defenses. These include a smoke 
screen, oil (to cause skids), a super impulse 
device (for knocking other cars off the 
road), and a missile launcher to use against 
the chopper. The added weapons are acti- 
vated via the keyboard. 




Protect the refueling stations 
in Delta Patrol, iirom your 'copter. 

This is a tough game! The weapons van 
appears at the most inopportune times, and 
can get in the way. Unlike the arcade ver- 
sion, you can't destroy it to get it out of 
the way. Docking with the van can be 
tricky if you're surrounded by enemy ve- 
hicles. Often the van will drop you back 
on the road alongside a tire-slashing ene- 
my car The van blocks your way so you 
can't run, giving the enemy a chance to de- 
stroy your car. This can be exceedingly 
frustrating. 

The fact that Major Motion can only be 
played with a mouse also detracts, since 
I find myself running out of desk space at 
the worst times. A joystick mode would 
improve this game quite a bit. On the posi- 
tive side. Major Motion allows you to rede- 
fine the weapons keys if the default keys 
aren't convenient, and maintains a high 
score on disk. 



«I***T* ^HS CUBITS: 1470 



'■■il.u rtiiLNrt (iH) |,iu;<,.s .spuua,^^ 



77ine Bandit. 
Overall, Major Motion is a good game, 
provided you don't have a low frustration 
factor. It features good graphics and sound, 
and nonstop excitement. The limitations 
of your car force you to plan carefully be- 
fore running the next gauntlet of enemy 
cars. And look out for that chopper! 



I've saved the best for last. MichTron's 
Time Bandit is billed on the box as "the 
ultimate arcade game." Of course, software 
packaging will never win a prize for truth 
in advertising — except this time. Time 
Bandit represents a truly outstanding feat 
— an arcade game with action, variety, at- 
tention to detail and fantastic graphics. 
Harry Lafnear and Bill Dunlevy (the au- 
thors) can be proud of this one. 

Time Bandit opens on a scrolling land- 
scape dotted with small structures. Cas- 
tles, houses, a spaceship and a pyramid are 
just some of the items you'll find. Guid- 
ing your alter-ego into any of these icons 
opens up a new world . While these micro- 
worlds are similar in many ways, they 
present a new and different challenge to 
the arcader. Each of the microworlds is 
spUt into sixteen levels, from lA to 4D. The 
object is to enter the microworld, battle 
your way to a variety of treasures, recover 
keys and, finally, unlock the way out. Each 
time you re-enter a microworld, the level 
goes up (from lA to IB, etc.), with a ma- 
jor jump in difficulty between numbered 
levels. 

And what a battle you'll fight! Use your 
joystick to move and shoot your guns, 
while hounded by multitudes of evil crea- 
tures which inhabit the mazelike micro- 
worlds. The beings spring from special 
points located throughout the maze (don't 
stand on these points) . Their touch costs 
you one life, and they'll follow you — even 
shoot at you — in the higher levels. 

The maze in each microworld is differ- 
ent, and even shifts between levels, in- 
creasing the need for memory skills. The 
points you receive for each creature you 
destroy depend on how much you move. 
If you stand in one place, just blowing 
away attacking enemies, your points-per- 
creature count will drop to zero. 

Time Bandit is full of surprises, which 
I won't spoil for you. But try the Pac-Man 
maze, and enter the subterranean cham- 
ber below the arena. The starship features 
a difficult text adventure (sit down at the 
computer consoles), and there's even a 
quest to recover the lost crown of a king — 
in return for a king's ransom in gold. 
Watch out for the wandering spaceships on 
the main screen, which will throw you 
into a microworld chosen at random. And 
read the signs scattered throughout this 
game; they can be very helpful. 

Time Bandit is an example of the ST's 
capabilities in the game-playing depart- 
ment. The screen abounds with color, and 
small details are animated to good effect. 
Such things as flags waving on the castle 
ramparts and blinking lights on the star- 
ship Excalibur add a lot to the game. But 
this game especially shines in its anima- 
tion. Each microworld features different 
sets of creatures, from the lions and trolls 
of the arena, to the roving snakes and eye 
balls of the pyramid. These creatures move 



smoothly and are convincingly animated. 
Even the maimer in which they disinte- 
grate when hit is well done. For example, 
shooting a ghost causes it to appear in a 
"No Ghosts" symbol (from Ghostbusters) 
for a brief instant before disappearing. The 
variety of demises is another example of 
the imagination that went into this game. 
Tinie Bandit is different; it's unhkely that 
you could ever finish every microworld 




You're an IRS agent in Monkey Business. 

through all sixteen levels. The authors 
don't believe it can be done, either. I play 
to see how far I can get in each structure 
before rimning out of lives. This way, each 
microworld becomes a separate arcade 
game, making this a good value for your 
software dollar. 

High scores are saved to disk. I'd like to 
meet Krazy Kev, the fiend who put the 
high score on my disk — over 500,000 
points (I've gotten about 50,000). If you 
plan to buy just one arcade game for your 
ST, this has to be it. Time Bandit is 
superb — there's no other word for it. fl 

David PJotkin owns an 130XE and a 
520ST, and is currently a heavy Pascal 
user on the ST. His computer interests lie 
in programming, games and tutorials. 



Attention ST Programmers! 

Are you tired of programming with a slow, 
unfriendly, featureless text editor? 

presenting 

E d I t S T 

A fast, full-screen, GEM based text editor designed for the 
Atari ST^" by programmers for programmers. 

EditST features include; 

■Complete GEM support; windows, mouse, function keys, 
-Multi window editing, move text between windows. 
-User-definable function l<eys HELP key support. 
-Block editing features; Copy Move, Delete, Insert. 
-UNDO feature Find and Replace Auto Indent. 
-Printer support from within editor 
-DOS directory rename and delete. 
-2 character sizes. Up to 40 lines mono 25 color 
-Cursor positioning by line number, mouse, arrow keys. 

Available now lor only $24,95 

Insight Systems 

14354 Joan Drive 
Palm Beach Gardens. FL 33410 
(305) 622-1352 or (305) 747-4416 



CIRCLE tISt ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ST- LOG 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 81ST 



TUTORIAL 



V/ 




Alert boxes 

from ST BASIC 



A subroutine and tutorial 
to get you tiie lielp you need, 
when you need it. 



by Matheu Spolin 



One of the most useful features of the ST's GEM system 
is the ability to call alert boxes — forms that appear in the 
middle of the screen, displaying a question, with several 
buttons for input. But, if you've read through the ST BA- 
SIC Sourcebook in an effort to find a Form Alert Box 

command, your search has been in vain. To the casual 
user, there seems to be no way to call up alert boxes in 
ST BASIC. 

Not so. Now, with BOXFORM, the subroutine present- 
ed here, calling alert boxes — of all sizes — is only a mat- 
ter of defining a string, setting some parameters and 
calling the subroutine. 

BOXFORM uses the powerful basic command GEMSYS 
to call AES routine 52, knovm as FORM_ALERT This rou- 
tine not only creates the alert box and gets input from it, 
but also closes the box and restores the former screen 
display. 

Using BOXFORM. 

To see BOXFORM in action, type in Listing 1 (in ST 
BASIC). If you're using TOS from disk, you may have to 
disable buffered graphics to employ the program. Lines 
10 through 400 are part of the demo. They aren't needed 
to use BOXFORM in your o^rrc^ programs. The actual 
subroutine begins at Line 63000. 

To put BOXFORM into your own programs, you must 
define BOX$ with the text you would like to appear in the 
box. To separate lines of text within the string, use the 
logical OR character (I). This character is produced by strik- 
ing the backslash character (\) while holding down SHIFT. 

Next, the buttons you'd like to have appear in the box 



must be assigned to the variable BUTTONS. Separate the 
button labels as you would lines of text, with the logical 
OR character (I). 

After that, you must store the icon number in the vari- 
able ICON. The exclamation point, question mark and stop 
sign icons are numbered 1, 2 and 3, respectively. If no icon 
is desired, store a in the variable. 

Defining the variable PRIORITY is optional. It contains 
the number of the button to thicken, indicating that op- 
tion may be selected by pressing RETURN. If you don't 
assign a number to PRIORITY, no button is highlighted. 

After defining these variables, simply GOSUB BOX- 
FORM. The subroutine will create an alert box, display 
it on the screen, read the input, then return to the main 
program's control. The button number which the user 
selected will be stored in the variable KEYCHOICE, upon 
return to the main program. 

BOXFORM is an easy to use subroutine for creating alert 
boxes in any ST BASIC program. However, as with any 
call to GEM, passing the wrong parameters will cause ST 
BASIC to crash. So check your parameters carefully. Don't 
use any square bracket characters in your strings, and don't 
make any text line in BOX$ over twenty characters. 

Also, please remember that alert boxes can hold no more 
than three buttons. Defining a fourth will send your ST 
into never-never land. H 

Matheu Spolin has been writing computer programs /or 
six years and works in BASIC, Action.', C and 6502 assem- 
bly language. He currently enjoys writing programs on his 
520ST, while his 130XE runs his bulletin board system, 
the Towers of Darkness BBS, at (301) 656-3401. 



PAGE 82ST / NOVEMBER 1986 



ST- LOG 



LEADER BCy\RD 






p<^: 



you a 
V of your 



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ACCESS 



h 



jACCESS- 




Also available for the Atari 800 Home Computer Series. 
Suggested retail price: $34.95 



^Alert boxes 



continued 



Listing 1. 
ST BASIC listing. 

10 ■ B0XF0RM.BA5 B*^ Mathew Spolin 

26 ■ 

36 ■ 

46 ■ *** DEMO PROGRAM DRIVER *** 

56 CLEORM 2:FULLM 2 

66 COLOR 1,3:FILL 6,6 

76 B0K$="MelCOMe to BOXFDRHlBy Mathew 

Spolin" 

80 BUTTON$="OK|Mot OK" 

90 IC0M=2:PRI0RITY=1 

100 G05UB BDXFORM 

110 OK KEYCHOICE GOTO 120,176 

126 B0X$="IM glad it's OK.Iflren't you? 

II 

130 BUTT0H$="YOU Bet|No Way" 

140 IC0N=3:PRI0RITY=0 

150 G05UB BOXFORM 

160 OH KEYCHOICE GOTO 220,240 

170 B0K$="0h. That's too bad." 

180 BUTTON$="Continue" 

190 IC0N=0:PRI0RITY=1 

200 G05UB BOXFORM 

210 GOTO 280 

220 BOX$="That's great." 

230 GOTO 250 

240 B0X$="0h well. . ." 

250 BUTTON$="Continue" 

260 ICON=l:PRIORITY=l 

270 G05UB BOXFORM 

280 B0X$="Choose next operation" 

290 BUTT0N$="B(»5IC|DE5KT0P|RUN THIS" 

300 IC0H=3:PRI0RITY=3 

310 GOSUB BOXFORM 

320 IF KEYCHOICEzl THEN END 

330 IF KEYCH0ICE=2 THEN 350 

340 IF KEYCH0ICE=3 THEN 30 

350 BOXS="Please type QUIT at|the OK p 

roHpt" 

360 BUTTON$="I'll do that" 

370 ICON=l:PRIORITY=l 

380 GOSUB BOXFORM 

390 END 

63000 BOXFORM: ' Subroutine to Make ale 

rt box 

63010 B0X2$=5TR$CIC0N)+"3 I|"+BOX$+"|] [ 

"+BUTTON$+"J" 

63015 B0X$=B0X2$ 

63020 «tt=GB:GINTIN=PEEKtfttt+83 :GINTOUT= 

PEEKC(iO+12) 

63030 Ntt=PEEK(ft«+16) :POKE GINTIN, PRIOR 

ITY 

63040 POKE Nn,UARPTRCB0X2$] 

63050 GEMSY5£52) : KEYCHOICE = PEEK (GINTOU 

T) 

63060 RETURN 



ST CHECKSUM DATA. 

(see page 56ST) 



10 data 340, 450, 356, 735, 464, 535 
, 288, 87, 764, 334, 4353 

110 data 511, 820, 161, 799, 349, 52 
4, 251, 278, 809, 336, 4838 

210 data 404, 450, 401, 771, 271, 80 
4, 357, 261, 105, 794, 4618 

310 data 341, 508, 381, 322, 130, 92 
1, 809, 362, 806, 962, 5542 

63010 data 433, 920, 43, 273, 277, 3 
61, 542, 2789 



TIMEKEEP. 

for Atari ST r 



TTMKEEPER™ is a plug-in battery-bacl<ed 
IVeal Time Clock Calendar for the ATARI ST . 
Computers. The Timekeeper module plugs 
into the cartridge port on the ATARI 
520/1040 ST Computer. A program is sup- 
plied with Timekeeper that operates as an accessory like the con- 
trol panel. A feed through cartridge slot allows Timekeeper to 
remain installed while using other cartridges 

The Timekeeper program automatically gets the time and dote 
from the Timekeeper modules during the power up or boot 
sequence The computer's own clock is set up and the Timekeeper 
is then disengaged until the computer is turned on again. 

AVAILABLE AT YOUR LOCAL ATARI DEALER, 

or you may use your 

MasterCard or VISA to 

order direct by calling our 

TOLL FREE NUMBER 

below or send check or 
M.O. Please add S2.00 
shipping or SIO shipping if 
outside U.S. California resi- 
dents odd 6% sales tax. 




DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME 
800-654-282I in California 
800-624-6545 Nationwide 



ilUM H hr"l 



i~5n 



NAVARONE 



NAVARONE INDUSTRIES, INC. 

21109 LONGEWAY ROAD, SUITE C 
SONORA CA 95370 • (209)533-8349 
TLX:WWI 650-230-9046 

CIRCLE #153 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Megamax C 



for the 



Atari ST 



Featuring 

• One pass Compile • In-Line Assembly • Smart Linker 

• Full Access to GEM routines • Register Variable 
Support • Position Independent Code • and much more.. 

System Includes: 

• Full K&R C Compiler (with common extensions) 

• Linker • Librarian • Disassembler • C Specific Editor 

• Code Improver • Documentation • Graphical Shell 



Benchmark Compile Execute 
Time Time 

Sieve 70 2.78 5095 

"Hello, world" 63 N/A 4691 

*Times in seconds. Sieve with register variables. 



$199.95 For more information, call oj write: 

Megamax, Inc 

Box 851521 X jjP 

Richardson, TX 75085 / ^ 

(214) 987-4931 \\ 



VISA, MC, COD ACCEPTED 



CIRCLE #154 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PAGE 84ST / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



AnsiGraf 

Ansi/Graphics Terminal Emulator 
for the Atari 520ST 



• Ansi x3.64 emulation 

• VT102 mode 

• Tektronix 4014 emulation 

AnsiGraf uses the interactive GEM Inter- 
face. Separate text and graphics screens 
viewable concurrently, multiple text pages. 
Xmodem upload/download, text/graphics 
to printer or to disk, keyboard macros. 
Price: $79.95 

Grafikon, Ltd. 
P.O. Box 446 
College Park, Md. 20740 
Phone: (301) 937 - 3394 



^ LIONHEART 



PC/MS-DOS {5". & 3',i), MACINTOSH, AWGA 
ATARI ST, C64/128, CP/M, APPLE DOS 3.3 



• BUSINESS STATISTICS - , 

■ EXPERIMENTAL STATISTICS 

> MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS 

> EXPLORATORY DATA ANALYSIS 

• STATISTICS FOR MARKETING 

I QUALITY CONTROL S INDUSTRIAL 

EXPERIMENTS 

> FORECASTING AND TIME-SERIES 

I SALES AND MARKET FORECASTING , , . , 

> DECISION ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES 

• LINEAR 8 NON.LINEAR PROGRAMMING . 

> PERT a, CRITICAL PATH TECHNIQUES . . . 

• OPTIMIZATION 



VISA. MasterCard. AMEX. Check 
P.O. Box 379. ALBURG. VT 05440 



f 



Mountain 
i Magic 

Software 



f 



CIRCLE #155 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



(514)933-4918 



CIRCLE #156 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



I 



Wizardware for Atari ST 

Route 1 . Box 653 

Boone, North Carolina 28607 

704/264-3021 

B+C Tree $69.95 

C-lsam/B-fTree Utility that makes handling files 
a simple matter 

Designed for software developers who need the 
power and flexability of a C-ISAIvl. Available for 
Megamax, Alcyon and Lattice C. 

* NO ROYALTIES 

* Sample Programs Supplied 

* Complete Documentation 

* Easy to implement 

* JULIAN date functions FREE 

* Special $49.95 if ordered before 
October 1, 1986 

Lattice C is a trademark of Lattice, INC 
Megamax C is a trademark of Megamax, INC 
Aicyon C is a trademark of Alcyon Corp. 



a trademark of Atari Carp 



CIRCLE #157 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




NO WASTE 

SQUEEG tor the ATARI ST 
squeezes most tiles by 
50-70%. Many are 
squeezed much more. 
It's especially good at 
those big space wasters - 
graphics files. It can even 
squeeze and unsqueeze 
folders and other groups 
of files at once. Fast, 
efficient SQUEEG can PAY 
FOR ITSELF In greater disk 
space. Used by Antic Publishing 
for its subscription disk! 

ORDER TODAY! $24 95 

CHECK, M.O., C.O.D. V^^^'*'*' 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 

Quack Computer Company 

257 Robinson Avenue 
Bronx, New York 1046S 

(516) 689-8738 ©i986 





999 
EACH 



ONLY 
Monitor Coble 
6' Drive Coble ■ 
R5 232 Coble ■ 
Printer Coble ■ 

1200 DD Moderns 599.99 

Atori Hardware $ Coli S 

Authorized Service Center 
Atari. Commodore, Cordata ■ Coll for prices 



<:cMiim=i?-cu7i.i=7« 

630-K Nofdohl Rd. /Son Morcos, CA 92069 



Software / Cobles odd $3 for shipping 6 hondling 
Please allow 7 days for delivery 



ATARI 
520ST 

$735°°' 



COLOR 
SYSTEM 



ACCESSORIES 

Maxell 3 1/2" SS/SD (10) 2000 

ST-MOUSE MAT, Matching ST Color. . . 9°° 



BERNHARD 

Computers & Slccessories 

Box 45906 

Baton Rouge, LA. 70895 

Phone Order: (504)928-1116 

'plus shippinp and handling 



CIRCLE #160 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE #158 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE #162 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



AUTOPROGRAM 
For the ATARI ST 

A PRACTICAL data management program 

for the NON-PROGRAMMER 
Advanced Features- 

• Design your own custom screens in 

minutes. 

• Sort or searcf) on all fields simultane- 
ously 

(Indexing is Automatic) 

• 4 ways to locate Records 

• Flexible report generator with Record 
Selection 

• Up to 200 fields per Record 

• Simple Record updating 

(too many features to list here) 
EASY TO LEARN EASY TO USE 

$59.95 
BRAINSTORM SOFTWARE 

1760 Potter Road 

Park Ridge, Illinois 80068 

(312)823-1174 

CIRCLE #161 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



THE WAIT IS OVER! 

MT C-SHELL 
IS HERE. 

MAIN FRAME PERFORMANCE 
FOR YOUR ST . . . 

• IVIultiuser and Multitasking 

• Electronic Mail 

• Print Spooling 

• Unix- Like Environment 

• And it Runs TOS Programs 

$12995 

COMPLETE 

^V Development Tools hjSL 

592 JEAN STREET #304, OAKLAND, CA 94610 
416/658-5318 



CIRCLE #159 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A NEW graphics drawing 
for the 

Atari ST 



Features 

*GEM'" based program with drop down menus. 
*Too many drawing modes to list in this ad. 

• Save 6t load a whole screen or pan of a screen. 

• Make a picture from many pieces. 

• Works with color b monochrome systems 

• TOS~ in ROM/RAM, 520ST"71040ST'" 

♦29.95 

Instruction manual included as data file on disk, or 
add SIO for printed copy of Instruction manual. Add 
13 S/H. Texas residents add 5 1/8% sales tax. 
(Checks or money orders please) 



^ 



Software 

P.O. Box 543 Sriernian, TX 
(214)892-0603 



75090 



CIRCLE #163 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 85ST 



ST INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 



V/ 



READER SERVICE # 



ADVERTISER 



128 
152 
136 
159 
160 
139 
161 
140 
132 
137 
146 
142 
162 
122 
145 
129 
138 
148 
121 
133 
155 
151 
156 
141 
167 
154 

166 
157 
153 
163 
147 
164 
158 
144 
165 
134 
150 
149 
176 
143 
121 



Abacus Software 

Access Software Incorporated . . . 

Artworx Software Co., Inc 

Beckemeyer Development Tools . 

Bernfiard Computers 

Bitmap, Inc 

Brainstorm Software 

Cal Com, Inc 

Central Point Software 

Commnet Systems 

Computer Accessory Barn 

Computer fvlaii Order 

Computer Outlet 

Computer Palace 

Computer Solutions 

DAC Software 

Digital Reality 

Diverse Data 

Duplicating Tecfinologies 

Finally Software 

Grafikon, Ltd 

Insight Systems 

Lionheart 

Logical Design Works 

I^ark Williams Company 

f^egamax, Inc 

f^egatecti 

f^icfiTron 

fylountain f^flagic Software 

Navarone Industries, Inc 

Nebula Software 

Newell Industries 

Omnitrend 

Quack Computer Company 

Ouickview 

Regent Software 

Serious Software 

Soft Logik 

SRM Enterprises 

Terrific Periptierals 

TD.I. Software 

Timeworks 



.46ST, 78ST 

83ST 

60ST 

85ST 

85ST 

64ST 

85ST 

64ST 

53ST 

63ST 

74ST 

67ST 

85ST 

52ST 

74ST 

48ST 

63ST 

74ST 

12ST 

54ST 

85ST 

81ST 

85ST 

64ST 

88ST 

84ST 

64ST 

87ST 

85ST 

84ST 

85ST 

74ST 

56ST 

85ST 

72ST 

86ST 

55ST 

80ST 

74ST 

86ST 

71ST 

50ST 



EZRAM' 
520 



n n n n n r 



51 2K Memory 
Upgrade for 
the Atarl520ST« 

Featuring the 
EZTemp™ 
Soldering Guide 



Upgrade Your 520ST 

to a Full Megabyte of RAM 

• Increase spreadsheet and database 
capability 

• Dramatically improve RAM disk capacity for 
enhanced I/O operations 

Designed for Simple installation 

• Features the EZTemp" solder template. All 
the soldering occurs on the template not at 
the RAM chips. Eliminates chip stacking. 

• Clear, easy to follow, illustrated installation 
instructions. 

Free Software Made In the U.S.A 

• Memory check diagnostic software 
and additional accessory programs 
included. 

S.L.: $199.00 6 Month Warranty 



flerrific 



See your Dealer or 
call us at (617) 232-2317 
Brookline, MA 02146 



EZRAM and EZTemp are Registered Trademarks of Apex Resources, inc. 
Atari & Atari 520ST are registered trademaiks ot Atari Corp. 



Don't be 
Puzzled 



REGENT BASE: 

A Relational GEM Database 

Solve your business and personal needs with 
our easy to use database. Regent Base makes 
full use of tfie GEIVI system so using any of the 
available templates is as easy as dragging the 
IVIouse and pressing a few keys. Included with 
Regent Base are two templates: A Mailing List 
Ivlanager and A Checkbook Manager Other 
templates available include: Accounts Receiv- 
able, Payables, General Ledger Customer 
Billing, and Invoicing. Many other templates 
are also available. Regent Base supports over 
fifteen printers and even "mail-merges" with 
Regent Word II. 



REGENT WORD II: 

GEM Word Processor 
with Spelling Checker 

Power through any word processing needs 
with Regent Word II. Regent Word II makes full 
use of the GEM system, so editing is powerful 
and easy! As text is typed Regent Word II 
reformats the document on the screen to 
show exactly what will be printed. Bold, 
Superscripted, Subscnpted, Italic and 
Underlined text are displayed while editing. A 
30,000 word Spelling Checker is built in. Insert 
or delete words — up to 100,000 — in Regent 
Word ll's spelling dictionary with the click of a 
mouse button! Regent Word II "mail-merges" 
with Regent Base for instant form letters. On- 
line Help Menus and over fifteen printer drivers 
are built in. 



The Perfect Match for the Atari ST 




REGENT SOFTWARE 

7131 Owensmouth, Suite 45A 
Canoga Park, CA 91303 
(818)882-2800 



r 



GETTJNGDOW^ 



,T. GETWgJ^ 





wyfSrTTABl ST. 




Backup! by Dave Clemans 

When is the last time you backed-up your hard- 
drive? Would you stake a month's lost labor 
on it? Probably not. With this utility, you can 
backup your hard-drive quickly and easily. 

■ Restores files from the back-up. 

■ Backup organizes the whole procedure. 

■ Pull-down menus for easy use. 

■ Make full or partial backups by use or date. 

■ Make file or image backups. 

Color and Monochrome $39.95 




Dot Driver by Timothy Purves 

Al last, a printer driver that makes Okidata printers and 
C.Itoh Prowriter printers compatible with your Atari ST! 
Dot Driver processes printer output from any program 
using GDOS, and prints it on your printer. 
Requires GDOS $49.95 



BBS 2.0 by Timothy Purves 

A Bulletin Board Service that's full featured, easy to use, 
and affordable? Only from MichTron! BBS turns your 
computer and auto-answer modem into a full-blown 
electronic mail and message system! 

• Easy to set up. Have it running within an hour! 

• Maintains up to 1024 messages, limited only by disk 
space and message size. 

• Up to 16 Special Interest Groups (SIGs), each with 
separate messages, file area, and user access! 

• Unique message control format lets you make 
customized menus, complete with user inputs. 

• Multi-user capacity lets the operator and one caller 
use the BBS at the same time, independently! 

• Practically self-maintaining. It takes just a few 
minutes to update user logs and files. 

• Call our BBS for a test run: (313) 332-5452. 
Color and Monochrome $79.95 





Laser Driver by Timothy Purves 

This driver makes the Quadram and Hewlett Packard la- 
ser printers work with the ST. It processes printer output 
from any program using GDOS, and prints it on your 
laser printer. Includes a special screen-dump utility. 
Requires GDOS $49.95 



Your Financial Future by William Jenkins 

Insight into your finances is vital in planning for the 
future. With this complete forecaster, you can analyze 
income and expenses, for a detailed projection of where 
your budget is headed. Find the strong and weak points, 
and make your budget more flexible and dependable! 

• Detailed projections of your financial situation. 

• Change loan conditions to find the best terms! 

• Examine one of our times best investments: the IRA! 

• Easy to use with pull-down menus and mouse control. 
Color and Monochrome $39.95 



More Favorites! 



Business Tools - 200 business forms, letters, etc. 
Color and Monochrome $49.95 

Dos Sfiell - Hang up mouse! Dos Shell emulates the 
famouse MS-DOS command structure on the ST! 
Color and Monochrome $39.95 

Mighty Mail - a complete mailing list manager! 
Color and Monochrome $49.95 




Cornerman - This accessory lets you un- 
cluttcr your desk: ASCII table, calculator, 
clock, notepad, phone book/dialer, and more! 
Color and Monochrome $49.95 

M-Disk - This RAM-disk emulator gives 
you the software equivalent of a hardware 
disk drive! Fast, durable, incredibly usefull! 
Color and Monochrome $39,957 



All reasonably priced, with more coming every day. Ask for our latest catalog! 

Dealer inquiries welcome • Visa and Mastercard accepted • Add $3.00 shipping and handling; to each order. 




MichYron 



576 S. Telegraph, Pontim; MI 48053 
Orders AND Information (31 3) 334-5700 




CIRCLE #166 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MASK WILLIAMS a 

AN ENIJGBIENIMj HVELQPMENT 

MAIASI ST USERS. 



I:' « % 



If you've tried your hand at 
developing applications on the Atari 
ST, you know the problem. Pro- 
gramming tools aren't only hard to 
come by they're hard to use. One 
might even say primitive. But now 
for some enh^tening news: you 
can have all the power, portability 
and versatihiy of the C language 
from a leader in professional C pro- 
gramming tools, Mark Williams. 

BRING YOUR 
PROGRAMMING UP TO SPEED. 

The Mark Williams C compiler 
produces fast, dense code and supports the 
complete Kemighan & Ritchie industry stan- 
dard C. You'U have access to OEM's AES and VDI 
Ubraries for programs using graphics, icons and the 
Atari mouse. And Mark WiUiams C lets you take 
advantage of the full 16 megabytes in Atari's 68000 
microprocessor. 

STREAMLINE DEVELOPMENT 
WITH POWER UTILITIES. 

Mark Williams C is loaded with everything you'U 
need for professional development. Bring the power 
of the UNIX environment to your Atari ST ■with our 





Features 

C compiler 

• Complete Kernighan & 
Ritchie C plus extensions 

• Up to eight register variables 

• Full access to AES and VDI 
libraries for programs using 
graphics, icons and mouse 

• Complete UNIX-compatible 
libraries allow easy portability 
to and from UNIX development 
environment. 

• Over 300 Atari-specific 
routines 

• One-step compiling, linking 
with cc command 

• English error messages 

• Lint-like error checking 



Microshell Command Processor, 

powerful UNIX style shell includes 

I/O redirection, pipes, command 

substitutions 

MicroEMACS Full Screen Editor 

with commented source code 

included 

Make Program Building Discipline 

Complete symbolic debugger 

with single-step, breakpoints and 

stack traceback 

Assembler, linker and archiver 

Powerful Utilities Package: egrep, 

sort, diff, cmp, pr, tail, uniq, wc 

and more 

Over 600 pages of documentation 

including 1 20 sample C programs 

Not copy protected 



MARK WILLIAMS C FOR THE ATARI ST 

$179 95 

60 DAY MONEY BACK GUARANTEE 



Microshell Command Processor 
including pipes, I/O redirection and 
more. Edit your program with the 
highly accbdmed MicroEMACS full 

f^ *-^-^ *^ . f' ■• , "\ screen editor Accelerate and simplify 

} X^ii — ■ — %J ' /^>^f compiling with 777flAe which finds 
'^^\^ J/C> v\j^> and recompiles only those modules 
v/ /m\^-''^ affected by your changes. Then, 
-*'^'^- ■ ..• K\) when you're ready for debugging, 
... f j call on our db SymboHc Debugger 
with single step, breakpoint and 
stack traceback functions. Over 40 
commands, including a Hnker and 
assembler, provide a total development 
package for your Atari ST. 

DEPEND ON A NAME WITH 
A HISTORY OF PERFORMANCE. 

Mark WiUiams C for the Atari ST is part of our growing 
line of C compilers. A line that includes the C compiler 
chosen by DEC, Intel, Wang and thousands of profes- 
sional programmers. Now our Atari C compiler is 
earning its own reputation: 

"Finally a great C compiler that exploits the power 
of the ST"-Sigmund Hartmann, President, Atari 
Software Group 

'The aU-aroimd best choice for serious software 
development on the ST"-Douglas Weir of A/MLOG 
COMPUTim 

GET WHAT YOUR ATARI ST HAS BEEN 
WAITING FOR. 

Mark WUliams C is just what your Atari ST was 
made for: powerful, professional 
programming. So now that you 
can have Mark Williams C for just 
$179.95, what are you waiting for? 

Ask your Atari dealer about 
Mark Williams Cor order today by 
caUing 1-800-MWC-1700.* 

*In niinois caU: 312-472-6659 

Mark 

Williams 

Company 

1430 West Wrigtitwood, Chicago, Illinois 6061 4 

© 1986, Mark WiUiams Company 
UNIX is a trademark of Bell Labs. 





CIRCLE #167 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



REVIEW 






SmaiTEAM 



i 



I 



TEAM TECHNOLOGY INC. 
10F, No. 270, Nan King E. Rd. 
Sec. 3, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. 
Mariceted by: iCD iNC. 
1220 Rock Street, Suite 310 
Roclcford, iL 61101-1437 
(815) 968-2228 
300/1200-baud modem $219.00 

by Matthew J.W. Ratcliff 

Modems are becoming very common, 
now that they're so affordable. They can 
be used to call up CompuServe or Delphi, 
where you can access a whole world of 
information — for a fee, of course. There 
are many "computaholics" (as I affection- 
ately call them, myself included) who set 
up their own computer systems, with mo- 
dems and dedicated phone lines, in the 
form of a Bulletin Board System (BBS). 
Most often, these are free. On a BBS, you 
may find files you can "download" from 
their computer to yours. You can actually 
receive public domain programs directly 
over the phone, with a modem and the 
proper software. Often, such a BBS has 
several topical message bases and on-line 
experts who can answer your technical 
questions. 

The SmarTEAM 300/1200-baud modem 
is an affordable alternative to the Hayes 
Smartmodem, the standard by which 
others are judged. The SmarTEAM can 
operate at 300 or 1200 baud (bits per sec- 
ond). Most modems send 1 "start bit," 1 
"stop bit" and 8 bits per character. That 
means you can transfer 30 characters of in- 
formation per second at 300 baud, 120 at 
1200 baud. Not all BBSs support 1200 baud 
these days, but those that do will save you 
a great deal of time when transferring pro- 
gram files. 

At four times the usual transfer speed, 
1200 baud will be desirable for calling in- 
formation services, to minimize chargeable 
connect time. Although CompuServe has 



a surcharge for 1200 baud, it's less than 
twice as much as the 300-baud fee. Del- 
phi has no surcharge for 1200- or even 
2400-baud rates. Enough tutorial, now on 
to the SmarTEAM specifics. 

The spiral bound manual is readable and 
covers all the "smart" commands for mod- 
em control. There's even a handy pocket 
reference guide. Considering all the 
"Hayes-compatible" advertising for the 
SmarTEAM, I found it odd that there was 
no mention of this compatibility in the 
manual. 

Noting the huge price difference be- 
tween the SmaiTEAM and the Hayes, I ex- 
pected less quality in performance. I first 
hooked up the SmarTEAM to my 130XE 
system, equipped with an 850 interface. I 
used a cable originally made for a differ- 
ent modem, and it worked fine. I called 
several local BBSs and a long-distance one. 
The modem performed flawlessly, at 300 
and 1200 baud. All the Xmodem file trans- 
fers worked fine. 

Next came the acid test: we put the 
modem on Gateway City BBS. I gave the 
SmarTEAM to SYSOP Jim without any 
documentation — intentionally, as part of 
the compatibility test. Jim called a friend 
who owned a Hayes and duplicated his 
switch settings. The SmarTEAM was then 
put on-line, in place of the old faithful 
Hayes 300. It worked the first time, as we 
would have expected a Hayes to. This 
proved its Hayes compatibility to our satis- 
faction. (We were running FoRem XL BBS 
software. ) 

Then the problem cropped up. Occa- 
sionally, while on-line, I would get a gar- 



bage character echoed back to me. Other 
Gateway users indicated having the same 
problem, at both 300 and 1200 baud. 
Sometimes this happened while entering 
a message. I would go back to the line with 
the garbled character, to edit it out. How- 
ever, the line would list with no errors. Ap- 
parently, the modem received the character 
properly, but echoed it incorrectly. 

We sent the SmarTEAM back to ICD, 
and they replaced it promptly. The next 
SmarTEAM exhibited the same symptom. 
Just to be sure it wasn't the phone line, we 
put the SmarTEAM on the M.I.C.E. BBS 
for a couple of days. We put the M.I.C.E. 
300/1200 Hayes on Gateway, in the mean- 
time. The echo problem immediately 
showed up on the M.I.C.E. BBS when the 
SmarTEAM went on-line. These BBSs, 
when running on a Hayes, have never ex- 
hibited such anomalies. 

Considering the major price advantage 
over the Hayes, I think the SmarTEAM 
would make an excellent personal modem 
(where the above problem would not oc- 
cur). For a BBS, you may have some mi- 
nor problems. The garbled characters are 
occasional (maybe 1 byte in 4K) and have 
not caused any problems in uploading or 
downloading files. (The Xmodem file 
transfer protocol automatically retries on 
errors.) This minor nuisance would never 
occur with a Hayes, but you pay a premi- 
um for it. The SmarTEAM is a good mo- 
dem for the price, but — to put it simply 
— it's not a Hayes. H 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 89 




by Karl E. Wiegers 



When the Atari 400s and 800s first hit the market, the 
magic word was graphics, more specifically, player/mis- 
siJe graphics. You probably learned how to create and ani- 
mate players in BASIC programs — and have observed that 
it's a bit cumbersome. Now, we'll see how to do the same 
thing in assembly language. It really isn't hard at all. 

In the last two issues, we created the title screen for "At- 
tack of the Suicidal Road-Racing Aliens," then jazzed it 
up with some display list interrupts. This time we move 
on to an actual playing screen, with an alien and a car 
dashing about. Unfortimately, they're all alone on a blank 
screen, and their movement is monotonous. 

That's the way the tutorial crumbles for this month. In 
the next two issues, we'll build on this simple player ac- 
tion and get considerably more sophisticated. Be sure to 
enter this month's listing with the line numbers shown, 
since we'll be merging additional code with this program 
in the next two issues. 

We really aren't going to create a complete, playable 
game with this stepwise process. Instead, I'll present the 
elements of a game, to illustrate the programming tech- 
niques involved. If you do want to put the pieces togeth- 
er, just keep adding code at the end of last month's pro- 
gram, rather than starting today's program at the $5000 
address. Also, you'll have to fix the routine for detecting 
the START button from last time, so that execution con- 
tinues with the first line of today's program. 

PMG primer. 

First, a quick refresher on player/missile graphics 
(PMG). The backgroimd screen display is referred to as 
the "playfield." A "player" is simply an 8-pixel-wide stripe 
of dots that runs the full vertical height of the screen. We 



can selectively turn on whichever dots we want, and su- 
perimpose the resulting figure on the playfield. A control 
register in the operating system lets us select whether a 
player or a playfield object appears to be "in front" when- 
ever they occupy the same space.-Other registers allow us 
to check for collisions between players and playfield ob- 
jects. 

A "missile" is a 2-pixel-wide analog to a player. The Atari 
can have up to four players (and their missiles) present 
on-screen at once. Each player/missile combination has its 
own color register, but a missile is always the same color 
as the player with which it's associated. We can double 
or quadruple the width of each player independently, mak- 
ing them 16 or 32 pixels wide. Other PMG control registers 
set the horizontal positions of the players and missiles on 
the screen. 

Players can be defined as having either "single-line" or 
"double-line" vertical resolution. In single-line resolution, 
the player stripe is 256 pixels (scan lines) high. A double- 
resolution player is 128 pixels high, where each pixel oc- 
cupies two scan lines. All players must have the same reso- 
lution. Naturally, single-line resolution permits finer detail 
in the player dot pattern. The price you pay is in memo- 
ry: single-line resolution requires twice as many bytes of 
storage as double-line. 

Getting started. 

The first task when setting up a PMG display is to de- 
cide what you want your players to look like. I'll assume 
you're familiar with the technique of defining a player 
shape by deciding which of the eight dots in each line are 
to be illvuninated, and computing a numeric byte value 
from the binary pattern that results. Many good articles 
on PMG fundamentals can be foimd in Atari literature. 
There are also many good programs available (commer- 



PAGE 90 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



Boot 



Camp 



cially, and in magazines or books) to help you design your 
players. 

As with most assembly programs, the next step is to al- 
locate memory. Double-line resolution requires 1024 bytes 
of RAM, and single-line resolution requires 2048 bytes. 
The starting byte of the RAM allocated to PMG (called 
PMBASE) must be on a IK boundary for double-line reso- 
lution, and on a 2K boundary for single-line. I usually use 
single-line resolution starting at address $3000. The PMG 
region will thus extend up to address $37FF. 

Table 1. 
Usage of the RAM block allocated to player/missile graphics, 
in bytes of&et from PMBASE. 



Function 

Unused 
Missiles 
Player 
Player 1 
Player 2 
Player 3 



Double-Line 


Single-Line 


Resoiution 


Resolution 


- 383 


- 767 


384 - 511 


768 - 1023 


512 - 839 


1024 - 1279 


640 - 767 


1280 - 1535 


768 - 895 


1536 - 1791 


896 - 1023 


1792 - 2047 



Table 1 shows how the PMG RAM is used. In single- 
line resolution, one page (256 bytes) is used for each of 
the four players and a fifth page is for the four missiles 
(64 bytes each) . This leaves the block from byte of the 
PMG RAM through byte 767 empty and available for your 
use. The location of the player within its allocated RAM 
section determines its vertical screen position. 

I alluded to the various registers used to control PMG 
functions. Table 2 lists the important ones for today. No- 
tice in Table 2 that there are registers for the horizontal 
positions of players, but not for their vertical positions. 
We'll discuss the significance of this fact later on. Now, 



turn your attention to the assembly listing and we'll see 
how it's done. 

Table 2. 
Important PMG registers. 



Name 


Hex Address Function 


SDMCTL 


$022F 62 for single-line, 46 for double-line 




resolution 


PCOLRO-3 


$02C0-$02C3 color of players 0-3 


HPOSPO-3 


$D000-$D003 horizontal positions of players 0-3 


SIZEPO-3 


$D008-$D00B player size: O=normal, 2=double, 




3=quadruple 


GRACTL 


$D01D store 3 to enable PMG, to disable 


PMBASE 


$D407 store high byte of PMBASE here 



Example: an alien and his car. 

This month's sample program illustrates how to imple- 
ment player/missile graphics and how to move players ver- 
tically and horizontally under program (as opposed to 
user) control. The program employs two players: an alien 
who moves up and dovwi, and a car that moves from left 
to right. 

The listing begins with the familiar CIO equates. All 
we'll do with CIO is open the screen in graphics mode 
3 and leave it blank. Lines 350-430 contain the equates 
for the PMG registers in Table 2. Some other variables I 
use in the program are defined in Lines 470-560. SHAPE 
and PLYRSTRT are 2-byte variables placed in some of the 
few free 0-page bytes. I'll use these for some loads and 
stores, with the 6502's indirect indexed addressing mode. 
I set aside a block of 4 bytes to keep track of the Y-positions 
of the four players (YPOSPO), and another block for the 
X-positions (XPOSPO). NBYTES is the number of bytes 
of shape data in the player currently being manipulated. 

Sometimes you may want to confine the movement of 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 91 




Boot Camp 



continued 



your players to a certain area on-screen. In this example, 
I want the alien to hang around between specified verti- 
cal limits. Hence, the variables TOP and BOTTOM, which 
will be loaded with the scan lines of my upper and lower 
movement limits. Finally, DIRECT is used to keep track 
of which way the alien is moving, up (1) or down (0). I 
tend to use page 6 for this sort of variable storage, but you 
can put your variables anyplace where they'll remain 
intact. 

I'm using single-line resolution, so I must locate PM- 
BASE on a 2K boundary (hex addresses of $X000 or 
$X800). Line 620 shows that the PMG region begins at ad- 
dress $3000. The program itself begins at address $5000, 
as is my habit; execute this program at address $5000. 

Recall that only pages 4-8 of the PMG RAM block con- 
tain information that'll be shovwi on the screen. Lines 
1910-2000 of the listing zero all the bytes in those five 
pages, thus preventing any extraneous junk in that sec- 
tion of RAM from affecting the screen display. 

The high byte of the first byte of the PMG block must 
be stored into the register called PMBASE ($D407), as in 
Lines 2010-2020. Lines 2030-2100 initialize the player sizes 
and horizontal positions to 0. 

The player shapes themselves are found in Lines 4920- 
4950 and 5210-5240. Player is the alien, and player 1 is 
a car. I decided to store these data tables in the unused 
portion of the PMG block. The alien shape is at the be- 
giiming of the PMG block ($3000), and the car immedi- 
ately thereafter. 

The first byte in each table is the number of bytes of ac- 
tual player shape data. The alien shape contains 14 bytes, 
the car 15. This means the alien is 14 scan lines high and 
the car is 15 lines. The remaining bytes are the decimal 
values of the bit patterns for each line of the player shape. 
The last byte in each player is a 0, which doesn't contrib- 
ute to the appearance of the player, but helps with verti- 
cal movement (as we'll see shortly). 

Now that memory's been allocated, we need to copy the 
player shapes into the correct page of the PMG RAM block. 
Of course, we could have put them in the right place ini- 
tially. But sometimes you want to have multiple shapes 
for a single player, (having an alien face to the left, to the 
right, forward, or backward). In such cases, the various 
player shapes all have to be stored somewhere, and you 
must copy them to the right part of the PMG block when- 
ever you want to change the shape. I've primed your mind 
for this technique by storing the shapes in the free PMG 
area. (This trick resurfaces in a couple of months). 

The code in Lines 2140-2250 copies the data for the alien 
into a specified portion of the RAM block for player 0. Line 
2190 indicates that this block is four pages higher in RAM 
than the start of the PMG block. Line 2220 sets the initial 
vertical position of the alien at scan line 180, by storing 
the player data at an offset of 180 bytes from the begin- 
ning of the allocated RAM page. I also store this vertical 
position in variable YPOSPO, to keep track of where the 
little guy is. Feel free to play with this number and see 
what happens. 

The subroutine called COPYPLAYER (Lines 3900-4020) 



actually performs the copy of the player data (how about 
that) . By writing this segment as a subroutine, I can use 
it to copy any player data into any player RAM area. The 
car shape data is copied the same way in Lines 2300-2410, 
with an initial vertical position of 122. Finally, Line 2420 
opens the screen using a familiar subroutine (OPEN- 
SCREEN, Lines 3350-3480) in graphics mode 3. 

Lines 2460-2490 set the alien's upper and lower limits 
of movement. The upper vertical position where a play- 
er's still visible at the top of the screen is about 32 for 
single-line resolution, 16 for double. At the other extreme, 
vertical positions larger than about 224 (single) or 112 
(double) will make the player fall off the bottom of the TV. 
Lines 2540-2570 make the alien yellow and the car pur- 
ple. Notice that player colors are controlled with special 
registers PCOLRO-3, separate from the playfield color 
registers. 

Now for the lowdown on the other critical PMG regis- 
ters. Last month, we learned that location SDMCTL ($22F) 
controls whether the screen display is off (store a 0) or on 
(store a decimal 34) . This register also controls whether 
the players are double-line resolution (decimal 46) or 
single- line (decimal 62). Lines 2580-2590 request single- 
line resolution players. 

The horizontal size of players is controlled by the 
registers called SIZEPO-3 ($D008-D00B). Storing a in 
one of these registers gives the default (normal) width of 
8 pixels. Store 1 for a double-wide and 3 for a quadruple- 
wide player. Lines 2600-2610 make the car double width. 
The register called GRACTL ($D01D) enables player/mis- 
sile graphics. Store a 1 to turn on the missiles, a 2 to turn 
on players and a 3 for both, as we do in Lines 2620-2630. 

The horizontal position of players is dictated by the con- 
tents of registers HPOSPO-3 ($D000-D003). Allowable 
values are to 255, but positions below about 48 (left) and 
above about 208 (right) will be outside the boundaries of 
the TV screen. In Lines 2640-2650, we place the alien near 
the center of the screen. Since the HPOSPO-3 registers are 
write-only, I've created a second block of storage locations 
called XPOSPO-3, in case I need to find out where a play- 
er is at any given moment. Last but not least in this sec- 
tion. Lines 2670-2680 set the initial direction of alien 
movement as upward. 

Now for some animation. Recall that we want the alien 
to move up and down, and the car to move horizontally 
across the screen. Occasionally, they may have an encoun- 
ter session. In a futiure column, we'll see how to detect 
collisions among players and take some appropriate ac- 
tion. For now, though, let's just get the rudiments of play- 
er motion down pat. 

The routine labeled ACTION, beginning at Line 2740, 
starts with a yawn by calling the subroutine DELAY (Lines 
4080-4150). This subroutine does. . .absolutely nothing. 
Nonetheless, it's useful. If we let the players move around 
at top computer speed, things would be far too fast to fol- 
low. The delay subroutine simply loops for a number of 
cycles controlled by the contents of the X-register when 
DELAY is called. Line 2750 uses a value of 15 in X, but 
try different numbers and see what happens. 



PAGE 92 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



After that ever-so-brief pause, the car (player 1) is moved 
1 pixel to the right, thanks to the instructions in Lines 
2770-2790. Since this process goes on forever, the car wiW 
simply zip from left to right over and over again. Lines 
2800-2850 prime the system for vertical movement of the 
alien (player 0). 

Unfortunately, moving a player up and down isn't as sim- 
ple as moving him left and right. Recall that the vertical 
orientation of a player reflects a pattern of bytes stored in 
a particular section of RAM. To move a player up one line, 
we must shift each byte of the player shape data 1 byte 
lower in RAM. Conversely, moving data bytes higher in 
RAM causes the player to move down the screen. 

There are several ways to do this. One is to simply copy 
the player shape from its original storage location into the 
new desired position in the PMG block, making certain 
to zero out the old position so no extraneous player parts 
are visible. A second method is to actually shift the play- 
er shape 1 byte at a time within the RAM block. That's 
the approach I used in this example. 

A certain amount of program logic is required to move 
the alien, as found in Lines 2900-3120. In short, we move 
the alien up if he's already going up and isn't yet at the 
top. If he's at the top, we start moving him down, until 
he reaches the bottom. Back and forth he goes, where he 
stops only the pusher of the RESET Key knows. 

Vertical movement is accomplished with subroutines 
MOVEDOWN (Line 4200) and MOVEUP fLine 4350). i 
think you can see how these routines simply shift the play- 
er data 1 byte in the appropriate direction. What would 
happen if we didn't have limits on the vertical movement 
area? Eventually the alien, player 0, would be moved into 
the section of RAM reserved for player ^ . or into the block 
set aside for the missiles. Either way it's bad news, so 1 
like to set the limits and worry about it no further. 

Things to come. 

As the alien mimics a yo-yo and the car flashes by, you'll 
see an occasional flicker or jump in the animation. This 
jerkiness is particularly noticeable at slow speeds (long 
delay set in Line 2750). 

The fix to this is simple: move all your players while 
the TV gun is turned off, every sixtieth of a second. To 
accomplish this feat, we must create a "vertical blank in- 
terrupt" (VBI) routine, which gives us flicker-free motion. 

Next time, we'll write a VBI that lets you move the alien 
around the screen via a joystick. I'll throw in a bonus: a 
procedure for using the VBI in a BASIC program, fl 



Listing 1. 
Assembly listing. 
;Player/Missile graphics exanple 



0108 
0110 
0120 
0130 
0140 
0150 
0160 
0240 
0250 
0260 
0270 
0280 



;b!; Karl E. MiGgers 

.OPT NO LIST 

OPEN = $03 

ICCOM = S0342 

ICBOL = $0344 

ICBLL = $0348 

ICAXl = $034a 

ICAX2 = $0348 



0290 

0320 

0330 

0340 

0350 

0360 

0370 

0390 

0410 

0430 

0440 

0458 

0460 

8478 

0480 

0490 

8500 

0510 

0520 

0538 

0560 

0570 

0580 

8598 

8688 

0610 

0620 

0630 

1350 

1860 

1870 

1888 

1890 

1900 

1918 

1920 

1930 

1948 

1950 

1960 

1970 

1980 

1990 

2000 

2010 

2020 

2038 

2040 

2050 

2060 

2070 

2080 

2098 

2100 

2110 

2120 

2130 

2140 

2150 

2160 

2170 

2180 

2190 

2200 

2218 

2228 

2230 

2240 

2250 

2260 

2270 

2280 

2290 

2300 

2310 

2328 

2338 

2348 

2358 



ClOy = $E456 

t 

jPHG-related equates 



PC0LR8 
SDMCTL 
HP05P0 
5IZEP8 
GRACTL 
PMBA5E 



$62C0 
$822F 
$D68e 
$D888 
$D81D 
$0487 



;soHe variables I need to use 

SHAPE = $CB 
PLYRSTRT = $CD 
YPOSPe = $8638 
XPOSPO = $0634 
NBYTES = $0638 
TOP = $0639 
BOTTOM = $863A 
DIRECT = $0630 

PMG area of 2K begins at $3000; 
player images are stored in 
unused part of PMG area 

PMG = $3008 



MAIN PROGRAM STARTS HERE 



CLD 
LDX 
TXA 

IHITl 

5TA 
STA 
STA 
STA 
STA 
INX 
BNE 
LDA 
STA 
LDA 
LDX 

INIT2 

STA 
STA 
STA 
DEX 
BNE 



$5888 
ttO 



jbinary node 



PMG+$03fle,K ;zero out 

PMG-i-$8488,X ;player and 

PMG + $0500,X .-Missile 

PMG+$0688,X ;parts of 

PMG+$8788,X ;PMG area 

INITl 

ttPMG/256 ; Store address 

PMBASE ;of PMG area 

00 

»3 

SIZEPO,X ;zero sizes, 
HPOSPO,X (-horizontal 
XPOSPO, X ;positions 

; f or all 
INIT2 ;players 



;load alien shape into player 

LDA ttALIEN&255 ;store address 

STA SHAPE ;of shape in 

LDA OALlEN/256 ;page 8 bytes 

STA 5HAPE+1 
CLC 

LDA 0$84 j'store address 

ADC «PMG/256 ; Where player 

STA PLYRSTRT+1 ;is to be 

LDA ttl88 ;stored into 

STA PLYRSTRT ;page 8 bytes 

STA YP0SP8 ;and variable 

JSR COPYPLAYER ;store inage 

;load car shape into player 1 
;the sane way as the alien 

LDA ttCAR&255 

STA SHAPE 

LDA nCAR/256 

STA SHAPE+1 

CLC 

LDA tt$85 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 93 




Boot Camp 



continued 



micrOtyme 



2368 


ADC 


»PMG/256 




2370 


STfl 


PLYRSTRT+1 


2388 


LDA 


ttl22 




2398 


STft 


PLYRSTRT 




2480 


STft 


YPOSPO+1 




2410 


J5R 


COPYPLftYER 


2428 


J5R 


OPENSCREEN ;open screen 


2438 








2448 


jset up 


PMG envi 


ronMent 


2458 








2468 


LOA 


»30 


;top of alien 


2478 


STft 


TOP 


jMoveMent area. 


2480 


LDft 


tt200 


;bottoM of alien 


2490 


STft 


BOTTOM 


jMoveMent area. 


2540 


LDft 


S28 


;alien is yellow 


2550 


STft 


PCOLRB 




2560 


LDft 


»86 


;car is purple 


2570 


STft 


PC0LR8+1 




2588 


LDft 


tt62 


;single-line PMG 


2598 


STft 


SDMCTL 


; resolution 


2688 


LDft 


»1 


;car is double 


2618 


STft 


SIZEPO+l 


; wide 


2628 


LDft 


tt3 


;enable PMG 


2638 


STft 


GRACTL 




2648 


LDft 


ttl20 


;alien starts in 


2658 


STft 


HPOSPO 


iMiddle of scree 


2668 


STft 


KPOSPO 




2678 


LDft 


»1 


;initial direc- 


2688 


STft 


DIRECT 


;tion is up 


2698 








2788 


;coMMence player 


MoveHent: 


2718 


;alien Moves only vertically, 


2728 


;car Moves only 


horizontally 


2738 








2748 


ftCTION 






2758 


LDX 


«15 


;do nothing 


2768 


JSR 


DELftY 


; f or a bit 


2778 


INC 


KPOSPO+1 


;Move car 1 


2788 


LDft 


KPOSPO+1 


;position to 


2798 


STft 


HPOSPO+1 


;the right 


2888 


CLC 






2818 


LDft 


»$04 


;store initial 


2828 


ftDC 


ttPMG/256 


:RftM position 


2838 


STft 


PLYRSTRT+1 jof alien in 


2848 


LDft 


YPOSPO 


;page bytes 


2858 


STft 


PLYRSTRT 




2868 








2878 


; logic to figure 


out if alien is 


2888 


;be Moved up or 


down 


2898 








2988 


LDft 


DIRECT 


;current dir 


2918 


BNE 


CHKTOP 


;up, check top 


2928 


CHKBOT 






2938 


LDft 


YPOSPO 


;is he at the 


2948 


CMP 


BOTTOM 


;bottOM? 


2958 


BEQ 


UP 


;yes. Move up 


2968 


BNE 


DOMN 


;no. Move down 


2978 


CHKTOP 






2988 


LDft 


YPOSPO 


; is he at the 


2998 


CMP 


TOP 


;top? 


3888 


BNE 


UP 


;no. Move up 


3018 


DOWN 






3020 


JSR 


NOUEDOMN 


;Move hiM down 


3838 


LDft 


no 


;current direc- 


3848 


STft 


DIRECT 


;tion is down 


3858 


CLC 




;keep going 


3868 


BCC 


ftCTION 




3078 


UP 






3888 


JSR 


MOUEUP 


;Move hiM up 


3898 


LDft 


»1 


;current direc- 


3188 


STft 


DIRECT 


;tion is up 


3118 


CLC 




;keep going 


3128 


BCC 


ftCTIOM 


L^tjwwwuirfuuwiJW^JmJ^- 


3240 


■ llJIJIJIftftXAnnnA'mnnAnJt/mnipmAnA'hji.j^ 


3250 


: END OF MftIN PROGRftM 


3268 




3278 








3288 
3298 





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ST- Modem Cable (to Hayes, etc ) 

ST- Monitor Stand. Swivel 8, Till 

Disk Filelor3 5 ■ disks (holds 40) 

Flip N File DATA CASE (holds 501 

Disk File, with Lock (holds tOO'l 

Rotary Disk File (holds 72) 

Power Strip. 6 outlet. (15 amp Surge) 

Printer Stand. Heavy Duty. Sloping 

ATARI "Standard" Joystick 

6' Atari Serial I/O Cable 

CompuServe Starter Kit 

U S DDUBLERIDbl Density lor 1050) 

"Duplicator 1 

PRINTER SUPPLIES 

MAILING LABELS. White. 500 pack 
per 1000 
Blu.Pnk. Gn.Yel, 800 pack (200 ea) 
per 500. any 1 color 
per 1000. any 1 color 
Big Labels. 1-7/16x4 , White, pet 500 
PRINTER PAPER. Micro-Fine perls, 20 lb 
500 sheets. Pure White Bond 
1000 sheets, same as above 
Carton (2600 sheets), as above 
PRINTSHOP "Rainbow" Color Paper Packs 
Pastels (5 colors). 50 sheets ot ea 
Matching Envelopes. 20 ot each 
Brights (8 colors). 50 sheets ot ea 
Matching Envelopes. 20 of each 
ALL 13 colors. 50 sheets ot each 

Matching Envelopes, 20 of each 
(Deduct 1D% tor 100/color paper packs) 



Prices Are Per Box Of 10 DISKETTES Minimum Order of 2 Boxes 













WABASH 


3 5" MICRO-FLOPPIES 


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Boxes 


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8 50 


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"Silver" CentechOisks (20 Pack) 17 



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EST 



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Tech. Info Call (513) 294-6236 

TERMS AND CONDITIONS 

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loll tree tor latesl pnce and a.a.iaD.uty ot croduci CIRCLE #168 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PAGE 94 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



3300 
3310 
3320 


jSUBROUTINES START HERE 




3330 


;open screen in Graphics 3 


3340 




3350 


6pEN5CRECN 


3360 


LDK n$60 


3370 


LDA «0PEN 


3380 


STft ICCOM,K 


3390 


LDA «5CREEN&255 


3400 


5JA ICBAL,K 


3410 


LDfl »SCREEN/256 


3420 


5T(i ICBflL+l,X 


3430 


LDA »12 


3440 


STA ICCIX1,X 


3450 


LDA tt3 


3460 


STfl ICAX2,X 


3470 


J5R CIOV 


3480 


RTS 


3490 




3870 


;copy player from data region 


3880 


;to desired PMG location 


3890 




3900 


COPYPLflYER 


3910 


LDY ttO ;get no. of 


3920 


LDfl (SHAPE], Y ;bytes of 


3930 


STA MBYTES ;player data 


3940 


IHC KBYTES ; to be Moved 


3950 


LDY »1 


3960 


PLOOP 


3970 


LDA C5HflPEJ,Y ;copy to PMG 


3980 


STA CPLYRSTRT),Y ;area 


3990 


INY ;data area 


4000 


CPY MBYTES ;all bytes yet? 


4010 


BME PLOOP ;no, keep going 


4020 


RTS ;yes, stop 


4030 




4040 


;do-nothin3 delay subroutine 


4050 


jnuHber in X-register deternines 


4060 


; length of delay 


4070 




4080 


DELAY 


4090 


LDY ttO 


4100 


DELAY2 


4110 


DEY 


4120 


BNE DELAY2 


4130 


DEX 


4140 


BME DELAY 


4150 


RTS 


4160 




4170 


;sub. to Move alien shape down 


4180 


;one line (up one byte in RAM) 


4190 




4200 


MOUEDOMM 


4210 


LDY ALIEN ;get « bytes 


4220 


LOOPDOMN 


4230 


LDA CPLYRSTRT),Y ; get a byte 


4240 


IMY ;store one 


4250 


STA (PLYRSTRT),Y ;byte higher 


4260 


DEY ;point to 


4270 


DEY ; lower byte 


4280 


BPL LOOPDOMN ;go until 


4290 


INC YP05P0 ;new Y position 


4300 


RTS 


4310 




4320 


;sub. to Move alien shape up 


4330 


;one line (down one byte in RAM] 


4340 




4350 


MOUEUP 


4360 


LDA ALIEN ;tt bytes to Move 


4370 


STA NBYTES ;is 1 More than 


4380 


INC NBYTES ;tt player bytes 


4390 


LDY ttl 


4400 


LOOPUP 


4410 


LDA (PLYRSTRT],Y ;get a byte 


4420 


DEY ; store l 


4430 


STA (PLYRSTRT),Y ; byte lower 


4440 


INY ;point to 



4450 
4460 
4470 
4480 
4490 
4580 
4590 
4600 
4610 
4620 
4840 
4850 
4860 
4870 
4880 
4890 
4900 
4910 
4920 
4930 
4940 
4950 
5180 
5190 
5200 
5210 
5220 
5230 
5240 



INY 

CPY NBYTES 

BNE LOOPUP 

DEC YPOSPO 

RTS 



;next one 
;done all? 
;no, go on 
;new Y position 



;data values needed 

SCREEN .BYTE "S" 

data for player shapes are 
stored in unused portion of 
PMG area 

«= PMG 

;norMal alien 

ALIEN 

•BYTE 14,60,24,126,189,189 
.BYTE 189,189,60,50,36 
.BYTE 36,36,102,0 

;car shape 

CAR 

.BYTE 15,126,195,219,219 
.BYTE 91,219,219,219,219 
.BYTE 91,219,219,195,126,0 



0i 



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Bulletin Boord 24 hrs. - 21 2 828-76S8 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 95 








%i 



•**«i. 




PAGE 96 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



GAME 




Cosmic 
Glob 



by Rich B. Enns 



In the year 2500, a giant energy cluster heads toward 
the Earth. Fighters are sent to intercept; only one retxirns. 
Is this the end? The surviving fighter brings little hope. 

The media-christened Cosmic Glob, it seems, can only 
be destroyed by chunking it out and neutralizing its core. 
With the formation trapped in a weakening force field just 
short of the planet, you must destroy the horror before it 
destroys you — and the Earth. 

lyping it in. 

Listing 1 is the BASIC data used to create both cassette 
and disk versions of Cosmic Glob. Those readers who are 
interested in how the game works may obtain the assem- 
bly listing on either the magazine disk version or the ANA- 
LOG Computing Atari Users' Group on Delphi. 

Disk users should refer to the M/L Editor article on page 
42 for typing instructions. 

If you have a cassette system, type in Listing 1, then 
add the hues shown in Listing 2. Type RUN and press 
RETURN. The program will begin checking the data state- 
ments, printing the line numbers as it goes. It will alert 
you to any problems. Fix any incorrect lines and rerun the 
program until all errors are eliminated. 

When all your data lines are correct, the computer will 
beep twice and prompt you to READY CASSETTE AND 
PRESS RETURN. Now, insert a blank cassette in your 
recorder, press the RECORD and PLAY buttons simultane- 
ously and hit RETURN. The message WRITING FILE will 
appear, and the program will create a machine language 
boot tape version of Cosmic Glob, printing each data line 
number as it goes. When the READY prompt appears, the 
game is recorded and ready to play. CSAVE the BASIC pro- 
gram onto a separate tape before continuing. 

To play the game, rewind the tape created with the BA- 
SIC program to the beginning. Turn your computer off and 
remove all cartridges. Press the PLAY button on your 
recorder and turn on your computer, while holding down 
the START key. If you have an XL or XE series computer. 



you must hold the START and OPTION keys when you 
turn on the power. The computer will beep once. Hit the 
RETURN key, and Cosmic Glob will load and run auto- 
matically. 

Playing Cosmic Giob. 

This is a one- or two-player game. When it boots up, 
the title screen will appear, with four options. Joystick 
changes the options; pull it down to select one. Push the 
joystick right to change the selected option. Press the fire 
button to start Cosmic Glob. 

You have several options for variations in the game: (1) 
number of players: select 1 or 2; (2) number of ships: se- 
lect from 3 to 7, or * for an endless number of ships; (3) 
difficulty: choose a level from 1 to 30; and (4) enable 
mines: select Y or N to enable mines or not. 

Pressing the joystick fire button starts the game. The 
Glob will appear immediately, along with a small defense 
ship. Your ship will be seen on the bottom. Player 1, on 
the left, uses joystick 0. Player 2, on the right, has joystick 
number 1. 

Notice that your ship doesn't appear right away. It'll re- 
main protected for about five seconds under a force field, 
then will appear automatically. Pull back on your stick to 
appear when you want. Do so only when it's safe. 

Push forward on the joystick to move your ship. It'll 
head in one of eight directions. Push right to turn clock- 
wise, left to turn counterclockwise. Pull back to flip. You 
may move and turn at the same time. 

Contact with the Glob, a defense ship, or one of the 
mines is deadly. Contact with the force field is safe. If you 
collide with it head on, you'll bounce straight back. Hit 
on an angle, and you'll bounce off on an angle. 

In two-player mode players may pass right through each 
other. When the two players overlap, a third color is 
produced. This is done by setting bit 5 of GPRIOR (623). 

To fire missiles in your efforts to destroy the Glob, press 
the trigger. Missiles will have no effect on the force field, 
or on the defense ship. Shooting at mines will cause the 
Glob to regenerate. 

In two-player mode, shooting at the other player causes 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 97 



CUSTOM 810 DISK DRIVE - 395.00 



ASSEMBLED ON ACRYLIC BASE - NO CASE 



FULLY FUNCTIONAL XL COMPATIBLE - INCLUDES I CABLE & POWER SUPPLY 



800/400 MODULES 

NEW PARTS COMPLETE WITH IC'S 



EA. 



All Modules 

Cofnplete 

with 

IC'S 



• 800 Main Board 

• 800/400 CPU with GTIA 

• 8001 OK "B" OS. Module 

• 16KRAM CX8S3 

• 400 Main Board 

• 800 Power Supply Board 

• 800XL Modulator 



INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 



• Antic ,0012296 
•Pokey C01 2294 

• PIA C014795 

• CPU . .C014806 



CPU. 
> CPU. 
' PIA . 

■ ROM 

■ ROM 

■ ROM 
• GTIA 
' Delay 



. C014337 
. CO10745 
. CO10750 
. C012399B 
. C012499B 
.C014599B 
. CO14805 
. CO60472 



DISK DRIVE 

CUSTOM 810 DRIVE 

Fully operational 810 mounted on acrylic 
base. No case. Includes I/O cable and 



power supply. 



81 MODULES 

810 Side Board $29,50 

810 Side Willi Data Sep . . . 39.50 

810 Power Board $15.00 

810 Analog Board $10.00 

Data Separator $12.50 

MISC. HARDWARE 

600XL64K Upgrade . . . .$29.95 

C021697 $10.00 

Faslchip lor 800/400 ... .$15.50 

1050 FDC 2793 $19.50 

850 Interface wJh Case . . $120.00 

BOARD SETS 

New Parts complete w* IC's 
800 4 PIECE BOARD SET 

Includes 800 Main, CPU, 10K ROM, 
and Power Board $28.50 

810 BOARD SET 

Sideboard with Separator, Rear Pcmer 
and Analog Boards $57.50 

POWER PACKS 

Replacement Translormer for: 
800/400, 810, 1050, 1200XL, 
1020 $14.50 



95 



00 



AMERICAN TV 



Mail Order and Repair 15338 Inverness St., San Leandro, C A 94579 

Business Address 1988 Washington Ave., San Leandro, CA 94577 

NO MINIMUM ORDER! We accept money orders, personal checks or C.O.D.s. 
VISA, Master/Card okay. Credit cards restricted to purchases over $20.00. No 
personal checks on C.O.D. - Shipping: $4.00 shipping and handling on orders under 
$150.00. Add $2.00 for C.O.D. orders. California residents include 6'/^% sales tax. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 
Much more! Send SASE for free price list. 

"Atari IS a registered trademark of Atart Corp. 



MANUALS 

SAM'S Sen/ice Manuals lor 800 or 40O 

or800XL $19.50ea 

Inside Atari Basic $ 5.00 

Pilot Primer $5.00 

ST-Macfiine Language . . .$17.50 
ST-GEM Programming ...$17.50 

ST-TricksSfips $17.50 

ST-lnternal $17.50 

520ST Repair Manual $3750 

850 BARE BOARD 

Includes Paris List, 
Instructions $10.00 

CONNECTORS 

I/O 13PtN PC Mount i 4.50 

I/O Cable Plug Kit $ 4.50 

30 Pin Cart Socket S 4 50 

EDITOR/ASSEMBLER 

Editor/Assembler Cartridge 

Write your own Higli Speed 6502 

Machine Language Programs. 

Written by Atari. Works with all Atari 

Computers except St. 

Manual Not Included $10.00 

BASIC CARTRIDGE 

Basic Rev. "A" Cartridge works with 
all Atari Computers except ST. 
Includes manual. 

800XL Owners Note! Use this Cart- 
ndge while programming to elimi- 
nate the severe errors in the Built- 
in "B" Basic $10.00 



SOFTWARE 

Atari Joystick $ 7.00 

O.S.S. Action $58.00 

O.SS. Mac/65 $58.00 

O.S.S. Basic XE $58.00 

O.S.S Basic XL $42.00 

ST-M-Disk $35.00 

ST-Easy-Draw $109.00 

ST-O.S Pascal $68.00 

ST-Basic Compiler $79.00 

ST-Solitaire $37.50 

ST-BBS $45.00 

Donkey Kong Cart $5.00 

Pac-Man Cartridge $5.00 

Eastern Front Cart. $5.00 

Crossfire Cart. $5.00 

Chicken Cartridge $5,00 

Picnic Paranoia Cart. .... $5.00 

Mr. Cool Cart. $5.00 

Clown S Balloon Disk .... $5.00 

StralosDisk $5.00 

Serpentine Disk $5.00 

Steller Shuttle Disk $6.00 

Magneto Bugs Disk ..:''.. $5.00 

The Factory Disk $5.00 

The Pond Disk $5.00 

Spanish Lessons $7.50 

Basic Cartridge $10.00 

Editor Assembler Cart. . . . .JIO.OO 

Q'Bert Cartridge $10.00 

Popeye Cartridge $10.00 

Kindercomp Cart $10.00 



CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-551-9995 



SERVICE RATES 

Hat Service Rates lielow In- 
clude Parts i Labor, 60-Day 
Warranty 

800 $39.50 

850 $39,50 

600XL $49.50 

1200XL $49.50 

810 $69.50 

800XL $49,50 

1050 $85,00 

800 Keyboard Repair . . . .$25,00 
Above units repaired or exchanged 
with rebuiklaMe exchange. Include 
$7.00 return shipping and insurance. 

10K Rev. "B"O.S. Upgrade 

for older 800/400's 
End printer/disk drive timeouts and 
OTHER ERRORS Many new programs 
require Rev. B. Type the foltowing 
peak in Basic to see if you have 
Rev. B. PMNT PEEI((U3«3). If the 
result equals 56 you have the old 
O.S. Tint CMp MM Ml Willi to- 
itracllMt .... $7.50. CMifMe 10K 
Rt». B mtMt $i.SO 

GTIA Upgrade For 800/400 

Add additional graphics modes and 
make your older computer com. 
patible with the latest software. 
biitnicllMi NidiiM $4.50 

810 Drive Upgrade 

Greatly improve the performance ot 
your older 810 Stabilize the speed 
with the addition ot an anak)g and 
redesigned rear board. 
MttraCtlMI IIKlIlM $27.50 



IN CA CALL 

415 352-3787 



CIRCLE #184 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




P.O. Box 5228 

Springfield, Virginia 22150 

(703)644-888! 

Telex 269728 XUMT UR 



CIRCLE #170 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Cosmic Glob 



continued 



his ship to move in the direction of your missile for a short 
distance, during which time the other player has no con- 
trol over the movement of his ship. He may still fire, how- 
ever. Players can be nasty, forcing one another into one 
of many deadly objects. 

The Cosmic Glob moves about your screen in an omi- 
nous fashion, annihilating any unsuspecting player in its 
path. It rebounds off the force field with some uncertainty. 

When you shoot at the Glob, a small chimk of it will 
disappear. Keep firing at it until you reach the core, at the 
same time being wary of the Glob's defense ship. It flies 
around the screen randomly. You can't destroy it, but it 
can turn you into dust on contact. 

When you reach the Glob's core, it will explode. The 
scores will be added up and displayed. For each Glob 
chunk you hit you'll be awarded 1 point. The player who 
destroys the Glob will receive 500 points. 

Press either joystick's fire button to advance to the next 
level. Notice that scores don't change during play. Points 
are only awarded after the Glob is destroyed. 

The game ends when all players have lost all of their 
ships. Getting hit by the Glob or a defense ship, or run- 
ning into the mines are good ways to lose them. Press the 
fire button on either joystick to go to the title screen. 

The game can be paused during play by pressing the 
SPACE BAR. Press any other key to resume play. The game 
can be restarted at any time by hitting START. If you're 
playing with an endless number of ships, pressing START 
is the only way to end the game. 

One final note: the Glob's defense ship moves slowly 
at the begirming of each level, but will speed up after a 
few minutes. 

Enjoy Cosmic Glob — save yourself and the Earth. B 

Rich B. Enns has had his Atari system for about two 
years. He started programming in machine language about 
a year ago. His computer interests lie in graphics and game 
programming, and he en;'oys two-pJayer games especially. 



The two-letter checksum code preceding the line 
numbers here is not a part of the BASIC prograjn. 
For further information, see BASIC Editor II in is- 
sue 47. 

The code is simply a double check for Listing 1; 
it's of more use with Listing 2. 



Listing 1. 
BASIC listing. 



MX leoe DATA 255,255,0,68,169,85,76,6,17, 

169,0,133,128,133,139,169,5559 
)»T 1010 DATA 7,133,129,169,60,133,131,160 

,0,177,130,145,128,24,165,128,7104 
¥8 1020 DATA 105,1,133,128,165,129,105,8, 

133,129,24,165,130,105,1,133,4406 
m 1030 DATA 130,165,131,105,0,133,131,16 

5,129,201,33,208,220,76,6,17,5654 
fH 1040 DATA 72,138,72,152,72,164,233,185 

,234,0,141,10,212,141,20,208,8802 
KX 1050 DATA 185,240,0,141,21,208,165,222 

,141,22,208,165,223,141,23,208,866 
TC 1060 DATA 165,224,141,25,208,230,233,1 

65,233,201,6,208,4,169,0,133,8782 



JH 1070 DATA 233,104,168,104,170,104,64,7 

2,138,72,152,72,169,8,141,200,6939 
BB 1080 DATA 2,169,15,205,120,2,208,5,205 

,121,2,240,4,169,0,133,4896 
UC 1090 DATA 77,173,4,6,201,8,208,6,169,2 

00,133,209,133,210,165,194,1846 
m 1100 DATA 201,1,240,3,76,24,14,165,175 

,141,2,208,165,176,141,3,6252 
PA 1110 DATA 208,160,0,185,188,29,145,142 

,185,210,29,145,144,200,192,22,9371 
OL 1120 DATA 208,241,169,0,145,142,145,14 

4,200,145,142,145,144,56,165,142,16 
ZB 1130 DATA 233,2,133,146,56,165,144,233 

,2,133,148,160,0,169,0,145,6074 
aU 1140 DATA 146,145,148,200,145,146,145, 

148,165,232,201,1,240,11,230,192,2444 
JL 1150 DATA 165,192,201,2,240,3,76,111,8 

, 169,0,133,192,230,193,165,9557 
PH 1160 DATA 193,201,60,208,24,169,8,133, 

193, 165, 189, 133, 161, 173, 10, 210, 52 
6)L 1170 DATA 41,1,10,10,24,181,161,168,18 

5,84,15,133,189,164,189,24,6718 
Lf 1188 DATA 165,190,121,40,15,133,190,14 

1,6,208,24,165,191,121,40,15,4974 
AH 1190 DATA 133,191,141,7,208,201,55,240 

,46,201,197,240,42,24,165,136,9711 
TC 1200 DATA 121,44,15,133,136,165,189,10 

,10,10,170,160,0,177,136,41,4213 
HI 1210 DATA 15,24,125,52,15,145,136,232, 

200,192,6,208,240,165,136,201,2577 
IP 1220 DATA 150,240,4,201,232,208,14,164 

,189,185,48,15,133,189,169,1,7669 
PC 1230 DATA 133,203,76,23,8,230,184,165, 

184,201,12,208,34,169,0,133,7347 
Fft 1240 DATA 184,162,8,164,234,181,235,14 

9,234,232,224,5,208,247,132,239,6413 
SM 1250 DATA 162,4,164,245,181,240,149,24 
1,202,224,255,208,247,132,240,169,8930 
EO 1260 DATA 0,197,211,208,45,197,212,208 

,41,169,1,197,171,248,4,197,903 
OM 1278 DATA 172,288,23,169,3,141,15,210, 

169,129,141,8,210,169,138,141,9889 
SX 1280 DATA 7,210,169,9,141,6,210,76,204 

,8,169,0,141,7,210,141,6181 
ZH 1290 DATA 6,210,162,0,181,209,201,8,24 

0,96,181,195,201,1,240,90,886 
KG 1300 DATA 181,225,201,0,240,5,214,225, 

76,52,9,189,120,2,201,15,5476 
Ra 1310 DATA 208,11,246,211,32,121,14,181 

,211,201,255,208,61,169,0,149,307 
EH 1320 DATA 211,149,158,149,207,32,121,1 

4,138,10,168,189,216,14,153,138,8050 
TM 1330 DATA 0,133,158,185,139,8,133,151, 

134,161,162,8,168,0,140,7,4510 
P& 1340 DATA 210,189,16,29,145,150,232,20 

0,192,10,208,245,166,161,189,214,4668 
VV 1350 DATA 14,149,173,157,0,208,169,1,1 

49,195,232,236,2,6,240,3,7681 
6% 1360 DATA 76,206,8,162,0,160,0,181,195 

,201,1,240,3,76,214,9,6041 
IX 1370 DATA 181,185,201,8,248,5,214,185, 

76,214,9,189,6,6,281,0,5100 
8A 1380 DATA 208,31,189,120,2,281,15,208, 

7,169,0,149,171,76,214,9,5864 
LX 1390 DATA 132,161,168,185,100,15,149,1 

58,169,1,149,171,164,161,76,214,157 
FP 1400 DATA 9,246,169,181,169,201,5,208, 

32,169,0,149,169,189,120,2,7323 
QH 1410 DATA 41,8,208,7,169,1,133,156,32, 

32,14,189,120,2,41,4,445 
Oa 1420 DATA 208,7,169,255,133,156,32,32, 

14,181,187,201,0,240,5,214,8514 
yt 1430 DATA 187,76,199,9,189,120,2,201,1 

3,208,18,181,158,168,185,16,7693 
UH 1440 DATA 15,149,158,138,10,168,32,55, 

14,169,40,149,187,169,0,149,5726 
PJ 1450 DATA 171,189,120,2,41,1,208,4,169 
,1,149,171,232,200,200,224,1688 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 99 




Cosmic Glob 



continued 



tV 1466 DATA 2,240,3,76,65,9,162,0,189,13 

2,2,201,1,208,2,149,4562 
IV 1470 DATA 207,181,171,201,1,240,3,76,1 

28,10,180,158,132,163,24,181,7812 
CL 1480 DATA 173,121,190,14,149,173,157,0 

,208,201,55,240,4,201,193,208,1859 
W 1490 DATA 25,180,158,185,218,14,149,15 

8,169,1,133,203,189,6,6,201,7847 
UF 1500 DATA 0,208,4,169,3,149,185,76,244 

,9,138,10,170,164,163,24,6675 
J5 1510 DATA 181,138,121,198,14,149,138,1 

33,150,181,139,133,151,138,74,170,126 
aU 1520 DATA 181,158,10,10,10,10,134,161, 

170,160,0,189,16,29,145,150,5010 
TN 1530 DATA 232,200,192,18,208,245,166,1 

61,138,10,170,181,138,221,206,14,1324 
IN 1540 DATA 240,5,221,210,14,208,28,138, 

74,170,180,158,185,226,14,149,316 
&U 1550 DATA 158,169,1,133,203,189,6,6,20 

1,0,208,4,169,3,149,185,6399 
IJ 1560 DATA 76,244,9,138,74,170,232,224, 

2,240,3,76,226,9,160,0,6336 
KD 1570 DATA 162,1,185,12,208,41,12,208,2 

8,185,4,208,41,4,208,21,4058 
NH 1580 DATA 132,161,230,161,173,10,208,3 

7,161,208,10,173,11,208,37,161,7946 
HU 1590 DATA 208,3,76,21,11,169,8,153,195 

,0,153,211,0,153,171,0,5086 
itZ 1600 DATA 153,187,0,185,185,0,201,0,24 

0,25,181,230,201,0,240,19,8877 
FQ 1610 DATA 248,24,181,218,105,2,149,218 

,181,220,105,0,149,220,216,169,2590 
FM 1620 DATA 0,149,230,169,150,153,225,0, 

165, 223, 141, 200, 2, 56, 185, 209, 1122 
PD 1630 DATA 0,233,1,153,209,0,169,1,133, 

197,132,162,152,10,168,185,9106 
GL 1640 DATA 138,0,133,150,185,139,0,133, 

151,160,0,169,0,145,150,200,8067 
SB 1650 DATA 192,10,208,247,169,0,141,30, 

208,164,162,200,202,192,2,240,2424 
¥K 1660 DATA 3,76,140,10,162,0,181,195,20 

1,1,208,69,181,179,201,0,8721 
D£ 1670 DATA 208,63,173,5,6,281,0,208,6,1 

81,207,201,1,208,50,189,8695 
IS 1680 DATA 132,2,201,0,208,43,149,207,1 

81,158,149,181,168,24,181,173,1439 
HF 1690 DATA 121,234,14,149,177,138,10,17 

0,24,181,138,125,254,14,149,132,8949 
KM 1700 DATA 24,181,132,121,242,14,149,13 

2,138,74,170,169,1,149,179,133,9151 
i>ft 1710 DATA 200,232,224,2,208,176,162,0, 

134,162,162,0,181,179,201,1,8782 
ZG 1720 DATA 240,3,76,197,12,180,181,132, 

163,24,181,177,121,190,14,149,9094 
JIC 1730 DATA 177,157,4,208,138,168,10,170 

,185,177,0,201,56,240,59,201,229 
OR 1740 DATA 199,240,55,164,163,24,181,13 

2,121,198,14,149,132,133,150,181,257 
&M 1750 DATA 133,133,151,160,0,177,150,61 

,2,15,145,150,200,177,150,61,7709 
XL 1760 DATA 2,15,24,125,250,14,145,150,2 

00,177,150,61,2,15,145,150,6676 
5E 1770 DATA 181,132,201,151,240,4,201,23 

4,208,13,32,98,14,138,74,170,7399 
Za 1780 DATA 169,0,149,179,76,197,12,138, 

74, 170, 181, 177, 197, 175, 144, 18, 9802 
)|>W 1790 DATA 24,165,175,105,31,213,177,14 

4,9,181,177,197,176,144,6,76,8725 
RL 1800 DATA 19,12,76,197,12,56,181,177,2 

29,175,74,168,138,10,170,56,7959 
SH 1810 DATA 181,132,233,127,133,150,76,3 

6,12,56,181,177,229,176,74,168,9869 
SO 1820 DATA 138,10,170,24,181,132,105,1, 

133, 150, 165, 145, 133, 151,134, 163, 9737 
BA 1830 DATA 162,0,161,150,57,24,15,208,8 

,166,163,138,74,170,76,197,8088 
m 1840 DATA 12,161,150,57,32,15,129,150, 

166,163,56,181,132,229,144,24,8583 



»r 1850 DATA 105,1,168,177,142,153,188,29 

,177,144,153,210,29,32,98,14,6100 
Fft I860 DATA 138,74,170,169,0,149,179,248 

,24,181,216,105,1,149,216,181,1360 
m 1870 DATA 218,105,0,149,218,181,220,10 

5,0,149,220,216,160,0,185,197,1959 
R9 1880 DATA 29,57,92,15,240,8,185,219,29 

,57,96,15,208,56,169,0,4744 
PC 1890 DATA 133,194,133,195,133,196,133, 

171,133,172,133,179,133,180,141,7,734 
IV 1900 DATA 210,141,5,210,141,3,210,141, 

1,210,248,24,181,218,105,5,8753 
FE 1910 DATA 149,218,181,220,105,0,149,22 

0,216,162,0,32,98,14,162,2,5126 
MX 1920 DATA 32,98,14,76,14,14,200,192,4, 

208,179,232,224,2,240,3,9041 
SI 1930 DATA 76,118,11,162,0,160,1,189,0, 

208,41,5,240,30,134,164,6167 
T5 1940 DATA 162,0,189,144,29,157,188,29, 

189,166,29,157,210,29,232,224,1644 
XZ 1950 DATA 22,208,239,166,164,169,1,133 

,197,76,15,13,189,8,208,61,6193 
KB 1960 DATA 6,15,240,43,169,1,153,171,0, 

133,203,169,20,153,185,0,6946 
EV 1970 DATA 181,181,153,158,0,169,0,149, 

179,169,1,149,230,132,161,138,371 
WX 1980 DATA 10,170,32,98,14,169,0,141,30 

,208,138,74,170,164,161,136,8883 
RX 1990 DATA 232,224,2,208,162,166,162,23 

2,224,2,240,3,76,114,11,165,8405 
RH 2000 DATA 197,201,1,240,9,165,198,201, 

1,240,30,76,120,13,169,0,5519 
KO 2010 DATA 133,197,169,1,133,198,169,3, 

141,15,210,169,129,141,8,210,8996 
m 2020 DATA 169,47,141,1,210,169,4,133,1 

99,230,199,165,199,141,0,210,2047 
VB 2030 DATA 201,52,208,10,169,0,141,0,21 

0,141,1,210,133,198,165,200,838 
LL 2040 DATA 201,1,240,9,165,201,201,1,24 

0,30,76,185,13,169,0,133,6624 
BU 2050 DATA 200,169,1,133,201,169,3,141, 

15,210,169,129,141,8,210,169,9732 
AN 2060 DATA 135,141,3,210,169,255,133,20 

2,230,202,165,202,133,202,141,2,3281 
Vy 2070 DATA 210,201,15,208,10,169,0,141, 

3,210,141,2,210,133,201,165,9700 
tfSL 2080 DATA 203,201,1,240,9,165,204,201, 

1,240,35,76,14,14,169,0,4338 
ZE 2090 DATA 133,203,169,1,133,204,169,3, 

141,15,210,169,129,141,8,210,9124 
JF 2100 DATA 173,10,210,41,15,24,105,10,1 

33,205,169,17,133,206,198,206,310 
tU 2110 DATA 198,206,24,165,206,105,160,1 

41,5,210,165,206,10,10,24,101,6038 
VX 2120 DATA 205,141,4,210,165,206,201,25 

5,208,10,169,0,141,5,210,141,107 
RF 2130 DATA 4,210,133,204,162,0,32,116,2 

4,162,1,32,116,24,104,168,4054 
GT 2140 DATA 104,170,104,76,98,228,24,181 

,158,101,156,149,158,201,8,208,926 
TO 2150 DATA 4,169,0,149,158,201,255,208, 

4,169,7,149,158,181,158,10,9242 
MD 2160 DATA 10,10,10,133,160,134,161,185 

,138,0,133,150,185,139,0,133,7947 
DZ 2170 DATA 151,132,162,165,160,170,160, 

0,189,16,29,145,150,232,200,192,1861 
CG 2180 DATA 10,208,245,166,161,164,162,9 

6,181,132,133,150,181,133,133,151,2534 
m 2190 DATA 160,0,177,150,61,2,15,145,15 

0,200,192,3,208,244,96,138,329 
YK 2200 DATA 10,168,185,152,0,133,150,185 

,153,0,133,151,169,134,141,7,7989 
m 2210 DATA 210,181,211,41,170,133,162,1 

81,211,73,255,74,74,141,6,210,517 
RU 2220 DATA 134,161,162,0,160,0,165,162, 

145,150,200,192,3,208,247,24,762 
i>$ 2230 DATA 165,150,105,80,133,150,165,1 

51,105,0,133,151,232,224,6,208,1048 



PAGE 100 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



YT 2240 DATA 227,166,161,96,0,1,1,1,8,255 

,255,255,255,255,0,1,9003 
RI 2250 DATA 1,1,0,255,22,0,150,0,100,0,2 

28,0,58,190,97,225,6310 
Ce 2260 DATA 4,7,6,5,0,3,2,1,4,3,6,1,0,7, 

2,5,2708 
(.5 2270 DATA 4,2,2,2,3,5,5,5,5,5,4,2,2,2, 

3,5,2754 
m 2280 DATA 2,0,8,0,128,0,0,0,252,0,243, 

0,2,1,4,5,8067 
PU 2290 DATA 6,7,0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,0,1,2,3, 

128,64,5558 
9P 2300 DATA 32,16,8,4,2,1,127,191,223,23 

9,247,251,253,254,0,1,1824 
NJ 2310 DATA 0,255,255,0,1,0,2,3,6,1,0,14 

4,144,240,96,0,2038 
CA 2320 DATA 0,0,0,112,192,192,112,0,0,0, 

0,96,240,144,144,0,4112 
Rft 2330 DATA 0,0,0,224,48,48,224,0,0,0,3, 

0,1,2,1,2,5443 
MF 2340 DATA 3,0,1,2,2,1,128,64,64,128,0, 

0,0,0,0,3,5682 
MK 2350 DATA 1,2,0,5,7,6,0,4,0,0,0,0,8,0, 

0,99,4062 
m 2360 DATA 111,115,109,105,99,0,103,188 

,111,98,0,0,0,0,0,0,7507 
m 2370 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,187,163,189,0,16 

2,185,0,0,0,0,686 
08 2380 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,50,41,35,40,0, 

34,14,0,37,5169 
GP 2390 DATA 46,46,51,0,0,0,0,0,0,195,0,2 

39,230,0,240,236,7865 
HH 2400 DATA 225,249,229,242,243,154,17,0 

,92,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,7864 
XH 2410 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,8,0, 

0,0,2410 
QH 2420 DATA 0,0,0,195,0,239,230,0,243,23 

2,233,240,243,154,21,0,1824 
HE 2430 DATA 0,8,0,0,0,0,0,8,8,8,8,8,0,0, 

0,0,2430 
YG 2440 DATA 0,0,8,8,8,8,8,8,8,8,8,228,23 

3,230,230,233,8603 
CM 2450 DATA 227,245,236,244,249,154,16,1 

7,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,7268 
8S 2460 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

0,0,2460 
PH 2470 DATA 0,229,238,225,226,236,229,12 

8,237,233,238,229,243,154,57,0,5714 
VK 2480 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,8, 

0,0,2480 
AP 2490 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,242,229, 

240,229,225,244,1505 
LY 2500 DATA 128,230,233,242,229,154,57,0 

,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,7223 
KG 2510 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,8,8,0,0,8, 

0,0,2510 
tCN 2520 DATA 0,227,239,238,244,242,239,23 

6,128,244,249,240,229,154,40,40,6460 
NV 2530 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

0,0,2530 
PN 2540 DATA 0,0,71,0,0,8,8,8,8,8,8,169,1 

68,141,1,210,2314 
JZ 2550 DATA 134,167,162,4,134,168,142,0, 

210,162,0,232,224,100,208,251,3934 
MF 2560 DATA 166,168,232,224,200,208,237, 

169,0,141,0,210,141,1,210,166,1496 
MX 2570 DATA 167,96,160,2,169,0,145,130,2 

4,165,130,105,40,133,130,165,7845 
m 2580 DATA 131,105,0,133,131,169,92,145 

,130,160,0,32,165,16,96,160,6449 
YK 2590 DATA 2,169,0,145,130,56,165,130,2 

33,40,133,130,165,131,233,0,9685 
TX 2600 DATA 133,131,169,92,145,130,160,0 

,32,165,16,96,169,1,141,2,4119 
HJ 2610 DATA 6,141,3,6,169,5,141,4,6,169, 

0,141,1,6,169,1,909 
m 2620 DATA 141,8,6,141,5,6,141,6,6,141, 

7,6,56,165,166,233,4408 



U5 2630 DATA 26,133,131,141,8,6,169,0,133 

,130,169,40,133,128,169,30,6510 
BB 2640 DATA 133,129,160,0,177,128,145,13 

0,24,165,128,105,1,133,128,165,8188 
JE 2650 DATA 129,105,0,133,129,24,165,130 

,105,1,133,130,165,131,105,0,6837 
LY 2660 DATA 133,131,56,233,2,205,8,6,208 

,218,169,0,205,132,2,240,9793 
CB 2670 DATA 249,205,133,2,240,244,32,81, 

28,169,0,141,29,208,162,0,6625 
VH 2680 DATA 157,0,210,232,224,9,208,248, 

32,100,25,173,8,6,141,244,8855 
EB 2690 DATA 2,169,170,141,196,2,169,12,1 

41,197,2,169,180,141,198,2,8988 
IJ 2760 DATA 162,0,160,20,189,117,15,145, 

88,232,200,224,60,208,245,24,2085 
KC 2710 DATA 165,88,105,120,133,130,133,1 

28,165,89,105,0,133,131,133,129,8398 
PM 2720 DATA 160,0,185,177,15,145,130,200 

,192,240,208,246,169,3,141,15,1560 
PC 2730 DATA 210,169,0,141,8,210,32,165,1 

6,32,165,16,165,128,133,130,7169 
BO 2740 DATA 165,129,133,131,24,165,130,1 

05,15,133,130,165,131,105,0,133,7122 
XS 2750 DATA 131,160,2,169,92,145,130,160 

,0,32,165,16,173,120,2,201,6905 
BV 2760 DATA 7,208,31,238,2,6,173,2,6,201 

,3,208,5,169,1,141,4796 
fH 2770 DATA 2,6,24,173,2,6,105,16,145,13 

0,162,15,157,177,15,32,4280 
PO 2780 DATA 165,16,173,132,2,201,0,288,3 

,76,129,26,173,126,2,201,6525 
HD 2790 DATA 14,208,31,160,2,169,0,145,13 

0,24,165,128,105,215,133,130,9348 
NH 2800 DATA 165,129,105,0,133,131,169,92 

,145,130,160,0,32,165,16,76,5455 
BU 2810 DATA 241,19,201,13,208,166,32,204 

,16,173,120,2,201,7,208,18,6973 
RQ 2820 DATA 238,4,6,173,4,6,201,9,208,27 

,169,3,141,4,6,76,2543 
ZQ 2830 DATA 127,18,201,11,208,45,206,4,6 

,173,4,6,201,2,208,5,4165 
TN 2840 DATA 169,8,141,4,6,173,4,6,201,8, 

208,7,169,10,145,130,5461 
TM 2850 DATA ''6,149,18,173,4,6,24,105,16, 

145,130,162,55,157,177,15,5810 
ZO 2860 DATA 32,165,16,173,132,2,201,0,20 

8,3,76,129,20,173,120,2,4841 
OB 2870 DATA 201,14,208,6,32,233,16,76,24 

6,17,201,13,208,155,32,204,9394 
PR 2880 DATA 16,173,120,2,201,7,208,34,23 

8,1,6,248,24,173,0,6,4409 
BZ 2890 DATA 105,1,141,0,6,216,173,1,6,20 

1,30,208,48,169,0,141,6101 
Ll> 2900 DATA 1,6,169,1,141,0,6,76,7,19,20 

1,11,208,70,206,1,4165 
HZ 2910 DATA 6,248,56,173,8,8,233,1,141,8 

,6,216,173,1,6,261,5443 
MB 2926 DATA 255,268,10,169,29,141,1,6,16 

9,48,141,6,6,166,8,173,3981 
KX 2930 DATA 0,6,74,74,74,74,24,105,16,14 

5,130,162,95,157,177,15,6578 
YL 2940 DATA 160,1,173,0,6,41,15,24,105,1 

6,145,130,162,96,157,177,7091 
J4 2950 DATA 15,32,165,16,173,132,2,201,8 

,268,3,76,129,28,173,128,6364 
VY 2968 DATA 2,261,14,268,6,32,233,16,76, 

83,18,261,13,246,3,76,5133 
BT 2976 DATA 187,18,32,264,16,173,128,2,2 

61,7,208,44,238,3,6,173,6768 
HH 2986 DATA 3,6,261,2,268,5,169,8,141,3, 

6,162,135,173,3,6,3486 
BO 2998 DATA 261,1,268,16,169,57,145,138, 

157,177,15,76,127,19,169,46,6547 
yi 3000 DATA 145,130,157,177,15,32,165,16 

,173,132,2,201,0,288,3,76,5618 
.m 3010 DATA 129,20,173,120,2,281,14,208, 
K 6,32,233,16,76,187,18,201,7377 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 101 




Cosmic Glob continued 



Vt 3020 DATA 13,208,178,32,204,16,173,120 

,2,201,7,208,44,238,5,6,6074 
UX 3030 DATA 173,5,6,201,2,208,5,169,0,14 

1,5,6,162,175,173,5,5448 
m 3048 DATA 6,201,0,208,10,169,46,145,13 

0,157,177,15,76,208,19,169,8582 
»F 3050 DATA 57,145,130,157,177,15,32,165 

,16,173,132,2,201,0,208,3,6065 
06 3060 DATA 76,129,20,173,120,2,201,14,2 

08,6,32,233,16,76,79,19,4118 
m 3070 DATA 201,13,208,178,32,204,16,24, 

165,130,105,20,133,165,165,131,9111 
Gd 3080 DATA 105,0,133,166,162,215,173,12 

0,2,201,11,240,98,201,7,208,1069 
Hn 3090 DATA 42,24,185,6,6,105,1,153,6,6, 

201,2,208,5,169,0,3308 
OJ 3100 DATA 153,6,6,201,0,208,10,169,37, 

145,130,157,177,15,76,50,6305 
JL 3110 DATA 20,169,40,145,130,157,177,15 

,32,165,16,173,132,2,201,0,6068 
YX 3120 DATA 240,69,173,120,2,201,14,208, 

17,160,0,169,71,145,165,200,9884 
UC 3130 DATA 169,0,145,165,32,233,16,76,1 

60,19,201,13,208,168,160,0,8125 
UY 3140 DATA 169,71,145,165,200,169,0,145 

,165,200,145,130,76,214,17,169,1303 
KG 3150 DATA 0,145,165,232,200,192,2,208, 

4,160,0,162,215,169,71,145,819 
ID 3160 DATA 165,32,165,16,76,0,20,32,181 

,25,173,8,6,141,244,2,4346 
VG 3170 DATA 32,193,24,32,96,28,173,1,6,1 

33,227,10,10,10,10,133,2204 
XA 3180 DATA 165,32,209,28,173,4,6,133,20 

9,133,210,162,0,32,116,24,6180 
m 3190 DATA 162,1,32,116,24,24,169,166,1 

01,165,141,196,2,24,169,218,9536 
Xe 3200 DATA 101,165,141,197,2,24,169,104 

,101,165,141,198,2,24,169,10,6554 
OA 3210 DATA 101,165,141,199,2,24,169,98, 

101,165,133,222,24,169,106,101,9551 
GZ 3220 DATA 165,133,223,24,169,190,101,1 

65,133,224,24,169,166,101,165,141,2460 
Jftl 3230 DATA 192,2,24,169,218,101,165,141 

,193,2,173,3,6,201,1,208,8084 
£U 3240 DATA 3,32,144,27,32,181,26,165,22 

7,170,189,40,25,141,17,22,5803 
Ua 3250 DATA 189,70,25,141,13,22,165,232, 

201,1,240,10,165,19,201,8,7559 
QY 3260 DATA 208,4,169,1,133,232,173,31,2 

08,201,6,208,10,169,0,133,8571 
NO 3270 DATA 194,32,167,28,76,100,17,162, 

0,181,209,201,0,208,9,232,9816 
ftp 3280 DATA 236,2,6,208,244,76,23,22,173 

,252,2,201,33,208,35,169,9464 
BZ 3290 DATA 0,133,194,141,1,210,141,3,21 

0,141,5,210,141,7,210,166,590 
JJ 3300 DATA 20,164,19,173,252,2,201,33,2 

46,249,169,1,133,194,132,19,590 
flK 3310 DATA 134,20,162,0,164,183,24,165, 

175,121,232,24,133,175,24,165,180 
MG 3320 DATA 176,121,232,24,133,176,32,25 

1,21,165,175,201,50,240,4,201,1945 
JT 3330 DATA 174,208,28,173,10,210,41,1,1 

0,10,10,133,165,165,183,24,5781 
GQ 3340 DATA 101,165,168,185,8,25,133,183 

, J 69, 1,133, 203, 76, 16, 21, 232, 8269 
tJU 3350 DATA 164,183,138,217,248,24,208,1 

88,162,0,164,183,24,165,142,121,1652 
MH 3360 DATA 240,24,133,142,24,165,144,12 

1,240,24,133,144,32,251,21,165,177 
Ki> 3370 DATA 142,201,18,240,4,201,92,208, 

28,173,10,210,41,1,10,10,3931 
PU 3380 DATA 10,133,165,165,183,24,101,16 

5,168,185,24,25,133,183,169,1,8665 
m 3390 DATA 133,203,76,16,21,232,164,183 

,138,217,0,25,208,188,76,16,8774 
m 3400 DATA 21,134,166,162,0,232,160,0,2 

00,165,194,201,0,208,3,76,9516 



m 3410 DATA 77,23,192,0,208,242,224,0,28 

8,235,166,166,96,165,198,201,5953 
AA 3420 DATA 0,208,250,169,0,133,194,162, 

0,169,0,157,0,210,232,224,2292 
HT 3430 DATA 9,208,246,32,106,26,32,167,2 

8,169,96,141,2,208,169,128,9178 
Ha 3440 DATA 141,3,208,169,52,133,142,169 

,180,133,144,169,3,141,10,208,344 
m 3450 DATA 141,11,208,162,0,160,0,189,1 

46,29,145,142,189,168,29,145,9824 
ZU 3460 DATA 144,200,189,146,29,145,142,1 

89,168,29,145,144,232,200,192,36,3073 
TC 3470 DATA 208,229,24,165,88,105,80,133 

,130,165,89,105,3,133,131,162,9079 
UP 3480 DATA 0,160,0,189,213,22,145,130,2 

32,200,192,24,208,245,24,165,3430 
Vtf 3490 DATA 130,105,40,133,130,165,131,1 

05,0,133,131,224,120,208,226,169,3904 
JR 3500 DATA 3,141,15,210,169,5,141,8,210 

,169,166,141,1,210,169,162,1774 
FM 3510 DATA 141,5,210,169,216,141,0,210, 

169,217,141,4,210,169,0,205,2239 
GF 3520 DATA 132,2,240,5,205,133,2,208,24 

4,141,1,210,141,5,210,141,1343 
FZ 3530 DATA 0,210,141,4,210,32,167,28,76 

,100,17,170,170,170,0,170,8245 
mi 3540 DATA 0,170,0,170,170,170,0,8,170, 

170,170,0,170,170,170,0,8670 
GT 3550 DATA 170,170,160,0,170,0,0,170,8, 

170,0,170,0,0,0,0,490 
PY 3560 DATA 170,0,0,0,178,0,178,0,170,8, 

170,0,170,0,0,170,4100 
SD 3570 DATA 170,170,0,170,170,0,0,0,178, 

170,0,0,170,0,170,0,3600 
AB 3580 DATA 170,0,170,0,178,8,8,178,0,17 

0,0,170,0,0,0,0,210 
XC 3590 DATA 170,0,0,0,178,8,178,8,170,0, 

170,0,170,0,0,170,4138 
H6 3600 DATA 0,170,0,170,170,170,0,0,170, 

170,170,0,170,0,170,0,6350 
DH 3610 DATA 170,170,150,32,167,28,169,3, 

141,15,210,169,4,141,8,210,8201 
AM 3620 DATA 169,15,141,1,210,169,9,141,3 

,210,169,3,141,5,210,169,9280 
JI 3630 DATA 5,141,7,210,169,10,133,199,2 

4,165,142,105,10,133,180,105,9266 
KS 3640 DATA 2,133,179,105,127,133,182,10 

5,2,133,181,162,0,169,255,141,2142 
EX 3650 DATA 207,23,134,165,165,179,133,1 

42,165,180,133,146,165,181,133,144,440 

9 
XA 3660 DATA 165,182,133,148,162,0,160,0, 

24,165,199,141,0,210,105,8,7500 
BE 3670 DATA 141,2,210,105,8,141,4,210,10 

5,8,141,6,210,230,199,198,2210 
CK 3680 DATA 142,230,146,198,144,230,148, 

169,0,32,93,24,198,142,230,146,1979 
XU 3690 DATA 198,144,230,148,169,0,32,93, 

24,134,166,162,20,202,160,160,645 
ZB 3700 DATA 136,192,0,208,251,224,0,208, 

244,166,166,232,224,24,208,184,7093 
XA 3710 DATA 169,0,141,207,23,166,165,232 

,224,2,208,150,162,0,169,0,17 
HK 3720 DATA 157,0,210,232,224,9,208,246, 

133,179,133,180,169,0,205,132,4027 
BN 3730 DATA 2,240,22,205,133,2,240,17,17 

3,31,208,201,6,208,237,169,3407 
XK 3740 DATA 0,133,194,32,167,28,76,100,1 

7,32,167,28,165,227,201,29,8499 
AH 3750 DATA 240,2,230,227,162,0,24,189,1 

92,2,105,16,157,192,2,232,9648 
£T 3760 DATA 224,8,208,242,162,0,24,181,2 

34,105,16,149,234,232,224,12,2980 
lU 3770 DATA 208,244,162,0,24,181,222,105 

,16,149,222,232,224,3,208,244,5390 
CH 3780 DATA 76,254,20,145,142,145,146,14 
5,144,145,148,230,175,198,176,165,6227 
©X 3790 DATA 175,141,2,208,165,176,141,3, 



PAGE 102 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



208,96,138,201,1,208,7,173,537 
IE 3800 DATA 2,6,201,2,208,64,188,228,24, 

24,181,209,105,16,201,24,8932 
85 3810 DATft 144,2,169,10,24,125,230,24,1 

45,88,181,216,133,213,181,218,4859 
8P 3820 DftTfl 133,214,181,220,133,215,188, 

206,24,162,2,181,213,74,74,74,852 
m 3830 DATA 74,24,105,208,145,88,200,181 

,213,41,15,24,105,208,145,88,9840 
RZ 3840 DATA 200,202,224,255,208,229,96,1 

60,0,185,208,24,145,88,200,192,4117 
LA 3850 DATA 20,208,246,96,3,13,0,16,30,2 

08,208,208,208,208,208,0,1499 
XX 3860 DATA 0,80,94,208,208,208,208,208, 

208,0,1,11,0,64,1,1,3484 
Tft 3870 DATA 1,1,255,255,255,255,255,255, 

1,1,1,1,255,255,1,2,9262 
OH 3880 DATA 2,1,1,2,2,1,2,1,1,2,2,1,1,2, 

7,6,4238 
XR 3890 DATA 5,4,3,2,1,0,6,7,4,5,2,3,0,1, 

3,2,4258 
m 3900 DATA 1,0,7,6,5,4,2,3,0,1,6,7,4,5, 

30 29 5229 
CD 3910 DATA 27,25,24,22,21,20,19,18,17,1 

4,13,12,10,10,18,10,5809 
HU 3920 DATA 8,8,8,8,8,8,8,8,8,8,8,8,32,3 

0,28,27,6232 
Q9 3930 DATA 24,23,22,21,20,19,18,20,20,2 

0,23,22,21,20,24,23,6828 
TM 3940 DATA 22,21,20,19,18,17,16,15,14,1 

3,169,17,32,36,28,173,991 
C» 3950 DATA 48,2,133,128,173,49,2,133,12 



9,160,0,185,150,25,145,128,8654 
AH 3960 DATA 200,192,28,208,246,160,4,165 

,88,145,128,200,165,89,145,128,2662 
NY 3970 DATA 160,25,165,128,145,128,200,1 

65,129,145,128,96,112,112,112,71,411 
EJ 3980 DATA 200,200,7,7,7,7,6,6,6,6,6,6, 

6,6,6,6,5396 
KH 3990 DATA 6,6,6,6,65,100,100,0,0,0,0,5 

6,165,106,233,16,3727 
16 4000 DATA 133,89,233,2,141,49,2,133,12 

9,169,0,133,88,141,48,2,5412 
«P 4010 DATA 133,128,160,0,169,112,145,12 

8,200,145,128,200,145,128,160,3,1618 
TQ 4020 DATA 169,198,145,128,200,165,88,1 

45,128,200,165,89,145,128,160,6,1506 
Ma 4030 DATA 169,205,145,128,165,88,133,1 

30,165,89,133,131,165,130,24,105,295 
QX 4040 DATA 40,133,130,165,131,105,0,133 

,131,160,7,165,130,145,128,200,1421 
CT 4056 DATA 165,131,145,128,160,9,169,14 

1,145,128,200,192,97,208,247,169,6260 
Bfi 4060 DATA 13,145,128,200,145,128,200,1 

45,128,200,169,65,145,128,200,165,4708 
AV 4070 DATA 128,145,128,200,165,129,145, 

128,24,165,88,105,40,133,130,165,376 
IL 4080 DATA 89,105,0,133,131,162,0,134,1 

65,162,0,160,0,189,177,26,8352 
XF 4090 DATA 145,130,200,192,40,208,246,2 

4,165,130,105,40,133,130,165,131,1765 
MJ 4100 DATA 105,0,133,131,232,224,4,208, 

226,166,165,232,224,23,208,215,7411 
or 4110 DATA 24,165,88,105,202,133,130,16 



Now add up to 1 MEG of extra 

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SF314 DS disk drive $209 

QMl ]200STmodem.... $13.') 
Logikhron Clock Card $.19.99 

Casio CZ-IOI $269 

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Hippo Video Digitizer. ..$105 
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Copy 11 ST $25.99 

Easy Draw $94,99 

The Graphic Artist $129 

Music Studio ST $38.99 

PrintMaster $25.99 

Art Gallery 1 or II $19.99 

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Fantastic Four $14.99 

Leader Board Golf $25.99 

Little Computer People $32.99 

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Silent Service ST $25.99 

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Universe II $44.99 

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Philon Basic/M $79.99 

TDI's Modula 2 $51.99 

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Panasonic 1080 $199 

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CIRCLE #173 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 103 




Cosmic Glob 



continued 



5, 89, 105,6,133,131, 162,0,166,9164 
EE 4126 DATA 6,169,6,145,136,266,192,36,2 

08,247,24,165,130,165,46,133,994 
MO 4130 DATA 136,165,131,165,6,133,131,23 

2,224,84,268,227,24,165,88,165,2464 
m 4140 DATA 10,133,152,165,89,105,12,133 

,153,24,165,88,105,43,133,154,8669 
UU 4150 DATA 165,89,105,12,133,155,96,150 

,165,105,90,173,10,210,41,7,7721 
QC 4160 DATA 133,183,169,0,133,175,141,2, 

208,169,240,133,176,141,3,208,3317 
TV 4170 DATA 169,30,133,142,169,158,133,1 

44,169,1,141,10,208,141,11,208,615 
KX 4180 DATA 162,0,189,144,29,157,188,29, 

232,224,44,208,245,160,0,185,3813 
QL 4190 DATA 144,29,145,142,185,166,29,14 

5,144,200,192,22,208,241,169,3,3012 
PY 4200 DATA 141,15,210,169,5,141,8,210,1 

69,172,141,1,210,169,164,141,2900 
UT 4210 DATA 5,210,169,50,133,199,169,54, 

133,205,230,175,198,176,165,175,7006 
it¥ 4220 DATA 141,2,208,165,176,141,3,208, 

201,128,240,31,162,0,232,160,3307 
JH 4230 DATA 0,200,192,255,208,251,224,3, 

208,244,230,199,230,205,165,199,1113 
VZ 4240 DATA 141,0,210,165,205,141,4,210, 

76,20,27,169,0,141,1,210,7808 
rX 4250 DATA 141,5,210,141,6,210,141,4,21 

0,173,10,210,41,3,133,189,9718 
TE 4260 DATA 169,0,133,193,133,192,133,22 

5,133,226,133,211,133,212,133,187,7284 
fM 4270 DATA 133,188,141,252,2,133,20,133 



,19,133,232,169,128,133,190,169,3383 
CP 4280 DATA 126,133,191,169,166,133,136, 

169,1,133,194,169,3,141,15,210,952 
UC 4290 DATA 169,129,141,8,210,96,162,0,2 

4,165,88,125,32,28,133,130,7149 
KM 4300 DATA 232,165,89,125,32,28,133,131 

,232,134,165,162,0,160,0,189,387 
AS 4310 DATA 232,29,145,130,232,200,192,4 

,208,245,24,165,130,105,40,133,1745 
iff* 4320 DATA 130,165,131,105,0,133,131,22 

4,56,208,226,169,3,141,15,210,1796 
KU 4330 DATA 169,5,141,8,210,169,156,141, 

0,210,169,157,141,4,210,162,2722 
XC 4340 DATA 0,134,167,24,169,160,101,167 

,141,1,210,74,141,5,210,169,1287 
All 4350 DATA 253,133,20,169,0,133,19,165, 

19,201,1,208,250,232,224,16,2658 
PR 4360 DATA 208,223,169,0,141,1,210,141, 

5,210,141,0,210,141,4,210,650 
JF 4370 DATA 133,19,169,230,133,20,165,19 

,201,1,208,250,166,165,224,4,3059 
■JJ 4380 DATA 240,3,76,146,27,96,75,6,89,6 

,72,162,96,169,12,157,6625 
CX 4390 DATA 66,3,32,86,228,162,96,169,3, 

157,66,3,169,93,157,68,8339 
ER 4400 DATA 3,169,28,157,69,3,104,157,75 

,3,41,240,73,16,9,12,3336 
m 4410 DATA 157,74,3,32,86,228,96,162,0, 

169,0,149,128,232,224,128,2416 
Uft 4420 DATA 208,247,96,83,58,155,56,165, 

106,233,24,141,7,212,133,157,1480 
¥T 4430 DATA 169,46,141,47,2,169,56,141,1 



Chipmunk 

Atari Backup Utility 



BACKS-UP 

PROTECTED 

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^ 


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^ 


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CIRCLE #174 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



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DAY. FOREIGN ORDERS WELCOME WITH SUFFICENT POSTAGE 

MCLUOED. ALABAMA RESOENTS ADO 7% SALES TAX. ADO 8% FOR 

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CIRCLE #175 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PAGE 104 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



11,2,169,0,141,8,208,141,8845 
HH 4440 DATA 9,208,141,12,208,169,1,141,1 

0,208,141,11,208,24,165,157,405 
FU 4450 DftTft 105,1,133,133,133,135,133,13 

7,105,1,133,139,133,141,105,1,8370 
M 4460 DATA 133,143,133,145,133,147,133, 

149,169,3,141,29,208,160,0,169,626 
m 4470 DATA 0,133,130,165,157,133,131,16 

9,0,145,130,24,165,130,105,1,8362 
HP 4480 DATA 133,130,165,131,105,0,133,13 

1,56,165,131,229,157,201,4,208,2982 
IF 4490 DATA 230,169,0,141,30,208,96,169, 

58,141,0,2,169,7,141,1,5426 
HW 4500 DATA 2,169,192,141,14,212,162,0,1 

60,4,152,24,101,165,149,234,1498 
W 4510 DATA 200,200,232,224,6,208,243,16 

2,0,160,14,152,24,101,165,149,1140 
OL 4520 DATA 240,136,136,232,224,6,208,24 

3,169,0,133,233,160,113,162,7,2908 
81 4530 DATA 169,7,32,92,228,96,0,8,8,28, 

28,62,62,107,65,0,1640 
GS 4540 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,3,15,62,254,12 

4,28,24,8,0,421 
HE 4550 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,192,112,60,1 

27,60,112,192,0,4810 
m 4560 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,8,24,28,124,25 

4,62,15,3,0,593 
JC 4570 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,8,130,214,124,12 

4,56,56,16,16,0,2004 
JT 4580 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,16,24,56,62,12 

7,124,240,192,0,5542 
9E 4590 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,3,14,60,254,60 

,14,3,0,0,9078 
RC 4600 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,192,240,124,12 

7,62,56,24,16,0,2981 
DN 4610 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,7,15,31,63,1 

27,255,255,255,9046 
RK 4620 DATA 254,254,255,255,255,127,63,3 

1,15,7,0,0,0,0,224,240,7298 
HZ 4630 DATA 248,252,254,255,255,255,127, 

127, 255, 255, 255, 254, 252, 248, 240, 224, 65 

04 
UY 4640 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,8, 

0,0,4640 
MU 4650 DATA 8,8,0,0,0,0,0,8,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

0,0,4650 
XN 4660 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,8,8,8,8,8,8,0,0,0, 

0,252,8692 
YW 4670 DATA 63,8,3,255,255,192,15,223,24 

7,240,63,87,213,252,61,95,5170 
CP 4680 DATA 245,124,63,125,125,252,15,24 

5,95,240,15,245,95,240,63,125,3964 
RD 4690 DATA 125,252,61,95,245,124,63,87, 

213,252,15,223,247,240,3,255,6962 
UM 4700 DATA 255,192,0,252,63,0,0,0,0,0,8 

,0,0,0,0,0,6662 
ZF 4710 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,8,56,56,56,56,56,8 

,56,0,102,102,1120 
KS 4720 DATA 102,0,0,8,0,0,108,254,108,10 

8,108,254,108,0,56,254,206 
YH 4730 DATA 224,254,6,254,56,0,230,238,2 

8,56,112,238,206,0,124,108,1456 
TF 4740 DATA 104,248,222,204,246,0,56,56, 

56,0,0,0,0,0,28,56,712 
XJ 4750 DATA 48,48,48,56,28,8,56,28,12,12 

,12,28,56,0,108,56,9958 
EM 4760 DATA 254,124,254,56,108,0,24,24,2 

4,255,24,24,24,0,0,0,778 
UF 4770 DATA 0,0,56,56,120,0,0,0,0,254,8, 

0,0,0,8,8,8302 
MB 4780 DATA 0,0,8,56,56,8,4,14,28,56,112 

,224,64,8,254,230,8478 
RF 4790 DATA 238,230,246,246,254,0,248,24 

,24,24,24,248,254,0,254,198,4376 
FJ 4800 DATA 6,254,224,224,254,8,254,14,1 

4,126,14,14,254,8,230,230,2182 
AX 4810 DATA 230,254,6,6,6,0,254,224,224, 

254,6,198,254,8,254,238,6988 



9H 4828 DATA 224,254,238,238,254,0,254,20 

6,14,14,14,14,14,0,254,230,118 
AF 4830 DATA 230,254,230,230,254,0,254,20 

6,206,254,14,206,254,0,8,56,3092 
MB 4840 DATA 56,0,56,56,0,0,0,56,56,0,56, 

56,120,0,14,28,9746 
XA 4850 DATA 56,252,56,28,14,0,8,8,254,8, 

0,254,0,0,224,112,6246 
Hy 4860 DATA 56,126,56,112,224,0,254,198, 

6,62,56,0,56,0,254,230,9774 
MV 4870 DATA 230,238,238,224,254,8,254,23 

0,230,254,230,230,230,0,254,230,2454 
MJ 4880 DATA 230,252,230,230,254,8,254,23 

0,224,224,224,230,254,0,252,230,2354 
KB 4890 DATA 230,230,230,230,252,0,254,22 

4,224,252,224,224,254,0,254,224,2404 
m 4900 DATA 224,252,224,224,224,0,254,22 

4,224,238,230,230,254,0,230,230,2004 
NU 4910 DATA 230,254,230,230,230,0,254,56 

,56,56,56,56,254,0,0,14,6512 
HO 4920 DATA 14,14,14,206,254,0,230,230,2 

30,252,230,230,230,0,224,224,362 
5J 4930 DATA 224,224,224,224,254,0,254,21 

4,214,198,198,198,198,0,254,230,454 
m 4940 DATA 230,230,230,230,230,0,254,23 

0,230,230,230,230,254,0,254,230,2460 
R8 4950 DATA 230,254,224,224,224,0,254,23 

0,230,230,230,238,252,0,254,230,2516 
mi; 4960 DATA 230,252,230,230,230,0,254,23 

0,224,254,6,198,254,0,254,56,7078 
K6 4970 DATA 56,56,56,56,56,0,230,230,230 

,230,230,230,254,0,230,230,9352 



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ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 105 




Cosmic Glob 



continued 



az\ng 



(IX 4980 DATA 230,230,230,124,56,6,198,198 

,198,198,214,214,254,0,198,198,8230 
fM 4998 DATA 124,124,124,198,198,0,230,23 

0,230,254,24,24,24,0,254,14,474 
m 5000 DATA 28,56,112,224,254,0,124,112, 

112,112,112,112,124,0,64,224,266 
at 5010 DATA 112,56,28,14,4,0,62,14,14,14 

,14,14,62,0,16,56,8470 
6Z 5020 DATA 124,238,198,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

0,255,0,0,0,9529 
ICE 5030 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,8,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

0,0,5030 
m 5040 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,8,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

0,0,5040 
HM 5050 DATA 0,0,0,0,8,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

8,0,5050 
i>5 5068 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,8,8,0,0, 

0,0,5060 
itO 5070 DATA 0,8,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

0,0,5070 
Tit 5080 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

0,0,5088 
VS 5090 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,8, 

0,0,5090 
1^ 5100 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

0,0,5100 
{.0 5110 DATA 224,2,225,2,3,60,0,0,0,0,0,0 

,0,0,0,0,6396 



Listing 2. 
BASIC listing. 

QP 10 REM **» COSMIC GLOB IHHf 

LI 20 REM CASSETTE MAKER PROGRAM 

Zl 40 DIM DAT(16) :LINE=990:RESTDRE lOOOlT 

RAP 120:? "CHECKING DATA" 
9C 50 LINE=LINE+10:? "LINE :"; LINE: FOR X=l 
TO 16: READ DAT: IF DAT<0 OR DAT>255 TH 

EN 220 
YV 68 DAT CX)=DAT: NEXT X : DATLIH=PEEK tl83J + 

PEEKtl84)»256:IF DATLINOLINE THEN ? " 

LINE ";LINE;" MI5SING!":END 
m 70 T0TAL=LINE:F0R X=l TO 16 
MM 80 IF PASS=2 THEN PUT ttl, DAT CX) : NEXT X 

:READ CHKSUM:GOTD 50 
ftj 90 TOTAL=TOTAL+DATCXJKX:IF T0TAL>9999 

THEN TOTAL=TOTAL-100OO 
Lk 100 NEXT X:READ CHKSUM:IF TOTAL=CHKSUM 

THEN 50 
Wa 110 GOTO 220 

Zll 120 IF PEEKC195)<>6 THEN 220 
ZT 130 IF PAS5=0 THEN 208 
M 160 FOR X=l TO 128 : PUT ttl, 0: NEXT X:CL0 

SE ttl: END 
5D 200 ? "READY CASSETTE AND PRESS RETURN 

";:0PEN »1,8,128,"C:":REST0RE 230:F0R 

X=l TO 40:READ N:PUT ttl,N:NEXT X 
dS 210 ? :? "WRITING FILE":PAS5=2:LINE=99 

OiRESTORE 100e:TRAP 120:GOTO 50 
HI 220 ? "BAD DATA: LINE "; LINE: END 
Zn 230 DATA 0,52,210,59,249,59,169,0,234, 

234,234,169,60,141,2,211,169,0,141,231 

,2,133,14,169,86,141,232,2 
SO 240 DATA 133,15,169,3,133,10,169,60,13 
-. 3,11,24,96 



vctct 



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$10 when ordered together). 

DEMO SPEECH DISK AVAILABLE New! An introduction to 
Covox speech. The $5 disk gives several general vocabularies that you 
can use in any of your own programs. Sample programs include a talking 
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"Check, money order, or cash only. SPECIFY COMPUTER BRAND. 

For telephone demo, additional information, or prompt service for credit card orders 
(except $5'talking disk). 




CALL (503) 342-1271 ■ 



Call or write today tor complete product information. 



COVOX Inc. (503)342.1271 

675-D Conger Street, Eugene, OR 97402 

Telex 706017 (AV ALARlVI UD) 



PAGE 106 / NOVEIVIBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



TUTORIAL 



^1 



k 



DLIs 




Another 
minute 
to learn 



by Jonathan David Farley 



Last month was the easy part. Now, you can control the 
(almost) omnipotent display list. Good for you. But don't 
start thinking about new ideas for your next arcade video 
game just yet! You still don't know (at least, not from me) 
what a DLI or — ^dare I say it? — display list interrupt is. 
Now that you know about displays lists, read on and find 
out about DLIs; the concept isn't as complex as you might 
think. 

DLI talk. 

A DLI is like a subroutine. The display list command 
equivalent of GOSUB is 128; add 128 to the display list 
byte and you have it. 

For instance, the computer sees a byte of 130 at DL+16 
(where DL equals the address of the display list) and says, 
"Gee, here's another ANTIC mode 2 line . . . but what's this? 
An extra 128? I see: the big guy out there wants me to do 
something. I guess I'll have to finish up what I'm doing 
now (which happens to be this mode line) and go to it. 
Then I'll come back and do the next line." 

The computer needs to know where in memory the 
subroutine is; locations 512 and 513 handle that. You must 
also "turn on" the DLI by poking a 192 into the register 
NMIEN (decimal 54286). 

Save our registers. 

DLIs are subroutines, but they're not written in BASIC. 
They're done in machine language. The first instructions 
in the DLI subroutine must save the computer's three spe- 
cial registers, called X and Y, and the Accumulator, or A. 
Why must we save the contents of these registers? When 



your DLI is finished and returns control to the main pro- 
gram, the computer expects to have ever3rthing just the way 
it left it. There may have been important data in those 
registers, and you surely changed them when you per- 
formed your DLI. 

A DLI. 

Sometimes, instead of waiting till the end of a line to 
start a DLI, ANTIC gets a little ahead of itself. If you use 
your DLI to change, perhaps, the background color, it will 
sometimes start changing the color mid-line, producing 
a ragged boundary (that shakes and changes position an- 
noyingly) between one color and the next; on the same 
line. 

By storing any nonzero VEilue into a location named 
WSYNC at $D40A (the symbol for the dollar indicates a 
base sixteen, or hexadecimal, number) or 54282 decimal, 
you tell ANTIC, "Don't do this DLI until the horizontal 
blank." 

Remember the horizontcd blank? When the color is 

changed during the blank, you're ensured the new color 

will start on the following mode line. 

M=$8600 

PHA 

TXA 

PHA 

TYA 

PHA 

LDA »$FF 

STA $D40A 

LDX n$o 

STA $D017 

5TX $D018 

PLA 

TAY 

PLA 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 107 



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CIRCLE #142 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



#1 DLIs 



continued 



TdX 
, PLA 

I RTI 

The * =$0600 tells the computer to put the first byte 
of the program into location $0600 or 1536 decimal, with 
the rest of the program following. Commonly called page 
6, this area (256 locations of RAM) is set aside for the 
programmer's use. 

The next five mnemonic statements save the registers. 
The accumulator is "pushed" (saved in yet another mem- 
ory area called the stack) . The X- and Y-registers are, in 
turn, transferred to the accumulator and pushed onto the 
stack. And the end of the DLI, the register values are 
pulled back (in the reverse order of the way they were 
saved) and transferred back to their respective registers. 
(Just like logs piled onto a stack; the last log placed will 
be the first one taken off.) After all this, the computer 
returns from the interrupt and resumes going through the 
display list— like a BASIC RETURN. 

At the start of the actual DLI, the computer loads the 
accumulator with $FF hexadecimal (255 decimal). It stores 
this number into memory location $D40A, WSYNC. Since 
this DLI changes the color of the screen, it should start 
doing so only after the horizontal blank for a clean switch 
of color. It also loads X with $0. It stores these registers' 
values in locations $D017 and $D018. You may ask, "So 
what?" 

I Poking shadows the hard way. 

' You may be aware of RAM locations 709 through 712 , 
which determine the screen colors. The byte values in 
these locations are combinations of luminances and hues, 
to produce a myriad of shades and colors. These, howev- 
er, are but shadows of the hardware locations the computer 
keeps for its own use. 

Sure, you can POKE values into hardware locations, 
and, yes, the screen color does change. However, the 
screen is updated sixty times per second, and the com- 
puter gets the screen color from the shadows. End result: 
the screen flickers to your color, then, one-sixtieth of a 
second later, it's business as usual, switching back to the 
color in the shadow location. 

Locations $D017 and $D018 are the hardware registers 
for locations 709 and 710. These registers keep track of 
the character and background ::olors. respectively. 
So. . .when the DLI routine stores the values in the A- and 
X-registers into these hardware locations, 't's changing the 
color of the screen. 

You may ask. "Yeah, but won't it iust Hicker back to the 
color in shadow registers?" Not at all. because you're go- 
ing to keep poking that hardware register sixty times a sec- 
ond. The DLI is executed just as (itten as the computer 
draws the display. So the screen below the mode line with 
the DLI is the color you're placing in the hardware regis- 
ter. After the vertical blank (when this sort of thing is also 
done), the hardware register will again be set from its 
shadow, and hence the screen (up to the line with your 
DLI) will be normally colored — until the DLI comes 
around once more, that is. It changes the hardware loca- 
tions, and everything starts over again (and again). 



10 GRAPHICS 

20 DL=PEEKC560J+256»PEEKC561J 

30 FOR fl=1535 TO 1539 

40 READ B:P0KE A,B:NEXT A 

50 POKE 512,e:P0KE 513,6 

60 POKE DL+16,130:P0KE 54286,192 

70 DATA 72,138,72,152,72,169,255,141,1 

0,212,162,0,141,23,208,142,24,208,104, 

168,104,170,104,64 

The DATA is the DLI POKEd into page 6. The DLI is 
in machine language, the result of assembling our assem- 
bly listing. 

First, the program will find display list's start, POKE 
the DATA, and tell the computer where to find the DLI 
(6*256+0 =1536). ANTIC is told to interrupt after the 
mode line at DL+16, about halfway down the ANTIC 2 
screen, and, finally, NMIEN is set to enable the DLI. 

Here's a correlation between the DATA and the assem- 
bler routine: 72=PHA, 138=TXA, 152=TYA, 169=LDA 
with the following byte, 141=STA into the following 2-byte 
address (the first byte plus 256 times the second), 162 
= LDX with the following byte, 142=STX into the follow- 
ing 2-byte address, 104=PLA, 168=TYA, 170=TXA, 64 = 
RTI. There you go! 

Whether you exclaimed, "Awesome!" or yawned, "Quite 
trite," I've got some advice. 

DLIs are comparable to enclitics on words, or catalysts 
in chemical reactions — by themselves, they're virtually 
useless, but, combined with other techniques, they're ex- 
tremely powerful. The stars are made of atoms, a brain 
of cells, and a computer (essenticdly) of bits. What I'm try- 
ing to tell you is: learn about your Atari. 
Mirror Mirror on the screen. 

For now, though, you can still do some "wild and cra- 
zy ' things. Did you really believe I would leave out some- 
thing to pop your eyes? 

The program Mirror Mirror is shown in BASIC (Listing 
1) and assembler (Listing 2). 

The DLI at $0600 changes the screen color hardware 
registers, makes sure the characters are right side up, and 
puts the characters from the bottom half of the screen onto 
the top. Let's see how it does this, via a detailed examina- 
tion of the assembler code. 

The *=$0600 informs the computer to place our DLI 
program into memory, starting at location $0600 (1536 dec- 
imal, The program then saves the registers and loads them 
with new values ;after taking care of WSYNC). These new 
values u-e .stored nto locations $D01Z $D018, and $D401. 

What does location $D401 do? 

in Vfirror Mirror, $D401 (CHACTL) is used to cause the 
■flip effect;" it makes the characters appear upside down. 
Since ; changed the hardware register (only hardware lo- 
cations are usually used in DLIs, as I mentioned earlier), 
only the area of the DLI will be affected. CHACTL nor- 
mally contains the number 2. By putting a 6 into it, the 
letters are flipped. 

The most important of this DLI's functions: it must take 
all the characters on the bottom half of the screen and put 
them on top, overlapping whatever else may already be 
there. Remember, the screen RAM is composed of 960 
bytes and starts at location 40000 (in a 48K machine). Fur- 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 109 



^1 UXuXS continued 



thermore. each byte represents a character 4( bytes rep- 
reseni one line ot text 

The- bottorr twelve line? 01 texi are the last 4H( bytes: 
to mirror therri we musi put the bytes of locations 
40480-40959 the bottorr twelve lines worth of charac- 
ters) m their logically corresponding positions on the top 
half. The byte, and hence the character, in 40959 for in- 
stance would be flipped into 40040 — the vertical oppo- 
site but horizontal equal on the screen. 

Al I that part three of the DLI does is load a byte from 
the location given, plus the value in X. For each new line, 
X is loaded with #0 and incremented after each byte 
stored . After every byte, the machine compares X to 40, 
to see if the whole line has been copied. The computer 
branches if X is not equal to 40, to do another byte. 

Jusi before the computer pulls the registers back and 
returns to where it was prior to the interrupt, it does one 
more task: the DLI stores a $0 in 512 and a hexadecimal 
$4( decimal 64 ■ into 513. Locations 512 and 513 are the 
address of the DLi handle, remember? The computer reads 
these locations to find out where the DLI is when it en- 
counters a DLI instruction in the display list. So, the next 
time- your computer is told to interrupt the display list (in 



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less thar one-sixtieth of a second it goes to 64>;256-f 
= 16384 oi $4(i'^$fl-$0 = $4000. 

This secono DLa also stores the values of A ano X into 
the hardware color registers: these colors are different from 
those in the firsi DLi In CHACTL a 6 is stored from Y. 
This value in $D401 makes al I characters under the DLLs 
influence appear flipped. 

As with the first, this DLI has something that makes 
it special . The earlier DLI moves the bottom of the screen 
to the top. Because of this, anything typed on the top is 
changed to its bilateral counterpart on the bottom sixty 
times every second, erasing whatever you typed. Basically, 
you can't put anything on the top, though nothing stops 
the cursor from going there. This presents some problems 
in cybernetic aesthetics — easily solved problems, of 
course. 

The DLI at $4000 cuts the screen's vertical length by two, 
as if something just cruniJied the screen together. This was 
done so the cursor could not go into the top, where it was 
useless. The display is still a normal screen, but only the 
last 480 bytes are displayed (and mirrored). 

A certain memory location, $54 (84). has a value equal 
to the vertical position of the cursor When humans count, 
they say, "One. two. . . .ten." Your logica' Atari, though, 
says, "Zero, one. . .nine." If PEEK(84)=0. the cursor's in 
the topmost row of the screen; it it is equal to 23. it's at 
the bottom. When you use the CTRL-ARROW key the cur- 
sor goes to Line 23 when you gc 'over" the screen past 
Line 0, and to Line when you go "below" Line 2.',. Lo- 
cation $54 changes accordingly 

Your friendly DLI at $4000 is on the lookout for $54. 
It constantly loads it into the accumulator and compares 
its value, to see if it's in the dreaded top half. It is as I 
said, compared to $B (11 decimal 11 the value in A (which 
is the value in $54 is equal to $B a branch similar to a 
BASIC GOTO is taken to TRTN. At TRTN. the accumula- 
tor is loaded with V and stored in $54. Since the value in 
$54 is the screen row of the cursor, the result is that, when 
the cursor gets tc row 11, it's put in row 0. The next state- 
ment loads A with the ATASCIT value of the t function. 

ATASCII values of characters are used in a system 
subroutine that starts at $F6A4 (Note: this address was 
changed on the XL and XE computers. For that reason, 
the cursor routine in the program won't function on these 
computers, unless a translator disk i loaded.) This subrou- 
tine prints the character whose ATASCL value is in the 
A-register. In this case, the character printed is the one 
that moves the cursor upward — since it's on Line 0, it 
would, after this, be on Line 23. 

Why didn't I just put a 23 in $54 as soon as i1 got to 
#$B? One of the problems that had to be overcome was 
that, until a key is pressed, the cursor cannot be seen right 
after location $54 is changed. I solved it by "pressing" a 
key with the subroutine at $F6A4. 

At the end of the DLI, the locations 512 and 513 are 
changed to $00 and $06, so the next time the computer 
encounters a "go to DLI" instruction in the display list, 
it will go to the one at $0600. 

The program here gets the location of the display list 



PAGE 110 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



from 560 and 561, and puts it in 203 and 204. It loads A 
with $F0— that's 112+128=240. It also loads Y with 2. The 
STA (203), Y means, "Add the value in Y to the address 
stored in 203 and 204, and store the value of A in the resul- 
tant address." We know the resulting memory location to 
be 2 bytes from the first byte in the display list, or DL+2. 
Since the first three instructions (DL+O, DL+1, and DL+2), 
each create eight blank lines, we must store 240 into the 
last one. Normally, DL+2 is 112, but a 128 added to it gives 
240. When ANTIC comes to that, it knows it should exe- 
cute a DLL A second interrupt at DL+16 is staged. Since 
this location is normally an ANTIC mode line of two, it's 
now 130. Finally, this program tells the computer where 
to go for the first interrupt (the location is stored in 512 
and 513). After that, a $C0 (or 192) is stored in MNIEN, 
54286. When that's done, it goes like clockwork! 

The end— at long last. 

Finally, you know all about DLIs. You've even explored 
some genuine assembler programs. It may have taken a 
bit longer than a minute to learn, but you have a lifetime 
to master it. S 



The two-letter checksum code preceding the line 
numbers here is not a part of the BASIC program. 
For further information, see the BASIC Editor II in 
issue 47. 



Listing 1. 
BASIC listing. 

RL POKE 559,0:DflTft 8,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9, 

0,0,0,0,0,0,0,10,11,12,13,14,15 
iZ 18 FOR 6=1536 TO 1798: POKE ft, 8: NEXT A: 

FOR ft=16384 TO 16639!P0KE fl,0:NEXT fl:F 

OR A=24576 TO 24831:P0KE 6,8 
d<J 20 NEXT A:l>IM A C23} , A$ ClOOO) , B$ (1281 
T£ 30 FOR a = l TO 23:READ B : A (A) =B : NEXT A 
KH 40 FOR A=l TO 5:REflD B5 : A$ (LEN (A$) +13 = 

B$:NEXT A:B=1536:G05UB 10000 
PA 58 READ B$:A$=B$:READ B$ : A$ CLEN CA$] +1) 

=B$:B=16384:G05UB 10000 
0j» 60 READ A$:B = 24576:G05UB 10000 : POKE 55 

9,34:A=U5RC24576J 
56 70 ? "H-iPOSITION 10,12:? " mxxkxxxkkxk 

XXXXXXXXXX ";PQ5ITI0N 10,16:? " xxxxxxxx 

XXXKXKKKKKXXX " 

Xft 80 POSITION 10,13:? "» rflrHoS CiEQ 
Hr »":P05ITI0N 10,14:? ■'* by 
»": POSITION 10,15 

Vl 90 ? ■■* Jonathan Farley k":STOP 

SP 1000 DATA 488A489848A9808D0AD4A2FFA002 
8D17D08E18D08C01D4A200BDD89F9D409CE8E0 
28D0F5A200BDB09F9D689CE8E028D0 

PH 1010 DATA F5A200BD889F9D909CE8E028D0F5 
A200BD609F9DB89CE8E028D0F5A200BD389F9D 
E09CE8E028D0F5A200BD109F9D089D 

RS 1020 DATA E8E028DOF5A200BDE89E9D309DE8 
E028DOF5A200BDC09E9D589DE8E028D8F5A288 
BD989E9D809DE8E028DOF5A200BD70 

t9 1030 DATA 9E9DA89DE8E028D0F5A200BD489E 
9DD09DE8E028D0F5A200BD209E9DF89DE8E028 
D0F5A9008D0002A9408D010268A868 

HE 1040 DATA AA6840 

VT 2000 DATA 488A489848A9FF8D0AD4A280A806 
8Di7D08E18D08C01D4A554C90BF0ieC900D015 
A90B8554A91D20A4F64C3640A90085 

1^ 2010 DATA 54A91C20A4F6A9008D0002A9068D 
010268A868AA6840 



$H 3000 DATA 68AD300285CBAD310285CCA9F0A0 

0291CBA982A01091CBA9008D0002A9868D8182 

A9C08DOED460 
Ktt 10000 FOR A=l TO LEN CA$] STEP 2:D1=ACA 

SC tA$ (A, AJ J -47) : D8 = A CASC CA$ CA+1, fl+lJ } - 

47) :D=D1»16+D8:P8KE B,D 
OK 10010 B=B+l:NEXT A : RETURN 
BK 10020 REM 
80 10030 REM 
85 10040 REM 
i>L 10050 REM This progran turns off ANTIC 

so it May RUN faster without worrying 

about what's on the screen, 
SIC 10060 REM It loads the DLI ' S in $6000 

C1536) and $4000 C16384) , and the nain 

progran in $6000 C24576) . 
VX 10078 END 





Listing 2. 


0100 
Olio 


Assembly listing. 


I» hGrCaoQ Ci[aRHr » 


0120 


;» by » 


0130 
0140 


;» Jonathan Farley » 




0150 




0160 




0170 


This DLI places the registers 


0180 


on the stack, LoaDs "A" with 


0190 


the characters' color and 


0200 


STores it in NSYNC for a clean 


0210 


change. It also gets the 


0220 


Characters' background color in 


0238 


"X" and the "no-flip" value in 


0240 


"Y," which are STored 


0250 


appropriately. Then, line by 


0260 


line, byte by byte, it copies 


0270 


the characters on the bottoM 


0280 


to the top. It Makes sure the 


0290 


next DLI the coMputer goes to 


0300 


is at $4000, and it gets back 


0310 


the registers. 


0320 


»= $0600 


0330 


PHA 


0340 


TXA 


0350 


PHA 


8360 


TYA 


8378 


PHA 


8380 


LDA 0$8e 


8390 


STA $D40A 


0400 


LDX «$FF 


0410 


LDY a$02 


0420 


STA $D017 


0438 


5TX $D018 


8440 


STY $D401 


0450 


LDX »$00 


0460 DNNE LDA 40920, X 


0470 


STA 40000, X 


0480 


INX 


0490 


CPX »40 


0500 


BNE ONNE 


0510 


LDX tt$00 


0520 TMMO LDA 40880, X 


0530 


STA 40040, X 


0540 


INX 


0550 


CPX «40 


0560 


BNE THHO 


8578 


LDX n$oo 


8580 THRE LDA 40840, X 


0590 


STA 40080, X 


0600 


INX 


8618 


CPX tt48 


8620 


BNE THRE 



(continued on page 130] 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 111 



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A0986 PARTYWARE (D) $9.95 

A0984 WARE WITH ALL (D) $9.95 

A0987 JINGLE DISK (D) $4.95 

A0988 HOLIDAY PRINTER PAPER $7.95 

Epyx 

A0520 JUMPAAAN (D) $14.95 

A0521 DRAGON RIDERS OF PERN (D) $9.95 

A0522 SUAAMER OLY GAMES (D) $22.95 

A0523 PITSTOP II (D) $5.95 

A0524 BALL BLAZER (D) $12.95 

A0525 RESCUE ON FRACTULUS (D) $12.95 

A0693 KORONIS RIFT (D) $12.95 

A0692 THE EIDOLON (D) $12.95 

A0355 WORLD KARATE CHAMPIONSHIP (D). . . . $18.95 



Strategic Simulations, Inc. 

A0968 SIX GUN SHOOTOUT (D) $23.95 

A0969 BATTLE OF ANTIETAM (D) $32.95 

A0970 U.S.A.A.F. (D) $35.95 

A0971 CARRIER FORCE (D) $32.95 

A0972 NAM (D) $23.95 

A0973 MECH BRIGADE (D) $35.95 

A0527 FIELD OF FIRE (D) $23.95 

A0530 IMPERIUM GALATUM (D) $23.95 

A0590 BROADSIDES (D) $23.95 

A0591 COMPUTER QUARTERBACK (D) $23.95 

A0592 COMPUTER AMBUSH (D) $35.95 

A0593 COMPUTER BASEBALL (D) $23.95 

A0712 COLONIAL CONQUEST (D) $23.95 

A0714 KAMPFGRUPPE (D) $35.95 

A0191 GETTYSBURG (D) $35.95 



Atari 

A0420 ATARI MUSIC I (D) $19.95 

A0421 ATARI MUSIC II (D) $19.95 

A0422 INTRO PROG I (T) $14.95 

A0423 INTRO PROG II (T) $14.95 

A0424 INTRO PROG III (T) $14.95 

A0425 ATARI LAB STARTER (C) $39.95 

A0426 ATARI LAB LIGHT MOD (C) $28.95 

A0428 SKYWRITER (C) $16.95 

A0429 CONVERSATIONAL FRENCH (T) $16.95 

A0430 CONVERSATIONAL SPANISH (T) $16.95 

A0431 MY FIRST ALPHABET (D) $16.95 

A0432 SPEED READING (T) $19.95 

A0433 TYPO ATTACK (C) $16.95 

A0435 VERBAL MODULE SAT (D) $29.95 

A0436 SAT SAMPLE PRETEST (D) $17.95 

A0437 AAATH MODULE SAT (D) $29.95 

A0438 TOUCH TYPING (T) $14.95 

A0439 JUGGLES RAINBOW (D) $16.95 

A0440 JUGGLES HOUSE (D) $16.93 

A0442 TOUCH TABLET/SOFTWARE $49.00 

A0443 PAINT (D) $19.95 

A0315 PILOT/TURTLE GRAPHICS (C) $29.99 

A0316 LOGO (C) $39.95 

A0318 ASSEMBLER/EDITOR (C) $19.95 

A0319 AAACRO ASSEMBLER (C) $19.95 

Fishor Prico BUY 1 GET 1 FREE 

A0444 LINKING LOGIC (C) $9.9S 

A0445 DANCE FANTASY (C) $9.95 

A0446 MEMORY AAANOR (C) $9.95 

A0447 LOGIC LEVELS (C) $9.95 

Splnnokor BUY 1 GET 1 FREE 

A0448 KINDERCOMP (C) $9.95 

A0449 FACEAAAKER (C) $9.95 

A0450 KIDS ON KEYS (C) $9.95 

A0710 DELTA DRAWING (C) $9.95 

Elsctrenlc Arts 

A0817 OGRE (D) $26.95 

A0818 LORDS OF CONQUEST (D) $22.95 

Amorlcan Educational Contputor 

A0485 SPELLING $19.95 

A0459 VOCABULARY WORD BLDR (D) $9.95 

A0460 GRAAAAAAR WRK USE SKILLS (D) $9.95 

A0461 WORLD GEOGRAPHY FACTS (D) $9.95 

A0462 SPANISH VOCA8 SKILLS (D) $9.95 

A0463 FRENCH VOCAB SKILLS (D) $9.95 

A0464 WORLD HISTORY FACTS (D) $9.95 

A0465 US HISTORY FACTS (D) $9.95 

A0466 US GEOGRAPHY FACTS (D) $9.95 

A0467 US GOVERNMENT FACTS (D) $9.95 

A0468 LEARN TO READ (D) $19.95 

A0470 READING COMPREHENSION (D) $19.95 

A0418 BIOLOGY FACTS (D) $9.95 

A0493 ELEM SCIENCE 3 ft 4 (D) $9.95 

A0494 ELEM SCIENCE 5 ft 6 (D) $9.95 

A0495 ELEM SCIENCE 7 ft 8 (D) $9.95 

Accolod* 

A0142 HARDBALL (D) $18.95 

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Accsss 

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CIRCLE #178 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Panak 
strikes! 



Revieivs of the latest 
softu^are 



by Steve Panak 



For too long Atari has played second 
fiddle. 

Like a pathetic, quickly forgotten B-side 
song, Atari has been forced to dance to 
Commodore's lead. Regardless of the past, 
the trends of the last few months indicate 
that something has got to give. There will 
be change. 

The fact that I'm currently testing a game 
with Atari on one side and Apple on the 
other supports this line of thought. How- 
ever, this is only specualation. What is fact, 
though, is the existence of the games 
which follow. I hope you find something 
that suits you. 

Assorted Budget Titles 

MASTERTRONICS 
7311 B Grove Road 
Frederick, MD 21701 
48K Disks $9.99 

It was bound to happen. Once a device 
is replaced by a "new and improved" ver- 
sion, the price of the old model plimimets 
After the hardware prices drop, so do the 
tickets on the various support products — 
in this case, software. 

In the past few months, we've seen a 
reduction in 8-bil software prices. The 
average price hovers somewhere around 
the mid-twenties, down from the mid- 
thirties of a year ago. So, in salesman's 
terms, you can now buy about 1.3 games 
for the price of 1. What you're going to do 
with the .3 gamie is a mystery to me. 

Of course, you could buy one of these 
budget titles. But if you do, you'll only end 




up with about a third 
of a game. This is be- 
cause these cheapies are 
just what you might ex- 
pect them to be: rehashes 
of the old, tired concepts and 
themes, enclosed in substan- 
dard graphics and dull packag- 
ing. "The attempt here is to cut 
costs — and it shows. 

Of the four games tested, my fa- 
vorite was the slot machine of Vegas 
Jackpot Combined with a potpourri oi 
games ot chance, the slot machine would 
have rounded out a nice package; alone, 
it's a boring waste Withoui anything at 
stake gambling loses most of its appeal so 
this one-armed bandit leaves you feeling 
robbed. Howevei as poor as this program 
was, the others were even bigger losers. 

I also looked at Action Biker and Kik- 
start, two motorcycle simulations, and The 
Last V-8. a car-racing game. This last was 
the most inventive. You're a post-nuclear- 
holocaust scientist who takes his car. The 
Last V-8, onto the surface, to make contact 
with the last remnants of mankind. It's a 
rather creative scenario, especially when 
contrasted to the simplicity ana predicta- 
bility of the other three games. Unfor- 
tunately, like the others. The Last V-8 
crashes and burns in flames . and hard- 
ly a tear is shed. 



For those of you who want the grisly de- 
tails, here goes. Action Biker jumps over 
things, usually not very well. Kikstart 
races around town, picking things up for 
points. And The Last V-8 simply keeps 
running off the road. That's about all I 
I can tell you about them — the amount 
of time they held my attention could 
be measured in seconds. The disks 
have gone on to be used for a much 
nobler purpose: holding the words 
I now write for you 1 do remember 
that some of these games have variable dif- 
ficulty levels and allow for more than one 
player although i could persuade no one 
to joir me 

Then graphics really aren't too baa if 
yoi'rf after old 2600 images, conjured 
from some Californian sihcon cemetery If 
that s not what you want don't bother And 
as for control there was none — or at least 
1 seemed so. i hate to fight with a joystick, 
attempting to translate normal movement i 
into some sort of jerk or twitch the pro- 
gram code will recognize as a successful 
maneuver The games handle like ola 
overloaded 2600s — tired and out of date 
All four games are packaged cheaply, al- 
most generically. Simple plastic portfohos 
hold the disks, while paper sheets insert- 
ed in the sleeves contain cover art and in- 
structions. Inside, in addition to the disks, 
may be additional documentation and ad- 



PAGE 116/ NOVEMBER 1986 



. ANALOG COMPUTING 



SCyco Compute JUa/tfcetmg & Co(/i2uftaiAte 



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1092 309 

1592 419 

1595 595 



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FX286 CALL 

LQ800 CALL 

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OKIDATA 

Okimate 199 

292 499 

293 599 

120 NLQ 205 

182 214 

192 348 

93 CALL 



JUKI 



Juki 6100 
Juki 5510 
Juki 6300 
RS-232 serol board 



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CALL SP-1000 A cenlronics 165 

CALL BP-52001 649 

CALL BP.1300 469 

55 Color Kit 119 

SP-1000 ribbon 8 50 



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Gettysburg 34 75 

Gemstone healer 24 75 

Phantasie 24 75 



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Flight sim 29 95 

Night Mission Pinball 18,95 
Scenery disks EA 14,95 

HI TECH 

Cardware , 8,95 

Partyware 8,95 

Heartware 8,95 

War With All 12,95 

Holiday Paper , 8.95 



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F-15 22.75 

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I CIRCLE #179 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



R3 Panak strikes! continued 



ditional documentation and advertise- 
ments for other games. Translations to oth- 
er languages indicate an overseas market. 
Perhaps standards are lower in other coun- 
tries. 

Although the flippies (floppies with the 
Atari version on one side, Commodore on 
the other] are clearly labeled to prevent 
placing the wrong side in your drive, in- 
structions for the Atari version are not to 
be found. Fortunately, booting goes easily 
— if you've ever booted a program before. 
If you haven't, good luck. And, if you think 
you'll be told how to play, you're mistaken. 
These games are truly for experimenters. 

While they might be big sellers overseas, 
I can almost guarantee they won't be here. 
Even though the price is right, the games 
offer little in value and cannot be recom- 
mended, except for a special enemy on 
your holiday list. Even if these are the only 
games you can afford, you're better oft sav- 
ing up for a really good buy. 

The NeverEnding Story 

by Ian Weatherburn 

DATASOFT 

19808 Nordhoff Place 

Chatsworth, CA 91311 

64K Disk $29.95 

Here we go again — when all ingenuity 
arjd creativity fail, parade out the movie 
tie-ins. Similarly, it's hardly a new idea to 
have an adventure game where you con- 
trol movement through a seemingly open- 
ended story. Adding pictures to the plot is 
also often tried, although it nearly always 
detracts from the main objectives of plot 
and character development. The saying 
that a picture is worth a thousand words, 
while true, is only a generalization, and 
does not apply in all situations — especially 
where both must exist in a very finite 
amount of disk space (and a lesser amount 
of screen area). 




The NeverEnding Story. 

Add all of these time-tested and world- 
weary ingredients together and you have 
The NeverEnding Story, a trite piece you'll 
soon wish would end. In a vacuum, this 
game might be acceptable, but there are 
simply too many great programs out there. 
The damsel-in-distress theme is a dead 
skeleton on which is hung Uttle plot. Since 



I didn't see the movie, I can't tell you how 
closely it was paralleled , but this story is 
pretty predictable. 

I did see the graphics, and I must report 
that they're creative. The screen is split 
into windows, one showing the area you're 
in, one the results of your latest command, 
and others opening up to display invento- 
ry as you obtain items and acquaintances. 
These final windows eliminate any need 
for the time-consuming inventory com- 
mand issued just in time to find out you're 
carrying too much (only five items at any 
one time) as you fumble for the sword. 

Unfortunately, these graphics occupy 
about half of the screen horizontally, cut- 
ting down the detail and leaving little 
room for limericks. In adventures it's of- 
ten useful to view previous text, and a cou- 
ple of lines is not enough. 

But, while the graphics were rather nice 
and convenient, the text was virtually un- 
readable. Reading text on a 40-column 
screen is always trying, but this game cre- 
ates eyestrain. Although the prose wasn't 
too bad, I never really became interested, 
probably due to poor characterization. The 
simple subject-verb commands are obso- 
lete (it is almost 1987, isn't it?), and the 
vocabulary is limited. The game ends up 
being a treasure hunt, in which you pick 
things up and try to find uses for them. 

On my new 65XE, the first game I test- 
ed didn't run. However, the second disk 
did fine. Since the game requires 64K, the 
800 is out (although booting up on an 800 
results in an interesting audio-visual dis- 
play). In any other situation, this might be 
a highly undesirable narrowing of the cus- 
tomer base. In this case, it only lessens the 
number of people potentially disappointed. 

The manual is equally disappointing, a 
black and white trifold sheet with Com- 
modore/Atari instructions. Hints, a map 
and the thin thread of a background story 
line wrap up the dociunentation. In all 
fairness, if through some great misfortune, 
you end up with The NeverEnding Story, 
all is not lost. You'll probably play it and 
enjoy it — like all software, until you find 
something better. But, in this case, it won't 
be soon enough. 

Buzzword 

by Paul Granchelli 

THE BUZZWORD GAME CO., INC. 

P.O. Box 440747 

Aurora, CO 80044 

48K Disk $39.95 

Because of my occasional ruthless na- 
ture, games aren't always voluntarily made 
available for my reviews. Fortunately for 
consumers, I can root most of these out, 
and sometimes the search itself has the 
beneficial side effect of increasing the in- 
tensity of my scrutiny. 

This month, I received a game with a 
letter expressing trepidation at the prospect 



of allowing me to sink my fangs into it. It's 
a trivia game, Buzzword. If the manufac- 
turers knew how much I hate trivia games, 
they'd never have sent it. That would have 
been a crime, since I would never have ob- 
tained it myself — despite my prejudice, I 
must give it a thumbs-up. 




Buzzword. 

The game is less a trivia game than a 
computerization of the old TV game show 
Family Feud. Given a category, one or two 
players try to guess words formed from let- 
ters displayed in a distribution pool. Ad- 
ditional clues are possible, such as the first 
letter of a word and/or the niunber of let- 
ters in the word. The three difficulty lev- 
els force you to guess at everything from 
common words to obscure slang, and one 
or two persons or teams may play at a time. 

Supplementing the game are cards si- 
milar to those of trivia games. These give 
a more complete description of the cate- 
gory, such as "No Nutrition" (things, oth- 
er than food, that people put in their 
mouths). We especially enjoyed the cate- 
gory "Buzzword Connection," featuring 
words with a given prefix. This was often 
difficult, since the prefix sea might con- 
tain the words seahorse and search. 

The object of the game is to guess words, 
earn points and win with the highest 
score. A pot builds, and there's a bonus 
round — familiar scoring fixtures from 
game shows. Do you try to guess just one 
more word — and risk missing, giving the 
pot to your opponent — or should you pass 
and collect a slightly smaller pot? Like 
most great games, there are more than 
enough opportunities for strategy. 

The screen is set up nicely, with clues 
and letter distribution displayed on the 
right, and scoring data on the upper left 
of the screen. The bottom left contains an 
animated typewriter, on which guessed 
words are printed. While the display may 
not have the highest-quality graphics I've 
ever seen, it is legible — and, in a word 
game, that's very important. All control is 
through the keyboard; your team's best 
typist should input the answers. After typ- 
ing in the card number, clues (if any) are 
displayed, and you begin guessing words. 

As for difficulty — the game is tough. 

(continued on page 131] 



PAGE 118 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



GAM 




de 




MakB it easyB play c| 
withltelephcK partn< 




by Gary Heitz 



Chess is a game of skill. It's unlike most other parlor 
or board games, in that luck doesn't play a factor in the 
outcome. There are no cards or dice to decide who has 
an advantage. Chess is, really, a game of war. Opponents 
fight for strategic positions and attack each other's forces. 
The object of the game is to capture the opposing king. 

Now, with Modem Chess booted, you and another player 
can have at it, long-distance. Both of you must have: an 
Atari computer (400, 800, XL, XE]; a modem (1030, 835, 
MPP lOOOC/E, others); one joystick; 48K of RAM; Atari 
BASIC; and a copy of Modem Chess. 

lyping it in. 

Type in Listing 1, using BASIC Editor II (see issue 47). 
Save the program as "D:MDMCHSSl.BAS", then type 
NEW and RETURN to clear your computer. 

Type in Listing 2, again using BASIC Editor II. Save 
this program imder any filename and rim it. This will cre- 
ate a file on the disk called MDMCHESS.DAT. It contains 
the lines that are too difficult to enter from the keyboard. 

Load Listing 1 with the command LOAD "D.MDM- 
CHSSl.BAS" Now, merge the second listing by typing EN- 
TER "D.MDMCHESS.DAT". You now have the running 
version of Modem Chess. Type SAVE "D.-MDMCHESS.- 
BAS" and press RETURN. 

Getting started. 

Once the person you wish to play chess with has a copy 





ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 119 




Modem Chess continued 



of Modem Chess, you're ready. It's suggested that you call 
your opponent on voice, to allow each of you time to set 
up — and to determine who'll originate the game call. 

After voice contact has been made, so that you're or- 
ganized, turn on the modem, then the disk drive and yoiir 
monitor or TV. Place a disk that will automatically load 
a modem handler into the drive and turn on your com- 
puter. 

After your modem handler has loaded and BASIC'S 
READY prompt appears, remove that disk and insert the 
one containing Modem Chess. Type RUN "D.MDM- 
CHESS.BAS and hit RETURN. 

When Modem Chess begins, you'll see the title screen, 
and be asked to type your name (a maximvun of ten charac- 
ters) . If you have a data disk for Modem Chess, this is the 
time to insert it into your drive. Enter your name and press 
RETURN. 

Within a few seconds, the screen will clear and you'll 
be in the "dial/answer" mode. Here, the screen will dis- 
play the directory listed on your data disk. If you have no 
directory on the disk, no phone numbers will appear. 

The bottom of the screen will display this menu: 
Type: 0-9, Manual, Answer, Originate, 
Next page, Increase, Edit 

These options are explained as follows: first, the num- 
bers highlighted after the prompt Type: correspond to the 
mmibers given in the phone list on the same screen. If 
there are no nvimbers listed, these highlighted numbers 
will not appear. 

The next option allows you to type in a phone number 
manually, to be dialed by your computer. Simply type the 
letter M to begin this process. 

The third option is used for answering a call. It's best 
to wait until you hear one full ring of the telephone be- 
fore you press the A key. This will increase yoiu' chances 
of connecting the first time. If for some reason connec- 
tion is not made, you'll be returned to this menu, where 
you may try again. 

Press the O key to originate the call. If you're actually 
talking to the other player — and Modem Chess is installed 
in both computers — one player may press A for answer 
and the other O for originate. In this way, you don't have 
to hang up and redial. This option wrorit work if both mod- 
ems are MPPs. 

The N option is used to go to the next page of the phone 
directory. If there aren't enough nvimbers on the disk to 
warrant a second (or third, etc.) page, then you'll be re- 
turned to the first page. 

The last two choices allow you to create, increase and 
edit the telephone directory on your disk. Press I to cre- 
ate or increase the list. Use E to correct a name or phone 
number that's already in the directory. 

After your computer has made the connection, there'll 
be a brief pause. The screen will clear and you'll be in 
a full-screen terminal mode. Here you can converse with 
the other player by typing on your keyboard. 
When you're ready to begin your game, only one player 
need press the START button. Both computers will then 
randomly select which player will have the white pieces 



and which black. After this, the screen will display the 
chessboard. 

Playing Modem Chess 

The top line of the screen will display the name of the 
person who is to make a move. Immediately below the 
chessboard is a Hne that states OPTION=MENU, SELECT 
= SETUP. At the bottom of the screen is a conversation 
window, used to communicate with the opponent during 
play. Simply t3rpe on your keyboard, and your message vidll 
also be displayed on the other player's screen. This can 
be used to warn the player that his king is in check, or 
that checkmate has occurred. 

Making a move. 

The cursor is in the shape of a square. By moving the 
joystick, you position the cursor over the chessman to be 
moved. Press the red button on the joystick, and the cur- 
sor will change to a solid box. Move the square cursor by 
moving the joystick controller to the position where you 
want the piece moved, then press the red button again. 
Your computer will execute the move and send it to the 
other player. 

When you receive a move, the monitor's speaker will 
sovmd two beeps, to alert you that a move is coming. Your 
cursor will move to the position where the opponent's 
chess piece was. The piece that was moved will flash in 
its new position for a few seconds. If you wish to stop the 
flashing, simply type on the keyboard, move the joystick, 
or press the red button. 

The game continues in this manner, with players alter- 
nating turns. 

Options. 

As was mentioned, the line immediately below the 
chessboard says OPTION=MENU SELECT= SETUP This 
line will display a menu if the OPTION button is depres- 
sed. 

The menu shows: Return, End, Save, Load and Take 
back move. Simply press the first letter of the desired op- 
tion (R, E, S, L, or T). For instance, hitting R allows you 
to exit the menu and return to the game, if you don't wish 
to make a selection from this menu. 

Pressing the letter E will allow you to end the game. 
This option should only be used if both players have 
agreed that the game is over. The screen will be cleared, 
and you'll be back in the full-screen terminal mode — as 
you were before the game started. There you may con- 
verse again, disconnect, or begin a new gEime. 

The third option, S, will save the position of the chess- 
men to your disk drive. This feature is useful if you can 
no longer continue the game, but wish to finish it at a later 
date. 

The L option will load the game that was previously 
saved. The position of the pieces will be loaded from your 
disk drive, then transmitted to the other player's computer. 

The last option here is the T, or Take back move, op- 
tion. If you accidentally make an illegal move, or for any 
reason need to take back the last move you made, press- 
ing the letter T will reconstruct the chessboard in the 
former positions. It will then send the corrected board to 
the other computer. This can only be used after your move. 



PAGE 120 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



since — obviously — you cannot take back the other play- 
er's move. 

Instead of pressing the OPTION button for the menu, 
you may press SELECT to set up the chessboard. You may 
never need to use this option, yet it's there — just in case. 
To use it, press SELECT and answer Y to the prompt. 

To use the set up mode, move the cursor over the posi- 
tion on the board that needs altering. Press the red but- 
ton on the joystick to cycle through the available chessmen. 
Once the desired piece appears, move your cursor to the 
next position to be changed and do the same. Once you've 
completed setting up the board, press SELECT again. This 
will cause your computer to send updated positions to the 
other player. 

Other information. 

Modem Chess will readily accept such moves as 
Castling (make sure you move the king first) and En Pas- 
sant. They will be sent as two sepeirate moves and will 
require a short delay. 

Each signal sent over the modem is checked, with the 
exception of those characters entered through the key- 
board. The method used is similar to that of XModem, 
but is more rigorous. Even so, as with XModem, it's pos- 
sible that, even after repeated attempts to send a move or 
the board positions, the phone lines may continually gar- 
ble the information. If this should happen, it's suggested 
that you turn off your computer and redial the other player. 

Some excellent modem handlers in the public domain 
are R.BIN by Joe Miller and Russ Wetmore, and any of the 
Chilcott handlers (HMDRV.XMO, MDRIVE.XMO and 
SMDRV.XMO). These can be obtained from CompuServe 
and many BBSs, under the above filenames. 

A special thanks to Richard Shier. Without his help and 
patience, this program would not have been possible. H 



The two-letter checksum code preceding the line 
numbers here is not a paurt of the BASIC program. 
For further information, see the BASIC Editor II in 
issue 47. 



Listing 1. 
BASIC listing. 

MH 20 POKE 589,9;GQTQ 441 

KU 30 REM t;t;t;«^ijjjni]:»;ri;i 

UF 40 REM «it* LENGTH »** 

lU 50 5IG=C0:F0R H=C1 TO 200:G05UB CKIN:I 

F IN THEN GET ttM0D,X:G0T0 70 
LX 60 NEXT M:G0TD 90 
HH 70 IF 5IG=C0 THEN 5IG=X:G0T0 60 
ET 80 POP :IF SIG=X THEN 100 
ZK 90 PUT ttMOD,Cl:PUT «M0D,C1:G0T0 RECEIU 

E 
XC 100 IF 5IG>100 AND 5IG0162 THEN 90 
m 110 PUT »M0D,0K:PUT ttMDD,0K 
5M 120 REM *»* GET 5$ *** 
ZX 130 GOSUB CLRBUF 
IT 140 5$="":SUM=C0:F0R I=C1 TO 5IG+C2:T0 

UT = CO 
J>M 150 GOSUB CKIHlIF IN THEN GET »M0D,X:5 

UM=5UM+X : 5$ CLEH C5$) +C1J =CHR$ CX) : GOTO 1 

80 
P5 160 T0UT=T0UT+C1:IF T0UT>2B0 THEN POP 

:G0T0 210 



NX 170 GOTO 150 

GH 180 NEXT I 

AH 190 flzflSCCSSCLENtSSJ-ClJJ :B=ft5CCSS(LEM 

CS$) ) J : SUM=SUM- Cfl+B) : 5UM=aSC CCHR$ CSUMJ 

) 

GZ 200 IF a=B AND SUM=a THEN PUT »M0D,0K: 

PUT »M0D,0K:G0T0 220 

FO 210 PUT OM0D,Cl:PUT «M0D,C1:G0T0 130 

FB 220 IF OFF THEN RETURN 

LO 230 GQ5U B 50UND;GQTQ SOUND 

BN 240 REM i-J-J-Mj-Ad-girr; 

NP 250 IN=CO:STATUS «MOD,X:IF PEEK CMSTATJ 
THEN IN=C1 

ZK 260 RETURN 

YQ 270 REM j^IOBiKwI! 

VI 280 POKE 205,235:P0KE 206,C2:IF MDM=C2 

THEN POKE 205,C0:P0KE 206, C4 
DT 290 SIG=USR(ADRCM0D$11 :IF SIG<C128 THE 

N RETURN 

BO 300 GOTO CKSIG 

Ci^ 310 REM !:;:;:m.ij:i.« :i:i:i 

PM 320 SIG=LEHCS$) :G05UB SIGNAL 

OD 330 GOSUB CLRBUF : SUM=CO : FOR I=C1 TO LE 

NCS$1 :A = ASCCS$[I,I]) :PUT ttMOD, A : SUM=SU 

M+A 
CY 340 IF LENCS$J>C32 THEN FOR H=C1 TO C5 

: NEXT N 
CC 350 NEXT I ! 5UM=A5C CCHR$ tSUMJ J : PUT ttMOD 

,SUM:PUT ttMOD, SUM 
MY 360 A=CO:FOR M=C1 TO 200:G0SUB CKINrIF 

IN THEN GET OM0D,X:G0T0 380 
JH 370 NEXT M:G0T0 400 
SI 380 IF A=CO THEN A=X:GOTO 370 
SA 390 POP :IF A=OK OR X=OK THEN RETURN 
WL 400 GOSU B CLRBUFtGOTQ 3 39 

TS 410 REM i:i:i:«HiHJj'h»:t:i:i 

DG 420 IF MDM=C1 THEN CLOSE «MOD 

QX 430 IF MDM=C2 THEN POKE C7,C1:? ttMODj" 

tZ" ' I POKE C7 CO 

KK 440'iF MDM=CO THEN XIO 90, ttMOD, CO, CO, D 

Eg$ 

ZK 450 RETURN 

AB 460 REM i;i;i;«-i:iHn!i:»Tn 

MW 470 IF MDM=C1 THEN GOTO TERM 

5L 480 IF MDM=CO THEN XIO 89, ttMOD, CO, CO, D 

Ey$ 

MS 490 IF DEV$="R: 

0,DEV$ 
WU 500 IF MDM=C2 THEN POKE C7,C1:? 

tYtA";CHR$C32) ;"¥"; :POKE C7,C0 
ZD 510 RETURN 

HO 520 REM i;t;t;«dJ■l!bJ^^^■^^JM■■»;i-n 

CD 530 GOSUB SUSPEHDiTRAP TERM 

KB 540 IF MDM=C2 THEN GOSUB RESUME : RETURN 

EM 550 XIO C32+C4, ttMOD, C8, CO, DEU$:XIO 38, 

ttMOD, C32, CO, DEU$: XIO C32+C2, ttMOD, 192, C 

0,DEV$ 
KB 560 IF MDM=CO THEN GOSUB RESUME 
AA 570 IF MDM=C1 THEN OPEN ttMOD, 13, CO, DEU 

$ 
08 580 XIO 40,ttM0D,C0,C0,DEU$:TRAP ERROR: 

RETURN 

OT 590 REM i:i:i:M.-%fr<'r= i»:t:i:i 

Z«4 600 GOSUB CLRBUF 

UT 610 PUT ttMOD, SIG! PUT ttMOD, SIG 

MB 620 CK=CO:FOR I=C1 TO 200 : GOSUB CKIN:I 

F IN THEN GET ttMOD, X: GOTO 640 
AX 630 NEXT I:GOTO SIGNAL 
ZU 640 IF CK = CO THEN CK = X:IF CKOOK THEN 

630 
OJ 650 POP :IF CK=0K OR X=OK THEN RETURN 
lA 660 GOTO SIGNAL 

LD 670 REM i:t:!:MJ'».^*ri'n»;t;t;i 

MD 680 FOR M=C1 TO 200:G0SUB CKIN : IF IN T 

HEN GET ttMOD, XiPOP :GOTO 700 
MF 690 NEXT W:GOTO 710 

YA 700 IF SIG=X THEN PUT ttMOD, OK: PUT ttMOD 
' ,OK:RETURN 



THEN XIO 36, ttMOD, CO, C 



ttMOD;" 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 121 




|$| Prices in parenthesis ({) 

are less I/O Cable and Power 

Pak. Add $10.00 each. 



New Replacement Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) w/parts 

800 Main $10 16K RAM $10 810 side w/DS .,. $30 

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CPUw/GTIA. $10 810 DS $5 810 Power $15 

800 XL PCB $50 825 PCB* $25 1200 XL PCB $35 

Power Paks 800/810 $15 ea 800 XL Power $25 ea 

Hard to find Integrated Circuits; 

$4.50 each or 4.00 in quantities of 10: 
GTIA BASIC REV A 

800 CPU 6502 800 ANTIC D 

800 OS ROMS XL CPU 6502C 

6520 PIA MPU 6507 

RAM 6810 810 ROM C 




ASSEMBLER REV A 

1771 

POKEY 

PIA 6532 

VCS TIA 444 



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XL ANTIC E XL/XE OS 850 ROM B 1050 ROM 

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Modem Chess 



continued 



E6 710 PUT ttMOD,Cl;PUT ttMOD,Cl!lF DL=C1 T 

HEN POP :GOTO 998 
PK 729 GOTO 288 

m 738 REM i;i-i-«ji-i:iiiJK;t;t;i 

VF 748 POKE 205,235:P0KE 286,C2:IF MDM=C2 

THEN POKE 285,C8:P0KE 286, C4 
ZP 760 RETURN 

81 778 REH i;i;i;«.ijMiJ-i!b#'u;f.i>i=i!»-i;n 

HH 788 MDM=Ce:DEU$="R:":FOR 1=794 TO 831 

STEP 3 
JP 798 IF PEEKtIJzflSCfT") THEN DEUS="T:" 

:MDM=C2 
HO 800 HEKT IjRETURN 

IP 818 REM !-i-i-»J.rnj.>»-i-i-i 

NM 828 CLOSE «C2:? "K Connect! One mom 

ent, please." 
SO 838 GOSUB TERM:IF LEN CN2$) THEN 870 
m 848 IF HOST THEN S$=N1$:G0SUB SEND 
VZ 850 0FF=C1: GOSUB RECEIVE : OFF=CO : S$ CLEN 

t5$3-ClJ="":N2$=S$ 
MF 860 IF HOST=CO THEN SS=N1$ : GOSUB SEND 
FT 870 LINE = 870:TR(IP ERROR 
PT 880 GOSUB SUSPENDlGRftPHICS CO:POKE 559 

,CO!POKE 710,202:P0KE 712,194:P0KE 709 

,Ce:G05UB RESUMElGOSUB 5418 
JP 8 98 GO SUB 4528:P0SITI0N 04, C2:? "Press 

tUMi to play MODEM CHESS." 
AH 900 POSITION C8,C4:F0R I=C1 TO 40:? CH 

R$C14} ; ;NEH T I:? :? " ^aM'InH 

li'M^lM') WBM""* :P0KE 559,34 
HZ 910 GOSUB 280 
50 920 IF SIG=224 THEN 968 
UK 938 IF PEEK{C8NS0L)=C6 THEN SIG=224:G0 

SUB SIGNAL:G0T0 968 
PJ 948 GOTO 910 



XT 950 REM i-i-i-m±i'\mn 

HQ 960 GOSUB SUSPEND : GRAPHICS C2 : POKE 559 
,CO:POKE 709,14:POKE 711,C0:P0KE 712,2 
18:P0KE 710,212:G0SUB RESUME 

HK 970 POKE 708,206:G0SUB 5418 

V5 988 IF HOST THEN SIG=INT CC2«RND (CO) I : G 
OSUB SIGNAL:GOTO 1018 

CI 990 IF HOST=CO THEN STATUS «MOD,K;IF P 
EEKCMSTAT) THEN GET tJMOD, SIG : DL=C1 : G05 
UB CKSIG:DL=C8:SIG=C1-SIG:G0T0 1818 

U6 1888 GOTO 998 

HZ 1818 H0ST=SIG:TURN=H05T 

OV 1020 GOTO 5188 

»\i 1838 REM i:i:i;«.^f:T:rr; 

60 1848 LINE=DIAL:TRAP ERR0R:G0SUB TERM:I 

F MDMOC2 THEN STATUS «MOD,MDM 
15 1850 MSTAT=747!IF DEy$="T:" THEN MSTAT 

=1824 
IP 1060 IF MDM>C127 THEN MDM=C1 
FK 1070 ? "IS":P0KE C752,C1:? : POKE 559, C3 

2+C2:P0KE 709,30 
TC 1080 DL=PEEKt568)+PEEK(561)*C256+C6 
m 1098 POKE DL,C6:P0KE DL+Cl, C6 : POSITION 

C6,C1:? ttC6j"directory" 
m 1100 GOSUB SUSPEND 
Bl 1110 POKE 195,C0:TRAP 1160 : T3=C0 : I=C8 : 

CLOSE «C2:0PEN ttC2, C4, CO, "D : DIAL . CHS" 
WC 1120 POKE 703,24:P0KE 195,C8:TRAP 1168 

:T3=T3+Cl:P0SITI0N C9+C9,C2:? "Page "; 

T3 ■ " " 
IR 1130 POSITION C2,C5:TEMP$="":DrC0:F0R 

I=C8 TO C9 
OJ 1140 NOTE «C2,A,B:INPUT ttC2jSS:IF LENt 

S$)<35 THEN D=Cl:GOTO 1140 
HN 1150 SECI)=A:BYCI)=B:? I;". ";S$CC1,34 

) :NEHT I 
BT 1160 POP :IF PEEKC1953=136 AND I=C8 AN 

D D=Ce THEN 1100 
6U 1170 TRAP ERR0R:D=I-C1 
MI 1180 POKE 703, C4:? "Mype: ";:IF D=C8 

THEN ? "E. "; 
to 1198 IF D>C8 THEN ? "EH"; CHR$ CD+176) ; " 



HJ 1288 ? "Canual, Hnswer, Qriginate," 

FK 1218 ? " Qext page, increase, Bdi 

' t" 

OX 1228 5$="": GOSUB FIX: POKE 782, 64: POKE 

694,C8:GET ttKEY . X : H0ST=C1 

ZH 1238 ? "IS":IF X>47 AND X<58 THEN 1320 

La 1248 IF X<ASC{"A") OR X>ASCt"e") THEN 

1188 

6V 1258 IF X=ASCt"N") THEN POKE 703,24:P0 

SITION C0,C5:? D$:G0T0 1120 

JU 1268 CLOSE «C2:IF K=ASC C"I") THEN 1828 

RR 1278 IF X=ASCC"E"J THEN 1988 

&P 1288 IF X=ASC("0") THEN H0ST=C1:G0T0 1 

600 

TX 1290 IF X=A5CC"A") THEN H05T=Ce:G0T0 1 

688 

fil 1380 IF X=ASC("M"1 THEN GOSUB RESUMEiG 

OTO 1380 

QJ 1310 GOTO 1160 

NF 1320 X=X-C48:IF X>D THEN GOTO DIAL 

6Z 1330 GOSUB SUSPEND 

140 1348 CLOSE nC2:0PEN ttC2, C4, CO, "D : DIAL . 

CHS" 

CC 1350 POINT »C2, SEtX), BY (X) : INPUT ttC2;S 

S:? "IS You have selected: ";S$CC1,C6» 

C3) ; 

m 1360 5$=5$C21) : CLOSE »C2: GOSUB RESUME: 

GOTO 1410 

cu 1370 REM [ififairiri'M^aa 

ZR 1388 POKE C752,C0:? "IS Nunber to dial 
";:POKE C764,C255:INPUT SS:IF LENtS$)= 
CO THEN POKE C752,C1:G0T0 DIAL 

<JR 1390 ? "H "; ;IF LENCS$) < C7 THEN 1380 

m 1488 REM i■.i■.i'm,\^^m^'tm'm 

61 1418 CLOSE »MOD:OPEN ttMOD, 13, CO, DEU$ 
OL 1428 POKE C752,C1:? " Dialin 

g: "i 
NM 1438 IF PEEKC7461=65 THEN 1436 
NT 1448 IF MDM<C2 THEN XIO C32+C2,BM0D, CI 

28,C0,DEg$ 
W 1450 CLOSE ttMOD:OPEN ttMOD, 13, CO, DEU$ : I 

F MDM=C2 THEN POKE C7,C1:? ttMOD;"tN";: 

POKE C7 CO 
UJ 1460 If'mDM=C1 then 1680 
ZJ 1470 IF MDM=C2 then POKE C7,C1:? ttMOD; 

"^K" ' 
TO 1480'fOR I=C1 TO LEN C5$J : X=A5C (5$ (I, I) 

):? 5$tI,H;:IF X<C48 OR X>57 THEN 151 



&I 1490 IF MDM=C0 THEN XIO 75, ttMOD, X, CO, D 

EU$ 

£J 1500 IF MDM=C2 THEN ? ttMOD; CHR$ CX] ; 
m 1510 NEXT I:? :? " Waiting. 

II 

itU 1520 IF MDM=C2 THEN POKE C7,C0:GOSUB T 

ERM 
2G 1530 FOR I=C1 TO 36 : STATUS ttMOD, X:IF M 

DM=C0 AND PEEKC746)>C127 THEN 1580 
«Z 1540 IF MDMr:C2 AND PEEK C747) >C127 THEN 

POP :GOSUB RESUME:GOTO 1580 
tJ 1550 IF PEEKCC0NS0L)=C5 AND MDM^CO THE 

N POP :XIO 77,ttMOD,C0,C0,DEU$:GOTO DIA 

L 
5H 1560 IF PEEKCC0NS0L)=C5 AND MDM=C2 THE 

N POP :POKE C7,C0:? ttMOD;"%M"; :P0KE C7 

, CI : GOTO DIAL 
KJ 1570 GOSUB PAUSE:NEXT I:GOSUB SUSPEND: 

GOTO DIAL 
TN 1580 POP ; GO SUB P 0" ^ E; ti T Q 820 

TB 1608 POKE C752,Cl:? "H Waiting 

for carrier." 
HH 1610 ON MDM GOTO 1730,1770 
EV 1620 GOSUB SUSPEND:GOSUB RESUME:XIO 76 

,«MOD,CO,C0,DEV$ 
IX 1630 XIO 74,ttMOD,C0,C0,DEU$ 
PZ 1640 GOSUB PAUSE:GOSUB TERM 
m 1650 STATUS ttMOD, X:IF PEEK C746KC128 T 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 123 




Modem Chess continued 



HEN 1610 

RT 1660 GOTO 820 

EY 1670 REM ilJ-J-MilJ J.lfTl 

PO 1680 ? S$:CL05E OM0D:G05UB PAU5E:0PEN 

ttMOD,13,C0,DEg$ 
PJ 1690 ? «M0D;"6TD"J5$;CHR$(13J; :G05UB T 

ERM 
05 1700 STATUS «MOD,X:IF X=139 THEN GOTO 

DIAL 
FC 1710 G05U B TERM:G05UB CLR BUF:GOTQ 820 
VQ 1720 REM i:t:i:M!IJ!W: l Ll»...... 

OH 1730 CLOSE »M0D : OPEN OMOD, 13, CO, DEU$ : G 

OSUB PAUSE:? «M0D;"ATA";CHR$tl3) 
AO 1740 GOSUB TERM:STATUS tJMOI>,K:IF X = 139 

THEN GOTO DIAL 
MD 1750 GOSUB CLRBUF; GOTO 820 

G8 1770 CLOSE OC2 : GOSUB RESUME 

VI 1780 POKE C7,C1:? ttMOD; "tLt J"; : POKE 07 

,C0 

XZ 1790 FOR I=C1 TO 45 : STATUS OM0D,X:IF P 
EEKC747)>C127 THEN TRAP ERRORsPOP :GOT 
1710 

AF 1800 GOSUB PAUSE:NEXT I:P0KE C7,C1:? tt 
M0D;"^M"; :POKE C7,ce:G0TQ DIAL 

NF 1810 REM i!i:!:»:i>i» ^;n;a:iii;i:} Jrfc»:;:" 

NM 1820 TRAP 1830 : CLOSE OC2:0PEN »C2,C9,C 

0,-d:dial.chs":trap error:goto I840 

5E 1830 TRAP LINE : CLOSE ttC2 : OPEN ttC2,C8,C 

0,"D:dial.chs":GOTO I820 

Py 1840 T3=C0:P0KE C764,C255 

DM 1850 POKE 752, CO 

HD 1860 TEMP$=" " : TEMP$ CC8*C5J =TEMP$ : TEMP 
$tC23=TEMP$ 

BL 1870 ? "iSNaMe >";:INPUT SS 

GD 1880 IF LENCS$J=CO THEN I960 

CD 1890 IF LENCS$3>C5«C4 THEN SStC7*C3J=" 

II 

CR 1900 TEMPS=SS 

AM 1910 ? "Phone nunber ->";:POKE C764,C2 

55:INPUT S$ 

ME 1920 TEMP$(C7*C33=SS 

KP 1930 TEMP$t36J=CHR$CC155J 

UP 1940 IF T3 THEN RETURN 

YH 1950 ? «C2;TEMP$ 

RI 1960 CLOS E »C2 ! GOTO DIAL 

JM 1970 REM i-i-vj.^ *■■*:*«■;■;■; 

UC 1980 ? "IS Type nuMber or RETURN to a 

bort." 
ZM 1990 GOSUB FIX:POKE C764, C255 : GET ttKEY 

,X:IF X=C155 THEN GOTO DIAL 
nj 2000 X=X-C48:IF X<CO OR X>C9 THEN 1980 
VX 2010 IF X>D THEN 1990 
YE 2020 CLOSE »C2:0PEN ttC2, 09+03, CO, "D : DI 

AL.CHS" 
W> 2030 POINT ttC2,SE(Xl,BYCXl :INPUT ttC2;T 

EMP$ 
OH 2040 T3=Cl:G0SUB 1860:13=00 
IR 2050 POINT ttC2,SECX),BYtX) 
m 2060 ? «C 2;TEMP$; CLOS E «C2:G0T0 DIAL 
VT 2070 REM dj3EEBM22^ 
HN 2080 LINE=MAIN:TRAP ERROR 
JM 2090 GOSUB 4310:POKE 77,C0:G05UB 3170: 

BUTT0N=00:A=TURN+C1:DN A GOTO 2110,236 


MU 2100 TURN=C0:GOTO MAIN 
VH 2110 POKE 53248,00 

oz 2120 REM [22acEaiani£K22 

ZP 2130 GOSUB 280 

ki 2140 if sig=224 then set=ce: gosub 4050 

:goto main 
uk 2150 if set then 2130 
ie 2160 if sig=251 then 2250 
jp 2170 if sig=c155-c1 then gosub 4330: go 

TO 2130 
Gy 2180 IF 5IG=133 THEN GOSUB RECEIUE:A=A 
SCCS$(C1)] :B=ASCCS$CC2}) :POSITION A,B: 
i? »06;" ":GOTO 2130 



m 2190 IF 5IG=C128 THEN GOSUB 2230:A=TUR 

N:GOSUB DSPMOy:TURN=A 
ftj 2200 IF PEEKtC0NS0LJ=C3 THEN GOSUB OPT 

I0N5:IF GIT THEN GOSUB CKSIG:GOTO 2140 
ST 2210 IF PEEKCC0NS0L)=C5 THEN GOSUB NOC 

LICK:GOSUB SETUP:IF OOPS THEN GOSUB OK 

SIGiGOTO 2140 
PJ 2220 GOTO 2130 
LB 2230 GOSUB RECEIVE : FX = ASO (S$ C013 ): FY = A 

SO tS$ C02) ) : TX=ASO IS$ C03) ) : TY=A5C (5$ CC4 

J ) : RETURN 

SI 2240 REM i-i-i;«r4:*a!filll^;i;i;i 

AF 2250 GOSUB 2230 

HM 2260 IF TY=08 THEN GOSUB 3080 

OJ 2270 CK=tFX+06)»08:0Y=tFY+C2)*C8:G0SUB 

NOCLICK 
HK 2280 GOSUB DSPMOU : GOSUB 3170: POKE 0764 

,C255 
XT 2290 GOSUB 4290 : SAyMOy=Cl : GOSUB 3870:D 

ELETE$=S$ 
FN 2300 FOR 1=01 TO C9:P0SITI0N TX,TY:? tt 

C6;" ":G05UB 2330:P0SITI0N TX,TY:? ttC6 

;CHR$CCHAR] :GOSUB 2330 
Zt 2310 GOSUB OKIN:IF IN OR PEEK tC764J <C2 

55 THEN POP :G0T0 MAIN 
FH 2320 NEXT I:GOTO MAIN 
FA 2330 FOR M=01 TO 20:IF STICKfCOlOlS 

R 5TRIG(C0)=C0 THEN POP :POP ;POP :P05 

ITION TX,TY:? tt06; OHR$ (CHAR) : GOTO MAIN 
HO 2340 NEXT H:RETURN 

HZ 2350 REM fi-aiimjM-i-gTr; 

AC 2360 GOSUB 280 

SB 2370 IF SIG=C155-C1 THEN GOSUB 4330: GO 

TO 2360 
KY 2380 IF SIG=224 THEN SET=C0 : GOSUB 4050 

:GOTO MAIN 
VU 2390 IF SET THEN 2360 
ZK 2400 IF STRIG(CO)=00 THEN 2590 
^L 2410 IF PEEKCC0NS0LJ=C5 THEN GOSUB SET 

UP:IF OOPS THEN GOSUB CKSIG:GOTO 2370 
CC 2420 IF PEEKCC0NS0L)=C3 THEN GOSUB OPT 

IOHS:IF GIT THEN GOSUB OKSIG:GOTO 2370 
F« 2430 GOSUB MOUORS 

SE 2440 GOTO 2360 

FQ 2450 REM i:i:i:«:fillJ:»iin-L-fi1-»:iT; 

m 2460 X=STICKCCOJ :IF X=C9+C6 THEN RETUR 

N 
m 2470 CY=0Y+08*CCX=C9+04J+(X=C9)+CX=05) 

-tX=09+Cl)-CX=C9+C5J-CX=06)) 
NS 2480 0X=CX+C8«CCX=C6)+CX=07)+CX=C5)-tX 

=C9+C1) - CX=C9+C2J - CX=C9) ) 
M 2490 IF CX<96 THEN 0X=152 
JO 2500 IF CX>152 THEN CX=96 
CA 2510 IF 0Y<24 THEN 0Y=80 
CD 2520 IF OY>80 THEN CY=24 
HC 2530 A=511:P0KE 53248, CO : X=USR tADR CMOU 

E$) ,0LDCY+PMBASE+A,0Y+PMBASE+A,09) :POK 

E 53248, OX 
HB 2540 OLDCY=CY:OLDCX=CX 
IJ 2550 IF 0FF=CO THEN GOSUB 5USPEND:S0UN 

D O3,C0,O0,13:SOUND 03, CO, 00, 00 : GOTO R 

ESUME 
tiX 2560 OFF = Oe:RETURN 
KE 2570 OFF= Cl!GOTO 2490 

sE 2580 REM issacHaiiaa 

EC 2590 GOSUB SOUND 

&Y 2600 IF BUTTON THEN 2650 

HM 2610 FX=CX/08-C6:FY=CY/C8-02:G0SUB LOO 

ATEl:X=CHAR 
$0 2620 IF HOST=CO AND X<0128 THEN 2360 
m 2630 IF HOST AND CX>0127 OR X=C32J THE 

N 2360 
m 2640 A=639:X=U5R(ADR(M0UE5J,0Y+PMBA5E+ 

A,CY+PMBA5E+A,C9) :OY=OY:POKE 53249, OX 
m 2650 IF BUTTON=CO THEN 2720 
W 2660 TX=CX/08-06:TY=CY/C8-02 
Kl> 2670 IF FX=TX AND FY=TY THEN 2708 
^2680 LX=TX:LY=TY:G0SUB L0CATE2 :X=CHAR : 



PAGE 124 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 




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1027 Printer 

800 XL 


$ 99.00 

$ 69.00 


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Atari 850 Interface 

Data Casset XM11 


.. ..$124.90 
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EPSON PRINTERS 


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Basic Logo First Word $747.77 

w/SF 314 Disk Drive add $112.00 



PANASONIC PRINTERS i 


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I 





CIRCLE #182 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Modem Chess continued 



IF HOST AND X<C128 AND X<>C32 THEN 236 

e 

m 2690 IF HOST=CO AND X>C127 THEN 2360 

DA 2700 GOSUB 2830 

D5 27i0 GOSUB 2750 

GK 2720 BUTTON=BUTTON+Cl:lF BUTT0N>C1 THE 

N 4100 
SH 2730 GOTO 2360 

Id 2740 REM i-i;i-«J'»-r«.wT»Tr; 

«E 2750 IF FYOC4 THEN RETURN 

Z» 2750 LX=TX:LY=TY:GOSUB L0CATE2:IF CHAR 

OC32 THEN RETURN 
LZ: 2770 IF ABSCTX-FXJOCl THEN RETURN 
YE 2780 GOSUB LOCATEl : X=CHAR : IF XOASCCCH 

ARH$(C1,C1]1 AND X<> ASC (CHARB$ (CI, Cll 1 
THEN RETURN 
01 2790 POSITION TX,TY+C1:? ttC6; SIG=1 

33:G0SUB SIGNAL 
BI 2800 A=TX-C5;A=TXCAJ !B=TY(TY+C1J 
FU 2810 S$=CHR$(A) :S$CC2)=CHR$(B) :G0SUB S 

END : RETURN 

CF 2820 REM i;i-i;«.T:mM = 



EF 2830 X=ABSCFX-TX) :IF X<>C2 THEN RETURN 
50 2840 IF FYOTY THEN RETURN 
PY 2850 IF FYOCl AND FY<>C8 THEN RETURN 
JE 2860 GOSUB L0CATE1:IF CHARO ASC CCHARH$ 

(C6,C6n AND CHAR<>ASC(CHARB$(C6,C61] 

THEN RETURN 
TD 2870 IF TX<FX THEN 2980 
IE 2880 REM »»» RIGHT *««* 
XI 2890 FOR I=FX+C1 TO TX+ tH05T=C0) ! LX=I ! 

LY = FY:G0SUB L0CATE2:IF CHAROC32 THEN 

POP :G0T0 2960 
ri 2900 NEXT I 
LO 2910 LX=TX+C1+CH05T=C0J 
CV 2920 LY=TY:G0SUB L0CATE2:IF CHAROASCI 

CHARM$CC2,C2}1 AND CHARO ASC CCHARB$ (C2 

,C2)) THEN 2960 
NU 2930 F1=FX:T1=TX:T3=TURN 
Yl> 2940 FX=TX+C1+CH0ST = C0J :TX = TX-Cl:G05UB 

DSPMOV 
as 2950 GOTO 3040 
VK 2960 BUTTON=CO:RETURN 
XP 2970 REM *** LEFT »»» 
PT 2980 FOR I=TX TO FX-Cl STEP -C1;LX=I:L 

Y=FY:G0SUB L0CATE2:A=CHAR:IF A<>C32 TH 

EN POP :G0T0 2960 
GJ 2990 NEXT I 
TM 3000 LX=TX-C1-CH0ST=C1J :LV=TY:G0SUB LO 

CATE2:X=CHAR 
DM 3010 IF X<>ASC(CHARM$(C2,C2)1 AND XOA 

SCCCHARB$CC2,C2)] THEN 2960 
HA 3020 F1=FX:T1=TX:T3=TURN 
XM 3030 FX=TX-C1-CH0ST=C1J :TX=TX+Cl:GOSUB 

DSPMOU 
OL 3040 SIG=C128: GOSUB SIGNAL 
CO 3050 GOSUB 3590:GDSUB SEND 
HM 3060 FX=F 1 ; TX=T1 ; TURN=T3 ; RE TURN 
TM 3070 REM tltilM J:TI-M.lllJJ'M-i-i-i 
KA 3080 GOSUB LOCATEl : X=CHAR : IF X=ASC CCHA 

RW$CC1,C1J) THEN POSITION FX,FY:? ttC6j 

CHARM$(C5,C5) 
DP 3090 IF X=ASCtCHARBStCl,ClJJ THEN POSI 

TION FX,FY:? ttC6;CHARB$CC5,C5) 
6D 3100 RETURN 

ZK 3110 REM yi:i-m>M.-^-iw-vmiuv\m-i-i': 

iPH 3120 GOSUB L0CATE1:X=CHAR:P05ITI0N FX, 

FY:? «C6;" ":C0L0R XiPLOT TX,TY 
m 3130 TURN =C1-TURN: RETURN 

av 3140 REM i:i:t:«j:iiLHji;t;t;i 

AZ 3150 FOR M^Cl TO 40; NEXT H; RETURN 
HA 3160 REM iiim'\:ui£miu^rm'rr^, 
m 3170 GOSUB SUSPEND :TEMP$=" 

■ I 

KL 3180 IF TURN=C0 THEN 3220 
OE 3190 A=INTC(C5KC4~tLENCNl$)+C7JJ/C2J :T 
, EMPS CA + Cl) =N1$ : TEMPS CLEN CTEMPS) +C1J =" ' 
5 " 



5E 3200 X=LENCN1SJ/C2:IF X=INT CXJ THEN X= 

CO 
Oft 3210 GOTO 3240 
OJ 3220 A=INT(CC5»C4-CLENtN2$)+C7)J/C2J :T 

EMP$ CA + CIJ =N2$ : TEMPS tLEN CTEMPSJ +C1J =" ' 

S " 
TA 3230 X=LENCN2SJ/C2:IF X=INTCX) THEN X= 

CO ^ * 

PJ 3240 IF X=C0 THEN TEMPS CLEN tTEMPS) +C1J 

— II II 

UN 3250 TEMPS {LENITEMP$)+C1)="M0VE":TEMPS 

C21J="":P0SITI0N CO, CO:? ttC6;TEMPS 
FY 3260 IF HOST AND TURN THEN POKE 708,14 
AC 3270 IF HOST AND NOT TURN THEN POKE 7 

08, CO 
IB 3280 IF NOT HOST AND TURN THEN POKE 7 

08, CO 
00 3290 IF NOT HOST AND NOT TURN THEN P 

ORE 708,14 
EU 3300 GOTO RESUME 

CZ 3310 REM a23B[lE[M32S ^ „_ 

VB 3320 OOPS = CO:GOSUB TMP : TEMPS CC4) ="^13^ 



ou sure you want setup (V/ni? 



KD 3330 GOSUB PRTMP:POKE C764, C255 : GOSUB 

FIX 
SB 3340 GOSUB CKIN : IF IN THEN 3370 
CL 3350 IF PEEK(C764)<C255 THEN 3390 
RU 3360 GOTO 3340 
TR 3370 GET «MOD,SIG:IF SIG=C128 OR SIG=1 

33 OR SIG=C155-C1 OR SIG=224 OR SIG=25 

1 THEN OOPS=Cl:GOTO 4310 
SA 3380 GOTO 3340 

RV 3390 GOSUB SUSPEND:GET ttKEY,C 
NH 3400 IF C<>ASCI"Y"J AND C<>A5CC"y"J TH 

EN GOTO MAIN 
SJ 3410 BUTT0N=C0:P0KE 53249, C0 : GOSUB NOC 

LICK 
DP 3420 GOSUB 4330 : SIG=C155-C1 : GOSUB SIGN 

AL 
YE 3430 IF STICKCC0JOC9 + C6 THEN 3480 
ZF 3440 LX=CX/C8-C6:LY=CY/C8-C2:G0SUB LOC 

ATE2 
LH 3450 FOR I=C1 TO LEN (CHARSi : IF CHRSCCH 

AR}=CHARSCI,I) THEN A=I 
FR 3460 NEXT I 

NG 3470 IF PEEKCC0HS0L)<>C7 THEN 3470 
IZ 3480 GOSUB 280 : IF STICK (CO) OC9 + C6 THE 

N GOSUB M0UCRS:G0T0 3430 
ly 3490 IF PEEKCC0NS0L)=C5 THEN 3540 
MA 3500 IF STRIG(CO) THEN 3480 
PG 3510 FX=CX/C8-C6:FY=CY/C8-C2:A=A+Cl:G0 

SUB SOUND:POSITION FX,FY 
AY 3520 TRAP 3530:? «C6; CHARS CA, A) : TRAP E 

RR0R:F0R H=C1 to C4:NEXT M:GOTO 3480 
GA 3530 A=Cl;GOTO 3520 

GF 3540 IF TURN=CO THEN POKE 532 48, CO 
BL 3550 GOSUB TMP : TEMPS (C9 + C53 ="H3iEHirM 

aana!": GOSUB prtmp 

CM 3560 5SCC155+C5)="¥":X=USRCQPEEK,ADRCS 
$)) 

XY 3570 SSCLENCSS)+C1J=CHRS(TURN) :SStLENC 
5S)+C1)=CHRSCH0ST) : DELETES=S$ : SIG=224 : 
GOSUB SIGN AL;GOSUB SEND: G0T0 4310 

UN 3580 REM i;i;i;«rf.ruij;>»:rri 

ID 3590 A=FX-C5:A=TXCA) :B=TYtFY) :C=TX-C5: 
C = TXCC) : I^ .tJ.Y^T^^ _^ ^ 

LW 3610 S S = C H R i CA) : S ftC2) = C H R i C B ) : S S ( C 3 ) = 
CHRSCC) :S $CC4)=CHRSCD) : RETURN 

KH 3620 REM i:t:i:»j;Miii-»:i:t:i 

GD 3630 POKE 704,206:P0KE 705,2O6:IF HOST 
THEN POKE 704,CO:POKE 705, CO 

AZ 3640 RETURN 

ZS 3550 REM i-i-i-«i1 =>**■! '»--» •-- 

PF 3 660 TEMPSz-iRrnrnnw Errff^sfrPTMipnTW 



HV 3670 GOSUB PRTMP:POKE C764,C255 
KtM 3680 GOSUB CKIN:IF IN THEN 3710 



PAGE 126 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



fiN 3698 IF PEEK(C764]<C255 THEM 3738 

UU 3708 GOTO 3680 

R5 3718 GET ttMOD, X : GIT=C8 : IF X=C128 OR X= 

133 OR X=C15S-C1 OR X=224 OR X=251 THE 

N SIG=X:GIT=Cl:GOTO 4318 
^A 3728 GOTO 3688 
tt» 3730 G05UB FIX: GET ttKEY,C:IF C=C155 OR 

CrftSCC'R") OR C = ftSCt"r") THEM 4310 
BM 3740 G05UB SUSPEND 
yC 3758 IF C=ftSCC"E") OR C=ASCt"e"J THEM 

3938 
Ua 3760 IF C=fl5Ct"S") OR C=ASC C"S"J THEN 

3840 
KM 3770 IF C=flSCt"L") OR C=A5C("1") THEM 

3950 
RH 3788 IF C=flSCC"T"J OR C=fl5Ct"t") THEM 

3818 
JT 3798 GOSUB RESUMErG OTO OPTIONS 

NOf 



YC 3800 REM 



UbbJ 



cm!! 



PV 3818 IF TURNOC0 THEN ? "^Y0U Hay only 
take back a Move if you have just na 
de a MOVe.":G05UB 4310:G0T0 RESUME 
QP 3820 S $ = D ELETES ; POP ; GO TO 3 990 

VA 3840 GOSUB 4290:G0SUB 4278 

MK 3850 POKE C764, C255 ! GOSUB FIX:GET «KEY 

,C:IF C<>Ci55 THEM 3910 
SS 3860 GOSUB SUSPEND : CLOSE ttC2 : OPEN ttC2, 

C8,C0,"D:DflTfl.CHS" 
CM 3878 SS(C155 + C5)="<f":X = USRtQPEEK,ADR(5 

$)) 
RK 3880 S$(C155+C6)=CHR$tTURNJ :SStC155+C7 

)=CHR$tHOSTJ 
SC 3890 IF SAUMOVzCl THEN SAUM0U=C8 : RETUR 

N 
PB 3908 ? «C2jS$:CL0SE ttC2 
UK 3910 GOSU B 4310!G0T0 RESU ME 

RQ 3920 REM i:i;i:«J'i.Mrf:rr3gTr; 

KO 3930 POP :G0SUB 4528:G8SUB RESUME:G0T0 
870 

CZ 3940 REM t:t:i:»iiT=i>Mrf:ri;M:i:t:; 

DM 3950 GOSUB 4278 

LD 3960 POKE C764, C255 : GOSUB FIXiGET ttKEY 

,C:IF COC155 THEN GOSUB 4310:GOTO RES 

UME 

CO 3970 PO P : GOSUB TMP ; TEMP? tl4i =" H.!:rHiM 

■thllUl" : GOSUB PRTMP 
PP 3980 CLOSE «C2:0PEN »C2, C4, C8, "D :DATA. 

CH5"!INPUT «C2;SS:DELETES=S$ 
GH 3998 TURN=flSC(S$CCi55+C6JJ :H0ST=fl5CCS$ 

(C155+C7)) 
SM 4000 GOSUB 3638:G0SUB NOCLICK : TEMP$=S$ 

:5$=TEMP$tCl,C155+C5) IGOSUB 4298:START 

=DL:G05UB 5390:5$=TEMP$ 

Zfl 4010 GOSUB RESUME 

DZ 4020 GOSUB TMP : TEMPS CC9 + C5) =" H-]irHiLM 

tTECEH": GOSUB PRTMP 
RB 4030 SIG=224:G0SUB SIGNAL : GOSUB SEND:G 

OTO MAIN 

m 4040 REM !:i:i:« ■] J J ^ ji J jMrf :ri ^:rr; 

ox 4Q50 GO SUB TMP ; TEMPS (C9 + C4i =" l:tJ<:lt'H|T! l 
I GOSUB PRTMP: GOSUB RECEIVE :SSC 



LENC5$)-C1)="" 
IS 4060 TURN=ASCCSSCC155+C6n :TURN=C1-TUR 

N : H0ST = ASC tSS tC155 + C7J ) : H0ST = C1-H0ST : 5 

$CC155 + C6)="": TEMPS CC155 + C5) =■'¥■■ 
BS 4080 SS=TEMPS:GOSUB 4298:G0SUB 3638:G0 

SUB NOCLICK:START=DL:GOSUB 4310:G0T0 5 

390 
FI 4090 REM 
W 4100 POKE 53249,00 
KY 4110 IF FX=TX AND FY=TY THEN BUTTON=CO 

:GOTO 2360 
DX 4120 IF TY=C1 THEN GOSUB 3888 
FZ 4130 GOSUB DSPMOU 
m 4140 SIG=251:G0SUB SIGNAL 
n 4158 GOSUB 3598:G0SUB SEND 
aU 4168 GOTO MAIN 



LZ 4188 LX=FXJLY=FY 

FL 4190 REM i:i-imM,ia.\iJ,m-i:i:i 

FO 4200 LOCATE LX, LY, CHAR : COLOR CHAR:PLOT 

LX,LY: RETURN 

DX 4210 REM ?;t;{;ai4;«:t:a 

TG 4220 DUMM VSzSTRSCC? ; RE TURN 

MR 4230 REM i:t:i:m.-Tiiii'i.«;t:i:i 

JH 4240 GOSUB SUSPEND : SOUND C3, 64, C9+C1, C 

8:F0R M=C1 TO C2:NEXT M:SOUND C3,C8,C0 

,C8 

FJ 4250 GOTO RESUME 

ZU 4260 REM !:;:;:■ J;in:iJ»:;:;:! 

HQ 4278 GOSUB TMP ; TEMPS CC 4J =" Hi»Jif?FtT» 

rmimiifJ J:mi:J^ill:rPI " : GOSUB PRTMP: RE 

TURN ^ 

DP 4288 REM i-fi-«.^J-lJJ'»m 

IT 4298 DL=PEEKC88)+PEEKt89)»C256+28:RETU 

RN 

LC 4308 REM N'trngH^rB-HlMjlM 

XM 4318 SET = C8:P0SITI0M C8,C9;? ttCe:"! 



TION = MENU 



:RETURN 
05 4328 REM 



SELECT = SETUP 



XL 4338 GOSUB SOUHDjGOSUB SOUND:GOSUB TMP 
: TEMPS CC9 + C9) =" M^iii|-.ll " : GOSUB PRTMP : SET 
—CI ■ RETURN 

AJ 4340 POKE C752, CI : POSITION C3,C9+C8:? 



unable to coMMumcate with ModeM. 



JSa 4350 GOTO 4350 

Wm 4360 REM i' . i-i-mi'l-X'm 
8S 4370 TEMP$=CHRSC160) : TEMPS (C8«C5) =TEMP 

S : TEMPS CC 21=TEMPS; RETU RN 
EM 4388 REM JititM Jr»!IJEZB 

YU 4398 TEMPS C41) ="" : POSITION C8,C9:? «C5 
; TEMPS : RETURN 

HP 4400 REM i:i;i;»i'k*»:t;i;i 

PK 4418 LINE=4348:TRAP ERROR 

IZ 4428 DIM CHARMS(71,CHARBSC6] ,N1$(181 ,N 

2$C10J , MOVES C44J .M0DSC228) ,TXC8J,TYC8) 

, CHARS C13) ,DUMMYSC15J .SSC178J 
WV 4430 DIM DEVSC2) ,TEMPSC178) ,SEtl8) ,BYt 

10) ,DSt20) ,DELETES(178J 
LS 4440 RESTORE 5480 : READ CO, CI, C2, C3, C4, 

C5,C6,C7,C8,C9,C32,C48,C126,Ci27,C128, 

C155,C255,C256,C752.C764 
HC 4450 DS-CHRSC156) :DSC20)=DS:DStC2J=DS 
JT 4470 KEY=Cl:M0D=C4:0K=13:LET CLRBUF=:74 

0:HOCLICK=2578:CK5IG=688 
RU 4480 MOgCRS=2468:PAUSE=3158:MAIN=2O80: 

D5PM0V=3128:SETUP=3320:SUSPEND=428:RES 

UME=470:SIGNAL=6OO 
OG 4490 OPTIONS=3668:SEND=32e:RECEIVE=50: 

LET L0CATE1=4180:LET L0CATE2=4200 : FIX= 

422O:CKIN=25O:TMP=4370:PRTMP=4390 
XH 4500 LET S0UND=4248 : TERM=538 : C0NS0L=53 

279:ERROR=55OO:DIAL=i040 
CM 4510 GOSUB 4520:GOTO 4538 
WD 4528 FOR 1=53248 TO 53251: POKE I,CO:NE 

XT I:POKE 82,C2:RETURN 
FR 4538 X=PEEKtl86J-tC8+C8) :CH5ET=tX+C4)» 

C256:P0KE 54279, X+C8 
MF 4548 POKE 186,X:P0KE 82, CO : GRAPHICS C8 

:P0KE C752,C1:? :POKE 718,196:P0KE 712 

,196:P0KE 708,28:P0KE 709,14 
KH 4558 GOSUB 5420:POKE 559, C8 
YY 4788 POKE 82, C2 
BQ 4848 MODS C72 , 721 =CHRS CC155 i 
YV 4850 REM i:i:i:ilH;*M'n!l;fc»-i!i;i 
ND 4860 TRAP 4340:GOSUB 780:OPEN »KEY,C4, 

C0,"K:":CL05E «MOD:OPEN ttMOD, 13, CO, DEU 

S: GOSUB SUSPEND 
TG 4878 IF DEVS="R:" THEM XIO 36,«M0D,C8, 

C0,DEVS 
RY 4880 TRAP ERR0R:P0KE C752,C8:TRAP 4888 

iPOSITION C3,22:? "Mhat is your first 

naMe";:POKE 559,C32+C2 
m 4898 INPUT N1S:IF LEN(NlS}=C8 THEN 488 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 127 




Modem Chess continued 



D 
HB 4900 FOR I = C1 TO LEN CN1$] : X = A5C CN1$ (I, 

IJ):IF X>90 THEN Hl$ II, I) =CHR$ CX-C32J 
FM 4910 NEXT I 
HI 4920 POKE C752, CI : POSITION CO, 22:? D$: 

POSITION C3,22:? CHR$ C34) : "How about a 
nice gane of Chess?";CHRSC34) 
JU 4930 LINE=4930:TRftP ERROR : RESTORE 5450 

:F0R I=C1 to C8:READ X:TXtI3=X:NEXT I 
LO 4940 FOR I=C1 TO C8 : READ X : TV (I] =X : NEX 

T I 

4950 REM y.y.i-.MA dkMW -m.jxTvi mvm 

4960 X=PEEKCi06)+C8:PMBftSE=C256»X:P0KE 

53277. C3 
4970 SS="33333333D 



NC 
UF 



YH 



UA 
OR 
0& 



■53PSSIB3 3 333333linil 
[Jj|333333 3 3HIIIIIIF 



ans 3 3 3 3 3 3 3[IIIIIL_ 

4980 5TART=768+PMBASE+24:G05UB 5390:ST 

ART=5TART+C128:G05UB 5390 

4990 CX=i20:CY=C48:0LDCX=CX:0LDCY=CY:0 

Y = CY 
5000 5TART=PMBA5E+512+CY 

LG 5020 GOSUB 5390 : A=640 : FOR I=PMBA5E+A+C 

V TO PMBA5E+A+CY+C7:P0KE I,C255:NEXT I 
:P0KE 559, CO 

UX 5040 5TART=CH5ET+ASC(CHARW$CC1)J»C8 
YM 5060 G05UB 5390 : 5TART=CH5ET+A5C CCHARW$ 

{C5n«C8 
ZO 5080 GOSUB 5390:G0T0 DIAL 



PO 



ji 5090 REM ;:?:?:■ jTiVJ 

CJ 5100 DL=PEEKC560)+PEEKC561J»C256+14l 

KE DL,C2: G0SUB 4310 

EC 5110 REM i:i:i-ma,i*,hi.-mn>mi:i:i:i 

Yfl 5120 POKE 706,214:P0KE 707,214 

CM 5130 GOSUB 3630 

NH 5140 POKE 756, CHSET/C256 

HM 5150 IF H OSTrCl THE N 5268 

XL 5160 REM i:i:i:m;iw:ia'4 

HZ 5170 POSITION C6,C1 

NY 5190 POSITION C6,C2 

OT 5210 POSITION C6,C7 

RS 5230 POSI TION C6,C8 

5H 5250 REM i:i:i:m'\'.ki!i 

MY 5260 POSITION C6,Ci 

NX 5280 POSITION C6,C2 

«5 5300 POSITION C6,C7 

RR 5320 POSITION C6,C8 

T» 5340 POKE C752,C0:? 



laiixni^a-' 



itExsxrzsB 



IJ 5350 POKE 53258, C3:P0KE 53259, C3 

Zft 5360 POKE 623,C4:P0KE 559, C48-C2 : CX=12 

0:CY=C48:0FF=C1:G0SUB 2530 : OFF=CO : IF H 

OST THEN GOSUB NOCLICK 

5370 POKE 53250, C48»C2! POKE 53251, C128 

IGOSUB 4290 :SAVMOU=Cl: GOSUB 3870:DELET 

E$=55:G0T0 MAIN 

3213 



WY 



GQ 
VO 



GJ 5380 
AL 5400 
5410 
5420 
POKE 
5430 
5440 
5450 
5460 
5470 
5480 



REM 



□insis 



AU 
FN 
90 
ML 
UC 
VE 



RETURN 

GOSUB TERM 

X=PEEKtl6: :IF X>127 THEN X=X-128: 

16,X:P0KE 53774, X 

RETURN 

REM 



DATA 13,12,11,10,9,8,7,6 
DATA SjT - - - 



7.6,5.4.3,2.1 

REM i:t:i;«in<>/vi^j<«'i;i:i 

DATA 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,32,48,12 
6,127,128 ,155,255,256, 752,764 
f<,90 REM i'iimU-i-iW-mrrt'. 
5500 POP :POP :pop :P0P :P0P :pop 

F5 5510 STATUS «M0D,X:IF MDM=CO AND PEEKf 
7465 <C128 THEN 5570 
5520 IF MDM=C2 AND PEEK t747)<C128 THEN 

5570 
5530 X=PEEKC195) 

5540 IF X=130 OR CX>137 AND X<145) THE 
N ? "IS". -POSITION C9,C9+C3:? "Check you 
r disk drive or ModeM.":GOTO 5580 

Zk 5550 IF X=170 THEN ? "^":POSITION C9+C 



AG 
K5 



KJ 

MN 
LB 



5,C9+C3:? "Wrong disk.":GOTO 5580 
LB 5560 GOTO LINE 
PS 5570 ? "IS" .-POSITION C9+C3, C9+C3: ? "ES 



UP 5580 FOR I=C1 TO C5:G0SUB PAUSE:NEXT I 
:GOTO LINE 



Listing 2. 
BASIC listing. 



PU 10 CIM OUT$ (120) : CLOSE ttl:OPEN »1,8,0, 

"D:MDMCHESS.DAT":RESTORE :POKE 766,1 
ZM 20 TRAP 50:READ LENGTH 
AF 30 FOR 1=1 TO LENGTH:READ A:0UT$tLENI0 

UTS)+13=CHR$CA) :NEXT I 
HO 40 ? »l;OUT$:? OUT$:OUTS="":GOTO 20 
HM 50 IF PEEKC195)<>6 THEN ? "Error «"JPE 

EKC195);" at line ";PEEK(186)+PEEK(187 

)*256:G0T0 70 
HM 60 IF LENCOUTS) THEN ? »1;0UT$:? OUT$ 
E5 70 CLOSE ttllPOKE 766,0:END 
YZ 80 DATA 65,55,53,48,32,88,61,85,83,82, 

40,65,68,82,40,34,216,104,169,0,133,20 

3,133,204,162,64,169,13,157 
BJ 90 DATA 66,3,32,86,228,160,0,177,205,2 

40,22,162,64,169,7,157,66,3,169,0,157, 

72,3,157,73,3,32,86,228,160 
JW 100 DATA 0,240,218,96,34,41,41 
DB 110 DATA 79,52,48,55,48,32,88,61,85,83 

,82,40,65,68,82,40,34,216,104,104,133, 

204,104,133,203,104,133,206,104 
Hii 120 DATA 133,205,160,0,132,207,169,159 

,133,208,164,207,177,203,164,208,145,2 

05,198,208,230,207,164,207,192 
MI 130 DATA 160,208,238,96,34,41,44,65,68 

,82,40,83,36,41,44,65,68,82,40,84,69,7 

7,80,36,41,41 
DC 140 DATA 57,52,52,54,48,32,81,80,69,69 

,75,61,65,68,82,40,34,216,104,104,133, 

204,104,133,203,165,88,133,205 
DM 150 DATA 165,89,133,206,165,205,24,105 

,20,133,205,144,2,230,206,160,0,177,20 

5,145,203,200,192,160,208,247 
m 160 DATA 96,34,41 
Vf> 170 DATA 57,52,53,54,48,32,88,61,85,83 

,82,40,65,68,82,40,34,216,104,104,133, 

204,104,133,203,104,104,133,205 
21 180 DATA 169,0,168,145,203,200,208,251 

,230,204,198,205,166,205,208,243,96,34 

,41,44,67,72,83,69,84,44,67,56,41 
YG 190 DATA 51,52,53,55,48,32,63,32,34,28 

,145,146,146,146,146,146,146,146,146,1 

46,146,146,146,146,146,146,146 
HK 200 DATA 146,146,146,146,146,146,146,1 

45,146,146,146,146,146,146,146,146,146 

,146,146,146,146,146,133,34,59 
GY 210 DATA 50,52,53,56,48,32,63,32,34,25 

2,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160, 

160,136,32,32,160,160,160,136 
Ffi 220 DATA 32,32,8,160,160,160,160,160,1 

60,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160 

,160,160,160,252,34,59 
r>X 230 DATA 50,52,53,57,48,32,63,32,34,25 

2,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160, 

136,32,8,32,160,136,8,136,14 
iVU 240 DATA 8,160,160,160,160,160,160,160 

,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,1 

60,160,160,252,34,59 
JO 250 DATA 50,52,54,48,48,32,63,32,34,25 

2,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,136, 

32,8,160,136,8,160,136,32,22 
FL 260 DATA 32,2,32,32,138,22,32,32,22,13 

8,136,2,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,16 

0,252,34,59 



PAGE 128 /NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



m 270 DATA 50,52,54,49(48,32,63,32,34,25 
2,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,136,32,8 
,160,160,160,160,136,32,8,22 

DP 280 DATA 160,2,2,160,22,22,160,160,22, 
10,8,2,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160 

Ti> 296 DATA 50,52,54,50,48,32,63,32,34,25 

2,160,160,160,160,160,160,136,32,8,160 

,160,160,160,136,32,8,160,22 
UH 300 DATA 160,2,2,160,22,22,21,150,22,1 

60,160,2,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,1 

60,252,34,59 
Sft 310 DATA 50,52,54,51,48,32,63,32,34,25 

2,160,160,160,160,160,136,32,8,160,160 

,160,160,136,32,8,160,160,22 
M 320 DATA 32,2,32,32,8,22,32,32,22,160, 

160,2,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160, 

252,34,59 
tifl 330 DATA 50,52,54,52,48,32,63,32,34,25 

2,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160, 

160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160 
11l> 340 DATA 160,160,160,160,160,160,160,1 

60,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160 

,160,160,160,160,252,34,59 
OS 350 DATA 50,52,54,53,48,32,63,32,34,25 

2,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160, 

160,160,160,160,160,160,160,136 
FM 360 DATA 32,32,32,32,32,32,8,160,160,1 

60,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160 

,160,160,252,34,59 
QT 370 DATA 50,52,54,54,48,32,63,32,34,25 

2,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160, 

160,160,160,160,160,160,136,32 
IR 380 DATA 8,160,160,136,14,8,160,160,16 

0,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160, 

160,160,160,252,34,59 
Vfi 390 DATA 50,52,54,55,48,32,63,32,34,25 

2,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160, 

160,160,160,160,160,136,32,8 
KE 400 DATA 160,160,136,32,22,160,32,22,3 

2,32,22,14,14,22,14,14,160,160,160,160 

,160,252,34,59 
ge 410 DATA 50,52,54,56,48,32,63,32,34,25 

2,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160, 

160,160,160,160,136,32,8,160 
DR 420 DATA 160,160,160,160,22,160,32,22, 

160,160,22,13,13,22,13,13,160,160,160, 

150,160,252,34,59 
UL 430 DATA 50,52,54,57,48,32,63,32,34,25 

2,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160, 

160,160,160,136,32,8,160,160 
W 440 DATA 136,32,8,160,22,21,32,22,21,1 

60,160,160,32,160,160,32,160,160,160,1 

60,160,252,34,59 
EC 450 DATA 50,52,55,48,48,32,63,32,34,25 

2,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160,160, 

160,160,136,32,32,32,32,32,32 
TV 460 DATA 8,160,160,22,160,32,22,32,32, 

22,32,32,22,32,32,160,160,160,160,160, 

252,34,59 
LU 470 DATA 50,52,55,49,48,32,63,32,34,15 

4,146,146,146,146,146,146,146,146,151, 

146,146,146,146,146,146,146,146 
XF 480 DATA 146,146,146,146,146,146,146,1 

46,146,146,146,146,151,146,146,146,146 

,146,145,146,^46,131,34,59 
NY 490 DATA 40,52,55,50,48,32,63,32,34,32 

,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,252,160,160,1 

60,160,160,160,160,160,160,160 
AE 500 DATA 160 1^0,160,160,160,160,160,1 

60,160,160,252.34 
SU 510 DATA 40,5? 55,51,48,32,63,32,34,32 

,32,32,32,32, 52,32,32,32,252,150,195,2 

39,240,249,242 233,231,232,244 
2Z 520 DATA 160,168,227,169,160,177,185,1 

84,182,160,252,34 
EE 530 DATA 40,52,55,52,48,32,63,32,34,32 

,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,252,160,160,1 



60,226,249,160,160,199,225,242 
KM 540 DATA 249,160,200,229,233,244,250,1 

60,160,160,252,34 
PZ 550 DATA 40,52,55,53,48,32,63,32,34,32 
,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,252,160,160,1 
60,160,160,160,160,160,160,160 
AQ 560 DATA 160,160,160,160,160,160,160,1 

60,160,160,252,34 
ZR 570 DATA 40,52,55,54,48,32,63,32,34,32 
,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32,154,146,146,1 
46,146,146,146,146,146,146,146 
NM 580 DATA 146,146,146,146,146,146,146,1 

46,145,146,131,34 
LT 590 DATA 36,52,55,55,48,32,67,72,65,82 
,87,36,61,34,3,4,5,6,10,11,34,58,67,72 
,65,82,66,36,61,34,131,132,133 
XF 600 DATA 134,138,139,34 

JK 610 DATA 26,52,55,57,48,32,67,72,65,82 
,36,61,34,139,138,134,133,132,131,11,1 
6,6,5,4,3,32,34 
JA 620 DATA 57,52,56,48,48,32,77,79,86,69 
,36,61,34,104,104,133,204,104,133,203, 
104,133,206,104,133,205,104,104 
AP 530 DATA 133,207,164,207,177,203,153,2 
53,3,169,0,145,203,136,208,244,160,0,1 
85,253,3,145,205,200,196,207 
IP 640 DATA 208,246,96,34 

JV 650 DATA 102,52,55,49,48,32,77,79,68,3 
6,51,34,215,104,169,0,133,203,133,204, 
162,64,169,13,157,66,3,32,86 
CV 660 DATA 228,160,0,177,205,240,78,162, 
64,169,7,157,66,3,169,0,157,72,3,157,7 
3,3,32,86,228,201,128,240,103 
PJ 670 DATA 201,133,240,99,201,154,240,95 
,201,224,240,91,201,251,240,87,201,28, 
144,35,201,253,240,8,201,32,240 
OU 680 DATA 4,201,127,176,24,162,0,168,16 

9,11,157,65,3,169,0,157,72,34 
AO 690 DATA 105,52,56,50,48,32,77,79,58,3 
5,40,57,49,41,61,34,3,157,73,3,152,32, 
86,228,208,158,240,156,173,252 
HJ 700 DATA 2,201,255,240,92,152,16,169,7 
,157,66,3,169,0,157,72,3,157,73,3,32,8 
5,228,201,128,240,70,201,133 
CU 710 DATA 240,66,201,154,240,62,201,224 
,240,58,201,251,240,54,208,4,208,69,24 
6,67,162,0,168,169,11,157,65 
VA 720 DATA 3,159,0,157,72,3,157,73,3,152 

,32,86,228,208,6,240,4,208,177,240,34 
EC 730 DATA 64,52,56,51,48,32,77,79,68,36 
,40,49,56,49,41,61,34,175,162,54,158,1 
69,11,157,65,3,169,0,157,72,3 
DH 740 DATA 157,73,3,152,32,86,228,173,13 
2,2,240,14,173,120,2,201,15,208,7,173, 
31,208,201,7,15,213,133,212,159 
HO 750 DATA 0,133,213,96,34 
Af 760 DATA 18,53,48,49,48,32,83,35,61,34 

,255,129,129,129,129,129,129,255,34 
ZJ 770 DATA 67,53,48,51,48,32,88,61,85,83 
,82,40,65,68,82,40,34,216,169,0,133,21 
2,104,104,133,204,104,133,203 
PF 780 DATA 159,0,133,205,169,224,133,206 
,150,0,177,205,145,203,200,208,249,230 
,205,230,204,230,212,165,212 
XD 790 DATA 201,4,208,237,96,34,41,44,57, 

72,83,69,84,41 
Ui> 800 DATA 42,53,48,53,48,32,83,36,61,34 
,0,24,60,60,24,60,126,0,0,90,126,60,50 
,125,126,0,0,56,108,126,102,112 
&S 810 DATA 120,0,0,24,52,110,60,24,125,0 

,34 
KD 820 DATA 26,53,48,55,48,32,83,35,51,34 
,0,90,126,126,60,24,126,0,0,24,50,90,1 
26,50,125,0,34 
M 830 DATA 21,53,49,56,48,32,63,32,35,67 

,54,59,34,4,5,6,11,10,5,5,4,34 
EM 840 DATA 21,53,50,48,48,32,53,32,35,67 
I 54| 59/34^ 3j 3/ 3/ 3/ 3/3^3^3/34 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 129 




Modem Chess continued 



»T 85fi DATA 21,53,58,58,48,32,63,32,35,67 

,5*, 59, 34, 131, 131, 131, 131, 131, 131, 131, 

131,34 
m 866 DATft 31,53,58,52,48,32,63,32,35,67 

,54,59,34,132,133,134,139,138,134,133, 

13? 34,58,71,79,84,79,32,53,51,52,48 
HI e"'w DATA 21,53,58,55,48,32,63,32,35,67 

,54 59,34,132,133,134,138,139,134,133, 

132,34 
JJ 886 DATA 21,53,50,57,48,32,63,32,35,67 

,&ft E9, 34, 131, 131, 131, 131, 131, 131, 131, 

13i,34 
GH 8?8 DATA 21,53,51,49,48,32,63,32,35,67 

,54,59,34,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,3,34 
Jm 900 DATA 21,53,51,51,48,32,63,32,35,67 

,54. 59,34,4,5,6,18,11,6,5,4,34 
JT 9ie DATA 108,53,51,57,48,32,88,61,85,8 

3,82,40,65,68,82,40,34,216,104,104,133 

,20' 104,133,203,104,133,206 
ZC 920 DATA 104,133,205,104,133,208,184,1 

33 207,160,0,132,212,132,213,177,283,1 

45 207,230,212,165,212,208,2 
m 93t DATA 230,213,230,207,165,207,208,2 

,2;{0, 208, 230, 203, 165, 203, 208, 2, 238, 204 

,165,212,197,205,208,222,165 
XZ 940 DATA 213,197,206,208,216,96,34,41, 

44 .65,68,82,48,83,36,41,44,76,69,78,40 
^ ,83,36,41,44,83,84,65,82,84,41 



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CIRCLE *183 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



^DLIs 



continued from page 111 



0630 LDX ttsoo 

0640 FOUR LDA 40800, K 

0650 5TA 48120, X 

0660 INX 

0670 CPX tt40 

0680 BNE FOUR 

0690 LDX tt$00 

0700 FIVE LDA 40760, X 

0710 5TA 40160, X 

0720 INX 

0730 CPX S40 

0740 BNE FIVE 

0750 LDX tt$00 

0760 6IXX LDA 40720, X 

0770 5TA 40200, X 

0780 INX 

0790 CPX 040 

0800 BNE 5IXX 

0810 LDX ti$00 

0820 SEVN LDA 40680, X 

0830 STA 40248, X 

0840 INX 

0850 CPX tt40 

0860 BNE SEVN 

0870 LDX S$00 

0880 EGHT LDA 48640, X 

0890 STA 40280, X 

0900 INX 

0910 CPX »4e 

0920 BNE EGHT 

0930 LDX n$oe 

0940 NINE LDA 40600, X 

0950 STA 40320, X 

0960 INX 

0970 CPX tt40 

0980 BNE NINE 

0990 LDX n$00 

1000 TENN LDA 40560, X 

1010 STA 40360, X 

1020 INX 

1030 CPX St40 

1040 BNE TENN 

1050 LDX n$oo 

1060 LEVN LDA 48520, X 

1070 STA 40400, X 

1080 INX 

1090 CPX tt48 



1100 BNE LEVN 

1110 LDX asoo 

1120 TWLV LDA 40480, X 

1130 STA 40448, X 

1140 INX 

1158 CPX <t40 

1160 BNE THLU 

1170 LDA «$0e 

1180 STA 512 

1190 LDA J»$48 

1200 STA 513 

1210 PLA 

1220 TAV 

1230 PLA 

1240 TAX 

1250 PLA 

1260 RTI 

1270 ; Here, the registers are placed 

1280 ;onto the stack, and the colors 

1290 ;and flip value are chosen and 

1380 ;STored. "A" LoaDs the cursor 

1310 ;row, and if it is aSB, it is 

1320 ;chan3ed to »$0 and Moved up a 

1330 ;row. If the cursor row is not 

1340 ;aSB OP a$0, one row above or 

1350 ;below the unnirrored portion 

1360 ;of the screen, nothing happens 

1370 ;at all. If it is a$0, it is 

1380 ; turned into aSB and noved 

1390 ; downward. The next DLl is 

1480 ;nade to be the one at $0600, 

1410 ;and the registers are regained 

1420 ; f or a final departure. 

1430 »= $4800 

1440 PHA 

1450 TXA 

1460 PHA 

1470 TYA 

1480 PHA 

1490 LDA a$FF 

1500 STA $D4eA 

1510 LDX a$se 

1520 LDV a$06 

1538 STA SD017 

1540 STX $0018 

ISSO STY $D401 

1568 LDA $54 



1570 


CMP 


a$eB 


1580 


BED 


TRTN 


1590 


CMP 


a$88 


1600 


BNE 


FRTN 


1610 


LDA 


a$8B 


1620 


STA 


$54 


1630 


LDA 


a-i 


1640 


JSR 


$F6A4 


1650 


JMP 


FRTN 


1660 


TRTN LDA a$88 


1670 


STA 


$54 


1680 


LDA 


a-t 


1690 


JSR 


$F6A4 


1780 


FRTN LDA a$80 


1718 


STA 


512 


1720 


LDA 


a$06 


1730 


STA 


513 


1748 


PLA 




1758 


TAY 




1768 


PLA 




1778 


TAX 




1780 


PLA 




1790 


RTI 




1880 


; This is the true progran: It 


1810 


jSTores 


a$FO and ai30 in bytes 


1820 


;2 and 16 of the display list. 


1830 


jThe first DLI is selected 


1840 


; ($06081 


and NMIEN is secured. 


1850 


*- 


$6000 


1860 


LDA 


568 


1870 


STA 


283 


1888 


LDA 


561 


1898 


STA 


204 


1900 


LDA 


a$Fe 


1918 


LDY 


a$02 


1920 


STA 


f2033,Y 


1930 


LDA 


ai38 


1940 


LDY 


ai6 


1950 


STA 


{283J,V 


1968 


LDA 


a$80 


1978 


STA 


512 


1988 


LDA 


a$08 


1998 


STA 


513 


2008 


LDA 


«$co 


2818 


STA 


54286 


2028 


END 





PAGE 130 / NOVEMBER 1986 



ANALOG COMPUTING 



PSj Panak strikes! 

B^^ 4 (continued from page 188) 



There are enough words in each category 
to keep it interesting for quite a few plays. 
The introductory package contains 200 
cards. If the game is a success, I'm sure 
more will be issued. And the game will 
be a success — if enough people talk about 
it. Buzzword is a fun game, and a good 
vocabulary-building tool. 

Well, I finally did it — took the plunge 
and got a 520ST. While I'd like to tell you 
about the machine, I've very little space 
left. This is partly due to the backlog of 
ST games I have to test, but mostly because 
of this particular game. If it's any indica- 
tion of things to come, I won't be having 
much free time in the months ahead. 

IVinity 

by Brian Moriarty 
INFOCOM, INC. 
125 CambridgePark Drive 
Cambridge, MA 02140 
ST $39.95 

I've been waiting quite a while for this 
one. Since the first Interactive Plus game 
from the wizards at Infocom gave me a 
taste of really large universes (larger than 
a mere 48K) I've waited for a second serv- 
ing. It has come not a moment too soon, 
a double helping of gourmet food for my 
starving mind. 




Trinity. 

This taste treat is Trinity, the newest 
work of interactive fiction from Brian 
Moriarty, the twisted genius who gave us 
the Wishbringer stone. His new master- 
piece is as serious as it is challenging. 

The scenario is an uneasy one. Amid su- 

Iperpower tension, you decide to take a 
much-needed vacation and visit jolly old 
London. Unfortunately for you (as well as 
your travel agent and the rest of the world's 
population), the last day of your vacation 
is also the first (and perhaps only) day of 
World War III. Not to worry; with interac- 
tive fiction, anything is possible. If you 
should be fortunate enough to survive the 
first series of puzzles, you'll be treated to 
another twenty-odd hours of time-travel 
fantasy. 



Trinity takes its name from the U.S. 
government's experiment of the same 
name — the test of the first atomic bomb. 
This standard-level game has over 600 ob- 
jects and locations to explore, and boasts 
a vocabulary of over 2000 words. This vast- 
ness might be for naught if the prose were 
not vivid enough. Fortunately, it is. 

Visits by the author to the actual loca- 
tions yield descriptions so real you can al- 
most reach out and touch them. You'll 
enjoy your travels, from London's Kensing- 
ton Gardens to the magical world through 
the white door, and beyond. 

While standing on the summit, "as your 
eyes sweep the landscape, you notice more 
of the giant toadstools. There must be 
hundreds of them. Some sprout in clusters, 
others grow in solitude among the trees. 
Their numbers increase dramatically as 
your gaze moves westward, until the for- 
est is choked with pale domes." Even if you 
didn't know how important the toadstools 
would be, you'd still want to "Go west, 
young man." The toadstools are the key, 
doorways to time travel which drop you 
in and out of history's major nuclear ex- 
plosions. The goal: save the world. 

Characters populating the world are in- 
triguing. From the giant boy, to the old 
crone selling birdseed in the gardens, all 
the inhabitants of Trinity's strange lands 
surprise, confound and entertain you. Puz- 
zles are prevalent, tough enough to keep 
even the experienced adventurer on his 
toes. Regular Infocomers will recognize a 
couple of unique features. These include 
holding off the title page until you survive 
the first tricky teaser, as well as inter- 
spersed quotes from other classic works of 
fiction, which add to the drama and qual- 
ity of OUT experience. And, while this is 
a serious theme, tackling a serious topic, 
there's more than enough of the Infocom 
lightheartedness to go around. 

The superb documentation contains a 
paper sundial, a map of the Trinity site and 
directions for folding an origami crane — 
all of which are integral parts of the story. 
The instruction booklet is packaged with 
a comic book entitled The Illustrated His- 
tory of the Atom Bomb. Reading this is al- 
most as entertaining as playing the game 
itself. As usual, the manual more than ade- 
quately explains how to play, without giv- 
ing away any secrets. 

Considering all of this, I can say that 
they've done it again — bigger and better 
than before. If you have an ST and haven't 
played an Infocom game, this one is a 
must. Like all of their works. Trinity lives 
up to your lofty expectations, then surpass- 
es them. Above all, despite its serious 
overtones. Trinity is a blast, fl 

The author wishes to express his ap- 
preciation to The Magic One Computer 
Shop o/Barberton, Ohio for their constant 
support in the creation of this chronicle. 



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CIRCLE #186 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




ANALOG COMPUTING 



NOVEMBER 1986 / PAGE 131 



A REVOLUTION IN FLYING 




THE .Jit<yr<^/y^ JOYSTICK 



A unique product designed for use with FLIGHT SIMULATOR 
11™ to give you accurate and proportional control. Includes con- 
trol Yoke, Throttle, Flaps, Brakes, Gun and Elevator trim. 

OTHER FEATURES: 

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available soon 

• Use with User generated BASIC programs 

• Use with User generated assembly language 
programs 

This is the ONLY fully proportional, continuously variable joys- 
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can be a truly realistic flight simulator. 

"...I flew all over the map with one landing after another and no' 
mishaps." K.C. 

"...I am getting more use out of Flight Simulator now and will 
continue thanks to your joystick" R.T. 



WARNING: Use of the MicroFlyte joystick may cause 
Flight Simulator addiction. Order with caution. 



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CIRCLE #187 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
Flight Simulator II is a trademailc of Sublogic Corp. 



INDEX TO ADVERTISERS 




READER SERVICE # 



128 Abacus Software 46ST, 78ST 

152 Access Software Incorporated 83ST 

103 Alpha Systems 5 

184 Arrerican TV 98 

109 Applied Technologies, Inc 14 

136 Artworx Software Co., Inc 60ST 

118 Astra Systems 32, 33 

110 At-A-Glance (Side-Line Computer) 17 

105 Atari Corp 9, 19, 25 

— Batteries Included OBC 

180 B&C Computervision 12, 122 

159 Beckemeyer Development Tools 85ST 

160 Bernhard Computers 85ST 

139 Bitmap, Inc ,64ST 

161 Brainstorm Software 85ST 

140 Cal Com, Inc 64ST 

171 Canoe Computer Services 103 

132 Central Point Software 53ST 

— Comb 18 

137 Commnet Systems 63ST 

126 Compucat 25 

112 Computabllity 20, 21 

146 Computer Accessory Barn 74ST 

114 Computer Creations, Inc 24 

111 Computer Games Plus 19 

172 Computer Garden 103 

142 Computer f^ail Order 67ST 108 

162 Computer Outlet 85ST 

122 Computer Palace 40, 52ST 

183 Computer Repeates, Inc 130 

188 Computer Software Service IBC 

145 Computer Solutions 74ST 

185 Consumer Electronics Store 131 

— COVOX Inc 106 

129 DAC Software 48ST 

— Delphi/ANALOG Computing 8 

138 Digital Reality 63ST 

1 15 Disk-of-the-Month Club 25 

148 Diverse Data 74ST 

121 Duplicating Technologies 12, 338 

181 Electronic One 122 

186 Exanimo Products 131 

133 Finally Software 54ST 

127 Future Systems, Inc 44 

116 Future Systems Software 25 

155 Grafikon, Ltd 85ST 

104 Happy Computers, Inc 7 

119 Infocom 36, 37 

151 Insight Systems 81ST 

156 Llonheart 85ST 

141 Logical Design Works 64ST 

179 Lyco Computer 117 

— Magna Systems 95 

167 Mark Williams Company B8ST 

154 Megamax, Inc 84ST 

— Megatech 64ST 

166 MichTron Corporation 87ST 

187 Microcube Corporation 132 

174 Mlcrodaft 104 

107 MIcroMiser Software 12 

101 Microprose IPC 

168 Microtyme 94 

117 Mind Link Communications, Inc 28 

157 Mountain Magic Software 85ST 

153 Navarone Industries, Inc 84ST 

163 Nebula Software 85ST 

147 Newell Industries, Inc 74ST 

120 New Horizons Software 37 

164 Omnitrend 56ST 

178 Protecto (Computer Direct) 112, 113. 114, 115 

158 Quack Computer Company 85ST 

144 Quickview 72ST 

165 Regent Software 86ST 

182 S & S Wholesalers 125 

134 Serious Software 55ST 

125 Sierra Services 44 

150 Soft Loglk 80ST 

177 Softview Concepts 110 

113 Software Discounters of America 23 

108 Sourceflow 12 

175 Southern Software 104 

149 SRIil Enterprises 74ST 

106 Static Engineering 10 

102 Sublogic Corp 3 

143 TD.I. Software 71ST 

176 Terrific Peripherals 86ST 

123 Thompson Electronics 41 

130 Timeworks 50ST 

— TNT Computing 25 

1 15 Unlimited Software 25 

124 White House Computer 41 

173 Xentech 103 

170 XLent Software 56ST, 98 

This index is an additional service. Wtiile every effort is made to provide a complete and 
accurate listing, the publisher cannot be responsible for inadvertent errors. 



It'sthe "Bible" of the industry, 
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many products coming up that haven't reached your local store yet. In addition you'll have the retail price of each 
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CSS is a distributor that sells nation wide to 
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The artistic slandmi for ilic ST! Beautiful grapliirs 
program for business and pleasure. All the key drawing/ 
painting functions, text integration, and graphic 
design tools! Mailable: \(m! 



Scheduling (- Time-keeping tool for home and business. 
Your day. week month, year at a glance. .Many incredible 
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/ set Ills unique real lime spelling checker desk accessory 
u illiin an> ,S'7' (!H\I application. 50.000 ii oni real time 
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Two ill one! Sophisticated full featun'd spivadsheel 
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THE ultimate relational data base. Easy to learn, i niqiie 
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Investment management program designed forpri\alv 
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Serious graphics/charting and statistics desk package Bie 
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